aback

adv. taken ~ (I was taken ~) ('I was startled')

abacus

n. to operate, use an ~

abandon


I n. reckless, wild ~

II v. (D; tr.) to ~ to (they ~ed us to our fate)

abbreviate

v. (D; tr.) to ~ to (Esquire can be ~d to Esq.)

ABC

n. as easy, simple as ~

abdicate

v. (D; intr.) to ~ from (the king has ~d from the throne) USAGE

NOTE: One can also say-the king has abdicated the throne; most

frequently, one simply says-the king has abdicated.

abduct

v. (D; tr.) to ~ from (to ~ a child from its home)

aberration

n. a mental ~

abet

v. (formal) (D; tr.) to ~ in (to ~ smb. in doing smt.; to aid

and ~ smb. in doing smt.)

abeyance

n. (formal) in, into ~ (to hold in ~; to fall into ~)

abhor

v. (G) he ~s being idle

2. (K) she ~s his smoking

abhorrent

adj, (formal) ~ to (his behavior was ~ to everyone)

abide

v. (d; intr.) 1. to ~ by ('to agree to, obey') (we must ~ by her

decision)

2. (obsol. and formal) (d; intr.) ('to stay') to ~ with

ability

n. 1. to demonstrate, display, exhibit, show ~

2. to appreciate, recognize ~

3. creative; exceptional, great, outstanding, remarkable;

innate, natural; latent ~

4. an ounce of ~ (he doesn't have an ounce of ~)

5. ~ at, in

6. the ~ to + inf. (the ~ to reason)

7. of ~ (a person of great ~; to the best of one's ~)

ablaze

adj. 1. ~ with (the city was ~ with lights)

2. to set ~

able

adj. ~ to + inf. (she was not ~ to reach him) USAGE NOTE: In

passive constructions, able is replaced by the verb can he

cannot be reached.

ablutions

n. (formal) to perform one's ~

aboard

adv. to come; go ~

2. all ~!

abode

n. (formal) to take up one's ~

abortion

n. 1. to do, perform an ~ on

2. to induce an ~

3. to get, have an ~

4. (a) criminal, illegal; induced; spontaneous; therapeutic ~;

legalized ~

abound

v. (formal) 1. (d; intr.) to ~ in (this country ~s in

opportunities)

2. (d; intr.) to ~ with (the book ~s with misprints)

about-face

n. (esp. AE) ['sudden change in attitude'] to do an ~

abreast

adj. (usu. does not stand alone) ~ of (to be ~ of the news; to

keep smb. ~ of the latest developments)

abroad

adv. from ~ (he had to return from ~)

abscond

v. (D; intr.) to ~ from; with (they ~ed from the country with

the funds)

absence

n. 1. an excused; unexcused ~

2. ~ from (an unexcused ~ from school)

3. during, in smb.'s

absent

I adj. ~ from (she was ~ from school)

II v. (D; refl.) to ~ from (to ~ oneself from a meeting)

absentia

n. in ~ (to be tried in ~)

absolution

n. (rel.) to grant, pronounce ~ from (to grant ~ from sin)

absolve

v. (D; tr.) to ~ from (he was ~d from his promise)

absorb

v. (D; tr.) to ~ into (the small firms were ~ed into large

cartels)

absorbed

adj. 1. deeply, completely, thoroughly, totally ~

2. ~ by, with; in (she was ~ by/with the problem; the children

were ~ in their homework; ~ in thought)

abstain

v. (D; intr.) to ~ from (to ~ from alcohol)

abstinence

n. 1. to practice ~

2. complete, total ~

3. ~ from (~ from alcohol)

abstract

I n. in the ~

II v. (technical) (D; tr.) to ~ from (to ~ iron from ore)

absurd

adj. 1. patently; totally ~

2. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ to leave such a large tip)

3. ~ that -+- clause (it's ~ that we have to get up so early)

absurdity

n. it was the height of ~ (to insist on a refund)

abundance

n. 1. an ~ of (there was an ~ of water power)

2. in ~ (we had food in ~)

3. of ~ (a life of ~)

abundant

adj. (formal) ~ in (~ in natural resources)

abuse

n. ['insulting language'] 1. to heap, shower ~ on, upon; to

hurl ~ at

2. to take ~ (she took a lot of ~ from him)

3. verbal ~

4. a shower, stream of ~

5. a term of ~ ['rough use']

6. to take ~ (this car has taken a lot of ~) ['mistreatment']

7. child; personal; sexual ~ ['improper use']

8. drug ~

abusive

adj. ~ to (he became ~ to his guests)

abut

v. (D; intr.) to ~ against, on, upon

abyss

n. a gaping, yawning ~

academe

n. (formal) the groves, halls of ~

academy

n. 1. a military; naval; riding ~

2. an ~ for (an ~ for boys)

3. at an ~

accede

v. (D; intr.) to ~ to (they ~d to our demands)

accelerator

n. 1. to depress, step on an ~

2. to ease up, let up on an ~

accent

n. ['pronunciation'] 1. to affect, assume, imitate, put on;

cultivate an ~

2. to speak with an ~

3. to get rid of an ~

4. a foreign; heavy, noticeable, pronounced, strong, thick;

slight ~ ['stress']

5. to place, put the ~ on (to place the ~ on a syllable)

6. (ling.) an acute; grave; pitch, tonic ~ (see also stress)

accept

v. 1. to ~ blindly; fully; readily

2. (D; tr.) to ~ as (they ~ed us as their equals)

3. (formal) (BE) (L) I ~ that the proposal may be defeated

acceptable

adj. 1. completely, fully; mutually ~

2. ~ to (the conditions are ~ to all concerned)

acceptance

n. 1. blind ~ (blind ~ of dogma)

2. universal ~ (to meet with universal ~)

access

n. 1. to gain, get ~

2. to deny ~

3. direct; easy, free, unlimited; limited ~

4. (computers) random ~

5. ~ to (we gained/got ~ to the files; ~ to a building)

accessary

(esp. BE) see accessory 1,2

accessibility

n. ~ to (the professor's ~ to all students)

accessible

adj. 1. easily ~

2. ~ to (the stacks are ~ to the public; the director is ~ to

everyone)

accession

n. 1. on one's ~ (on his ~ to the throne he inherited vast

estates)

2. ~ to (her ~ to power)

accessory

n. ['accomplice'] 1. an ~ to (an ~ to a crime)

2. (legal) an ~ before the fact; an ~ after the fact ['optional

equipment']

3. auto (AE); matching; skiing; smoking accessories

accident

n. ['unexpected, unpleasant event'] ['catastrophe'] 1. to

have, meet with an ~ (they had an ~ during their trip)

2. to prevent ~s

3. an awful, bad, dreadful, frightful, horrible, nasty, serious,

shocking; fatal; near; unavoidable; unfortunate ~

4. an automobile (AE), motorcar (BE); hit-and-run; hunting;

industrial; railroad (AE), railway (BE), train ~

5. an ~ occurs, takes place (a bad ~ took place)

6. in an ~ (he was in a hunting ~) ['chance'] ['luck']

7. pure, sheer ~

8. an ~ that + clause (it was pure ~ that we met)

9. by ~ (we discovered it by ~; it was by pure ~ that we found

the money)

acclaim

v. (N; used with a noun) the mob ~ed him emperor

acclamation

n. by ~ (to elect smb. by ~)

acclimate

(AE)see acclimatize

acclimatize

v. (D; intr., refl., tr.) to ~ to (we ~d quickly/~d ourselves

quickly to the jungle; he became ~d to the new surroundings)

accolade

n. 1. to bestow an ~ on

2. the ultimate ~

accommodate

v. (D; intr., refl., tr.) to ~ to (they ~d easily to the new

conditions)

accommodation

I n. ['agreement'] ['adjustment'] 1. to come to, make; reach,

work out an ~

2. an ~ between; on; to; with (to make an ~ to wartime

conditions; to reach an ~ with neighboring countries)

II (BE) see accommodations

accommodations

n. (AE) ['place to live'] 1. to secure; seek ~

2. deluxe; first-class; hotel; second- class; travel ~

accompaniment

n. 1. an ~ to (a piano ~ to a song)

2. to the ~ of (to the ~ of soft music)

accompany

v. (D;tr.) to ~ on (to ~ a singer on the piano)

accomplice

n. 1. an unwitting ~

2. an ~ in, to (an ~ in crime)

accomplished

adj. ~ at

accomplishment

n. 1. see achievement 1 for adjective + noun collocations

2. no mean ~

3. an ~ to + inf. (it was a real ~ to defeat them)

4. of ~ (a man, woman of many ~s)

accord

I n. 1. to come to, reach an ~

2. an ~ with smb. about smt. (we reached an ~ with the

neighboring country about our common border)

3. an ~ that + clause (they came to an ~ that profits would be

shared equally)

4. in ~ with

5. (formal) of one's own ~ (he participated of his own ~)

II v. (formal) 1. (A) we ~ed a hero's welcome to him; or: we ~ed

him a hero's welcome

2. (rare) (d; intr.) to ~ with (our information does not ~ with

his report)

accordance

n. in ~ with (in ~ with your instructions)

account

I n. ['description'] ['report'] 1. to give, render an ~

2. an accurate, true; biased, one-sided; blow-by-blow, detailed,

full; eyewitness; fictitious; first-hand; running; vivid ~ (she

gave a detailed ~ of the incident)

3. newspaper, press ~s (according to press ~s)

4. by all ~s ['explanation']

5. to call smb. to ~ ['consideration']

6. to take ~ of smt; to take smt. into ~ ['business

arrangement'] ['record of a business arrangement']

7. to open an ~

8. to keep an ~ (I keep an ~ in that bank)

9. to charge smb.'s ~

10. to balance; close; settle an ~

11. to overdraw an ~

12. to pay smt. into an ~

13. to charge smt. to an ~

14. an active; blocked; charge (AE), credit (BE); checking (AE),

current (BE); deposit (BE), savings; dollar; expense; inactive;

individual retirement (AE); joint; money-market; outstanding ~

15. in an ~ (the funds were in her ~)

16. on ~ (to put smt. on smb.'s ~) ['dispute']

17. to settle an ~ (I have an ~ to settle with him)

18. an old ~ ['sake']

19. on smb.'s ~ (do not refuse on my ~)

20. on ~ of (he did it on ~ of me) ['showing']

['performance']

21. to give a good ~ of oneself ['misc.']

22. on no ~ ('under no circumstances')

II v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ for ('to explain') (he could not ~ for

the missing funds; how do you ~ for the accident?)

2. (d; intr.) to ~ for ('to cause the destruction of) (our

battery ~ed for three enemy planes)

accountable

adj. 1. strictly ~

2. ~ for; to (we are ~ to our parents for our actions)

3. to hold smb. ~ for smt.

accountant

n. a certified public (AE), chartered (BE) ~

accounting

n. 1. to give, render an ~

2. a strict ~

3. cost ~

accounts

n. ['books'] 1. to keep ~ ['record of transactions']

2. ~ payable; receivable ['differences']

3. to settle, square ~

accredit

v. (D;tr.) to ~ to (our envoy was ~ed to their new government)

accrue

v. (D; intr.) to ~ to (the interest ~d to our account)

accuracy

n. 1. historical; reasonable; scientific; strict, total ~

2. ~ in

accurate

adj. 1. fairly; strictly ~

2. ~ to + inf. (it would be ~ to say that he is lazy)

accusation

n. 1. to bring, make an ~ against (he brought an ~ of theft

against Smith; more usu. is: he accused Smith of theft)

2. to deny; refute an ~

3. a damaging, grave; false, groundless, unfounded, unjust;

sweeping ~

4. an ~ against; of (an ~ of gross negligence)

5. an ~ that + clause (he denied the ~ that he had accepted

bribes)

accuse

v. (D; tr.) to ~ of (he was ~d of murder)

accused

adj. to stand ~

accustom

v. (d; refl., tr.) to ~ to (we had to ~ ourselves to the new

working conditions; more usu. is: we had to get ~ed to the new

working conditions)

accustomed

adj. (cannot stand alone) ~ to (~ to hard work; ~ to walking long

distances; he got ~ to the warm climate)

ace

n. ['a serve that an opponent cannot touch'] (tennis) 1. to

score an ~ ['expert combat pilot']

2. a flying ~ ['misc.']

3. within an ~ of ('very close to'); an ~ in the hole ('a

concealed advantage')

ache

I n. a dull; steady ~ (he felt a dull ~ in his shoulder) (see

backache, earache, headache, stomachache, toothache)

II v. 1. (d; intr.) 1. to ~ for (to ~ for company)

2. (E) he is aching to get even

achievement

n. 1. a brilliant, crowning, dazzling, epic, glorious, great,

lasting, magnificent, major, memorable, monumental, notable,

outstanding, phenomenal, remarkable, signal, superb, wonderful ~

2. an ~ in (outstanding ~s in science)

acid

n. 1. corrosive, strong ~

2. boric; citric; hydrochloric; sulfuric ~

3. ~ corrodes

acknowledge

v. 1. to ~ gratefully

2. (B) the author ~d her debt to her research assistants

3. (D; tr.) to ~ as (she ~d him as her heir)

4. (G) he ~d being ignorant of the facts

5. (K) he ~d my being the first to think of it

6. (L; to) she ~d (to us) that she was to blame

7. (rare) (M) they ~d us to be the winners of the contest

8. (formal and rare) (N; used with a past participle) he ~d

himself defeated

acknowledgment

n. 1. to make an ~ of

2. a frank; grateful; public ~

3. in ~ of

acme

n. to attain, reach the ~ of

acquaint

v. 1. to ~ thoroughly

2. (D; refl., tr.) to ~ with (the lawyer ~ed herself with the

facts of the case)

acquaintance

n. ['familiarity'] 1. to have an ~ with (he has some ~ with

statistics)

2. a slight, superficial ~

3. on ~ (on closer ~ he proved to be a nice person)

4. an ~ with ['casual friendship']

5. to make smb.'s ~

6. to keep up; renew; strike up an ~ with

7. a casual, nodding, passing, slight ~ (to have a nodding ~

with smb.) ['friend']

8. a casual

acquaintanceship

n. 1. to strike up an ~ with

2. a casual; close, intimate ~

3. an ~ with

acquainted

adj. 1. casually; closely, intimately, thoroughly ~

2. ~ with (he got/became ~ with the situation; are you ~ with

him?)

acquiesce

v. (D; intr.) to ~ in, to (they ~d in the decision) USAGE NOTE:

Some purists feel that the collocation acquiesce to is now old-

fashioned.

acquiescence

n. 1. complete, total ~

2. ~ in, to (~ in a decision)

acquisition

n. 1. to make an ~

2. (BE) an ~ to (he is a valuable ~ to our firm)

acquit

v. 1. (D; tr.) ('to exonerate') to ~ of (the jury ~ted her of all

charges)

2. (P; refl.) ('to behave') she ~ted herself well; he ~ted

himself like a veteran

acquittal

n. (legal) to bring in an ~ (the jury brought in an ~)

acrimony

n. bitter, sharp ~

acrobatics

n. 1. to perform ~

2.(fig.) mental ~

acronym

n. to form an ~

act

I n. ['action'] 1. to commit, perform an ~

2. a barbaric, barbarous; courageous; criminal; foolish, rash;

heroic, noble; humane; illegal; impulsive; justified; kind;

overt; statesmanlike; thoughtful ~ (she performed an heroic ~)

3. an ~ of (an ~ of faith; he committed an ~ of folly)

4. in the ~ (caught in the ~) ['performance']

5. a circus; nightclub; variety (BE), vaudeville (AE) ~

6. (misc.) to put on an ~ ('to pretend') ['misc.']

7. to get into the ~ ('to participate')

II v. 1. to ~ impulsively; irresponsibly; responsibly

2. (d; intr.) ('to serve') to ~ as (she ~ed as our interpreter)

3. (d; intr.) to ~ for ('to replace') and esp. BE ('to represent

as one's lawyer')

4. (d; intr.) ('to behave') to ~ like (the soldier ~ed like a

real hero)

5. (D; intr.) ('to take action') to ~ on, upon (to ~ on smb.'s

advice; to ~ on a request)

6. (d; intr.) ('to take action') to ~ out of (they ~ed out of

fear)

7. (d; intr.) ('to behave') to ~ towards (how did they ~ towards

you?)

8. (P; intr.) ('to behave') the soldier ~ed bravely

action

n. ['activity'] ['act'] 1. to initiate; take ~; to go into ~

2. to put smt. into ~ (we put our plan into ~)

3. to prod, spur smb. into ~

4. concerted, united; decisive; direct; disciplinary; drastic;

emergency; hasty, rash; immediate, prompt; remedial; vigorous ~

(we must take immediate ~)

5. (AE) affirmative ~ ('giving preference to members of minority

groups')

6. industrial (BE), (a) job (AE) ~ ('a protest by workers')

7. congressional; political ~

8. a reflex ~ ['combat; military or police activity']

9. to go into ~

10. to see ~ ('to participate in combat')

11. to break off ~

12. to take evasive ~ ('to maneuver in order to escape enemy

fire')

13. enemy ~; a delaying, holding; police; punitive; rearguard ~

14. in ~ (killed in ~)

15. out of ~ (two tanks were put out of ~) ['law-suit']

16. to bring, institute, take ~ against smb. for smt. (he

brought legal ~ against his neighbor)

17. to dismiss an ~ (the judge dismissed the ~)

18. a civil; class; legal ~ ['initiative'] ['enterprise']

19. a man, woman of ~ ['plot of a play, novel']

20. the ~ drags; picks up (the ~ picks up in the third act)

['misc.']

21. (colloq.) a piece of the ~ ('participation in an activity')

(he wants a piece of the ~)

activity

n. 1. to engage in, participate in, take part in an ~ (all

students take part in extracurricular activities)

2. to resume one's activities

3. to break off, terminate an ~

4. to curb; paralyze ~ (business ~ was paralyzed)

5. bustling, constant, feverish, furious, uninterrupted ~

6. behind-the-scenes; business, economic; cultural;

intellectual; physical; political; scientific; subversive;

terrorist ~

7. extracurricular; recreational; social; union activities

8. to buzz, hum with ~

9. a burst of ~

actor, actress

n. 1. to cast an ~

2. a character ~

act up

v. (D; intr.) ('to function badly') to ~ on(my leg has been

acting up on me)

acuity

n. mental; visual ~

acumen

n. 1. to demonstrate, display ~

2. business; legal ~

3. the ~ to + inf. (she had enough ~ to see through the scheme)

acupuncture

n. to do, perform ~

ad

n. a classified, small (BE); help-wanted; want ~ (see also

advertisement)

adage

n. an old ~

adamant

adj. 1. ~ about; in

2. ~ that + clause; subj. when the subjects of the clauses are

different (he was ~ that he was fit to go; she was ~ that he not

go)

adapt

v. 1. (D; tr.) to ~ for; from (to ~ a novel for the stage; to ~ a

film from a novel)

2. (D; intr.,refl., tr.) to ~ to (we ~ed quickly to life in

Paris; she had to ~ herself to local conditions)

adaptation

n. 1. to make an ~

2. an ~ for (an ~ of a novel for television)

add

v. 1. (D; intr., tr.) to ~ to (we ~ed this amount to the bill;

these changes ~ed to the confusion)

2. (L) she ~ed that she would not bring the children

addendum

n. an ~ to

addict

n. a confirmed; drug ~

addicted

adj. 1. chronically, hopelessly ~

2. ~ to(~ to drugs)

addiction

n. 1. chronic, hopeless ~

2. (an) ~ to (~ to drugs)

adding machine

n. to operate, use an ~

addition

n. ['adding of numbers'] 1. to do ~ ['part added']

2. to make an ~

3. an ~ to (an ~ to thefamily; an ~ to a report)

4. in ~ to (in ~ to his salary, he earns a lot from royalties)

add on

v. (D; tr.) to ~ to (to ~ a garage to the house)

address

I n. ['speech'] 1. to deliver, give an ~

2.an eloquent, moving, stirring ~

3. an inaugural; keynote ~

4. an ~ about, concerning ['place of residence'] ['place for

receiving mail']

5. to change one's ~

6. a business; forwarding; home; permanent; return; temporary ~

7. at an ~ (at what ~ does she live?)

II v. 1. (B) she ~ed her remarks to us; I ~ed the letter to him

2. (d; tr.) to ~ as (you should ~ him as 'sir')

3. (d; tr.) to ~ to (~ her mail to this post-office box)

4. (d; refl.) ('to refer') to ~ to (the candidates did not ~

themselves to the issues)

add up

v. (d; intr.) to ~ to (it all ~s up to a hoax; the figures ~ to

50)

adept

adj. ~ at, in (~ at solving crossword puzzles)

adequate

adj. 1. ~ for (the food was ~ for all of us)

2. ~ to (she was ~ to the task)

3. ~ to + inf. (it would be ~ to list just the basic objections)

adhere

v. 1. to ~ closely, doggedly, strictly, stubbornly, tenaciously

2. (d; intr.) to ~ to (to ~ strictly to a plan)

adherence

n. 1. close, strict ~

2. ~ to (strict ~ to a plan)

adieu

n. to bid smb. ~

adjacent

adj. ~ to (~ to our building)

adjective

n. 1. to compare an ~

2. an attributive; descriptive; possessive; predicate,

predicative ~3. ~s modify nouns

adjourn

v. 1. (D; intr.) ('to stop') to ~ for (to ~ for lunch)

2. (d; intr.) ('to move') (to ~ to the living room for brandy)

adjudge

v. (formal) (M and N; used with an adjective) the court ~d him

(to be) guilty

adjunct

n. an ~ to (an adverb is usually an ~ to a verb)

adjure

v. (formal) (H) to ~ smb. to tell the truth

adjust

v. (D. intr., tr.) to ~ to (he had to ~ to the new climate; we

~ed our watches to local time)

adjuster

n. an insurance ~

adjustment

n. 1. to make an ~

2. an ~ in, of (an ~ in/of his salary; an ~ of the brakes)

3. an ~ to (an ~ to a new environment)

adjutant

n. an ~ general

administer

v. 1. (B) ('to give') to ~ an oath to smb.2. (d; intr.) to ~ to

('to help with') (to ~ to smb.'sneeds)

administration

n. ['management'] 1. business; public ~ ['government']

2. a centralized; civil; colonial; decentralized; federal ~

administrator

n. a civil; school ~

admiral

n. a rear; vice ~; a fleet ~ (US); an ~ of the fleet (GB)

admiration

n. 1. to arouse, win; command ~

2. to express; feel ~

3. blind; deep, great, sincere, strong, undying; grudging;

mutual; ungrudging ~4. ~ for (he felt great ~ for them)

5. in, with ~ (to look at smb. with ~)

admire

v. 1. to ~ greatly, very much

2. (D; tr.) to ~ for (we ~ her for her tact)

3. (K) they all ~d his behaving in that manner

admirer

n. an ardent, devoted, enthusiastic, fervent, sincere; secret ~

admission

n. ['access'] 1. to apply for; gain; seek ~2. to deny, refuse ~

3. free, open; restricted, selective ~; rolling (esp. AE) ~s

4. ~ to (she applied for ~ to the university) ['confession']

5. to make an ~ of (he made an ~ of guilt)

6. a damaging ~

7. an ~ that + clause (his ~ that he had been at the scene of

the crime led to his conviction)

8.by, on smb.'s own ~ ['entry fee']

9. general ~

admit

v. 1. to ~ readily

2. (B) ('to confess') the accused ~ted his guilt to the police

3. (D; tr.) ('to allow entry') to ~ into, to (the manager ~ted

him to the theater; she was ~ted to the university)

4.(formal) (d; intr;) ('to tolerate') to ~ of (the situation ~s

of no delay)

5. (formal) (d; intr.) ('to confess') to ~ to (he ~ted to his

complicity in the crime; the boy ~ted to stealing the apples)

6. (G)('to confess') the employee ~ted stealing the money

7. (L; to) ('to confess') the clerk ~ted (to the police) that he

had taken the jewels

admittance

n. 1. to gain ~ to

2. to deny ~ to (he was denied ~ to the concert)

admonish

v. (formal) 1. (D; tr.) to ~ for (the teacher ~ed the child for

coming late to school)

2.(H) to ~ smb. to do smt.

ado

n. 1. to make (much) ~ about, over

2. without much ~

adopt

v. (D; tr.) to ~ as (they ~ed the child as their heir)

adoption

n. to put up for ~ (to put a child up for ~)

adore

v. 1. (D; tr.) to ~ for (we ~ them for their generosity)

2. (G) she ~s visiting museums

adrift

adj., adv. to cast, turn ~

adroit

adj. ~ at, in (~ at staying out of trouble)

adroitness

n. ~ at, in (~ at giving injections)

adultery

n. to commit ~ with

adulthood

n. to reach ~

adults

n. consenting ~

advance

I n. ['forward movement'] 1. (usu. mil.)to make; press an ~

2. (usu. mil.) an ~ against, on, to, towards (our troops made an

~ against the enemy)

3. an ~ in (~ in science)

4. an ~ into (an ~ into new territory) ['early payment']

5. to receive an ~

6. to pay an ~

7. an ~ on (to receive an ~ on royalties) ['misc.']

8. she paid her rent in ~; in ~ of the main party

II v. 1. (A) we ~d a month's salary to him; or: we ~d him a

month's salary

2. (D; intr.)to ~ against, on, to, towards (our troops ~d on the

next town)

3. (D; tr.) to ~ to (he was ~d to the rank of corporal)

advanced

adj. ~ in (~ in industrial development)

advancement

n, 1. to further, speed smb.'s ~

2. to block smb.'s ~

3. professional ~

4. rapid, slow ~

advances

n. ['effort to become friendly or to enter into negotiations']

1. to make ~ to (he made ~ to her; the Americans made ~ to the

Russians)

2. to rebuff, reject smb.'s ~

advantage

n. 1. to have an ~ of; over (our team had the ~ of experience;

her connections gave her an ~ over the others)

2. to gain; press (home) an ~

3. to take ~ of ('to exploit')

4. to outweigh an ~5. a clear, decided; mutual; unfair ~

6. an ~ to (his wealth was an obvious ~ to us)

7. an ~ to + inf. (it was an ~ to have that team as our opponent

in the first round = it was an ~ having that team as our

opponent in the first round)

8. an ~ that + clause; subj. (it was to his ~ that she not

participate)

9. to smb.'s ~; used to good ~ (see also 8)

10. at an ~11. (tennis) ~ in; ~ out

12. (misc.) (BE) you have the ~ of me ('you know more than I

do')

advantageous

adj. 1. clearly ~

2. ~ to (his decision was ~ to us)

3. ~ to + inf. (it would be ~ to wait)

adventure

n. 1. to have, meet with an ~

2. a bold; breathtaking, exciting, real, thrilling ~; high ~

3.an ~ to + inf. (it was an ~ to visit that place = it was an ~

visiting that place)

adventurer

n. a bold, dauntless, intrepid ~

adverb

n. an interrogative; negative ~

adversary

n. a formidable, worthy ~

adverse

adj. (formal) ~ to (~ to our interests)

adversity

n. to face; overcome ~

advert

I (BE) see advertisement

II v. (formal and rare) (d; intr.) ('to refer') to ~ to

advertise

v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ for (to ~ for a maid)2. (L) they ~d that a

position was open

advertisement

n. 1. to place, publish, run an ~ for(to run an ~ for a used car)

2. a classified; full page ~

advertising

n. classified; outdoor; word-of-mouth

advice

n. 1. to give, offer ~

2. to act on, follow, take ~

3. to disregard, refuse, turn a deaf ear to ~4. friendly; good,

sage, sensible, sound; misleading; parting; professional;

unsolicited ~

5. a bit, piece, word of ~

6. ~ about, on

7. ~ to (my ~ to him was that...)

8. ~ to + inf. (we took his ~ to remain silent)

9. ~ that + clause; subj. (my ~ is that you see/should see a

doctor)

10. against smb.'s ~

11. on, upon smb.'s ~ (on ~ of counsel; I acted on her ~)

advisable

adj. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ to leave immediately)

advise

v. 1. to ~ strongly

2. (D; tr.) to ~ about, on3. (d; intr., tr.) to ~ against (to ~

smb. against a course of action)

4. (formal) (d; tr.) to ~ of (to ~ smb. of the facts)

5. (G) who ~d making that statement?

6. (H) she ~d us not to wait

7. (K) who ~d his making that statement?

8. (L; must have an object) she ~d us that we should leave

9. (Q; must have an object) he ~d us what to do

advisement

n. (often legal) to take smt. under ~

adviser, advisor

n. 1. an economic; financial; legal; political; senior;

spiritual; technical ~

2. an ~ on; to (an ~ on foreign affairs; an ~ to the president)

advisory

adj. ~ to

advocate

I n. 1. an aggressive, strong ~

2. a client, patient; consumer ~

3. the devil's ~

II v. 1. (G) he ~d bringing legal action

2. (K) she ~d our withdrawing from the contest

3.(formal) (L; subj.) they ~d that one candidate withdraw

aegis

n. under smb.'s ~

aerial

n. (BE) a television, TV ~ (AE has antenna)

aeroplane

(BE) see airplane

aether

(BE) see ether

afar

adv. from ~

affair

n. ['romantic liaison'] 1. to carry on, have an~ with

2. a casual; clandestine, secret; illicit; love; tempestuous ~

['matter'] ['event']

3. to investigate an ~

4. to cover up, hush up an ~; to wash one's hands of an ~

5. a delicate; private; sinister, sordid, ugly ~

6. an ~ of honor ['social event']

7.a dull; exciting; formal; gala; informal ~

affairs

n. 1. to administer, conduct ~ (of state)

2.to arrange; manage; settle; straighten out one's ~

3. civil; community; cultural; current; domestic, internal;

external, foreign; international; legal; military; national;

political; public; veterans ~

affect

v. 1. to ~ smb. deeply, profoundly, strongly2. (formal and rare)

(BE) (E) he ~ed not to hear

affection

n. 1. to demonstrate, display, show; return ~

2. to feel ~

3. to gain, win smb.'s ~ (she won the children's ~)

4. deep, strong, warm ~

5.~ for (to feel ~ for smb.)

affectionate

adj. ~ to, towards, with (~ with children)

affections

n. to alienate smb.'s ~

affidavit

n. (legal) to file an ~ (the lawyer filed an ~ on behalf of her

client)

affiliate

v. (D; refl., tr.) to ~ to, with (to ~ oneself with a movement;

they are ~d with the national committee; to become ~d with)

affiliation

n. 1. to form an ~ with

2. business; labor; party, political ~s

affinity

n. 1. to demonstrate, show (an) ~

2. to feel; have (an) ~

3. (a) close; elective; natural; strong ~

4. ~ between; for; to; with (he always felt a close ~ with the

underdog)

affirm

v. 1. to ~ categorically

2. (L) the ministry ~ed that the visit had been postponed

affirmative

n. to reply in the ~

affix

v. (D; tr.) to ~ to (to ~ one's signature to a document)

afflicted

adj. 1. grievously ~

2. ~ with (~ with a disease)

affluence

n. in ~ (to live in ~)

affluent

adj. ~ in (~ in worldly goods)

afford

v. 1. to well ~

2. (formal) (A) it ~ed great pleasure to him; or: it ~ed him

great pleasure

3.(E; preceded by the forms: can -- cannot -- can't -- could) we

cannot ~ to buy a new house; we can ill ~ to lose this contract

4. (formal) (K; preceded by the forms: can -- cannot -- can't --

could) we could not ~ his signing up for another course

affront

n. 1. (formal) to suffer an ~

2. a shocking ~

3. an ~ to (it was an ~ to common decency)

afloat

adj. 1. to keep smt. ~

2. to set (a ship) ~

aflutter

adj. (colloq.) 1. all ~

2. ~ with (~ with excitement)

afoul

adv. to run ~ of (to run ~ of the law) (also foul II)

afraid

adj. 1. deathly, terribly ~

2. ~ of (the child was ~ of the dark)

3. ~ to + inf. (he was ~ to dive from the high board)

4. ~ that + clause (we were ~ that he would find out)

5. (misc.) is it true? I'm ~ so

after, afterwards

adv. shortly ~

afterburners

n. to activate, go to ~ (our interceptors had to go to ~)

aftermath

n. 1. a grim ~

2. an ~ of, to

3. in the ~ (in the ~ of/to that incident, he had to leave town)

afternoon

n. in the ~; ~s (AE), on any ~; on Wednesday ~

aftershave

n. to apply, put on; use ~

aftertaste

n. 1. to leave an ~

2. a nice, pleasant; unpleasant ~ (it left a pleasant ~)

agape

adj. (formal) ['gaping'] ~ with (~ with excitement)

age

n. ['stage of life'] 1. to live to, reach an ~

2. an advanced, (ripe) old, venerable ~ (she lived to a ripe old

~)

3. an early, tender, young ~ (at an early ~; at a very young ~)

4. middle ~

5. (a) college; high-school (AE); preschool; school ~

6. (a) retirement, retiring (BE) ~

7. a legal ~; the ~ of consent

8. at an ~ (at a tender ~; at the ~ of six)

9. of an ~ (people of all ~s)

10. (misc.) to come of ~ ('to reach one's majority'); to look

one's ~ ('to not have a youthful appearance') ['era']

['period']

11. to usher in an ~ (to usher in the computer ~)

12. a golden; heroic ~

13. the Dark; Middle ~s (during the Middle ~s)

14. the Bronze; Ice; Iron; nuclear; Stone ~

15. in an ~ (in the nuclear ~)

16. for ~s

17. through the ~s

agency

n. 1. an advertising; detective; employment; government; health-

care; home-health; intelligence; law-enforcement; news; private;

public; regulatory; ticket; travel; voluntary; watchdog; welfare

~

2. at an ~ (she works at a travel ~)

agenda

n. 1. to draw up, make up an ~

2. to place, put smt. on the ~ (to put an item on the ~)

3. a hidden ~

agent

n. ['representative'] 1. a double; enemy; estate (BE), land

(BE), real-estate (AE); free; insurance; literary; press;

purchasing; rental; secret, undercover; shipping; special;

ticket (AE; BE has booking clerk) ~

2. an ~ provocateur

3. an ~ for (an ~ for a large firm) ['substance']

4. an asphyxiating; chemical ~

aggrandizement

n. territorial ~

aggregate

n. in the ~

aggression

n. ['attack'] 1. to commit ~ against

2. to repel, repulse ~

3. armed; brazen, naked, outright, stark, unprovoked ~

['aggressiveness']

4. to manifest ~

5. to control, stifle ~

6. deep-seated, hidden, deep-rooted ~

7. an act of ~ (to commit an act of ~)

aghast

adj. ~ at (~ at the very thought of going back to work)

agitate

v. 1. to ~ strongly

2. (D; intr.) to ~ against; for (they were agitating for reform)

agitation

n. 1. political; student; subversive ~

2. ~ against; for

agitator

n. a political ~

aglow

adj. ~ with (~ with happiness)

ago

adv. ~ that + clause (it was five years ~ that we met)

agog

adj. ~ over; with (she was all ~ over her new granddaughter)

agonize

v. (D; intr.) to ~ over (to ~ over a decision)

agony

n. 1. to experience, feel ~

2. to prolong the ~

3. acute, deep, great, indescribable, untold;

mortal ~

4. in ~ (in great ~)

agree

v. 1. ('to concur') to ~ completely, entirely, fully,

wholeheartedly; readily

2. (D; intr.) ('to concur') to ~ about; on, to; with (to ~ with

smb. about smt.; to ~ on/to a compromise)

3. (d; intr.) (of food, climate) to ~ with ('to suit') (the food

doesn't ~ with me)

4. (grammar) (D; intr.) ('to correspond') to ~ in; with (Latin

adjectives ~ with nouns in gender)

5. (E) ('to consent') they ~d to help

6. (L) ('to concur') we ~d that everyone would receive an equal

share

agreeable

adj. 1. mutually ~

2. ~ to (they were all ~ to our proposal; is this ~ to you?)

agreement

n. ['contract, settlement, treaty'] 1. to come to, conclude,

enter into, negotiate, reach, work out an ~

2. to carry out an ~

3. to break, violate; denounce an ~

4. a binding; contractual; ironclad; legal; tacit; tentative ~

(we reached a tentative ~)

5. an armistice; cease fire; sales; trade ~

6. a bilateral; executive; gentleman's ~

7. an ~ about, on; between; with (an ~ was worked out between

them on all points)

8. an ~ to + inf. (we reached an ~ with them to cooperate fully

at all times)

9. an ~ that + clause (the negotiatiors came to an ~ that all

troops would be withdrawn) ['concord, harmony']

10. to express; reach ~

11. complete, full, solid; mutual; tacit ~ (they reached full ~

on all points)

12. ~ about, on

13. by ~ (by mutual ~)

14. in ~ (we were in full ~ with them on all points)

['grammatical concord']

15. grammatical ~

16. ~ in (~ in case, gender, and number)

aground

adj., adv. to run ~ (the ship ran ~)

ahead

adj., adv. 1. far ~

2. ~ by (our team was ~ by three points)

3. ~ of (~ of one's competitors)

4. (misc.) straight ~; full speed ~

aid

I n. 1. to extend, give, offer, provide, render ~

2. to come to smb.'s ~

3. to cut off, withdraw ~

4. generous, unstinting ~

5. audiovisual; teaching ~s

6. first ~ (first ~ to the injured)

7. a hearing ~

8. economic; foreign; government ~

9. legal ~ (for the poor)

10. (an) ~ for; in; to (an ~ to memorization; economic ~ to

developing countries)

11. (misc.) to enlist smb.'s ~

II v. 1. (D; tr.) to ~ in (she ~ed him in his work)

2. (rare) (H) to ~ smb. to do smt.

3. (misc.) to ~ and abet

aide

n. 1. a home (BE), home health (AE); presidential ~

2. an ~ to

AIDS

n. to contract, get ~

ailment

n. a chronic; common; minor ~

aim

I n. ['purpose'] ['goal'] 1. to achieve one's ~

2. a chief; immediate; long-range ~

3. idealistic, lofty ~s

4. an ~ to + inf. (it was our ~ to complete the work before the

end of the month)['aiming of a weapon']

5. to take ~ at

6. careful; steady ~ (she took careful ~ at the intruder)

II v. 1. (D; intr., tr.) to ~ at (he ~ed at me; I ~ed the

revolver at the intruder)

2. (d; intr.) to ~ for (he ~ed for the heart; she was ~ing for a

promotion)

3. (E) we ~ to please

air

I n. ['atmosphere'] 1. to clear the ~

2. to breathe, inhale ~

3. to pollute the ~

4. balmy, mild; bracing, brisk, crisp, refreshing; compressed;

country; dry; foul; fresh; humid; polar; polluted; stale ~

5. a breath of (fresh) ~; a blast of hot ~

6. in the ~ (the decisive battles were fought in the ~)

['transportation by aircraft']

7. by ~ (to travel by ~) ['medium through which radio signals

are transmitted']

8. on the ~ (to go on the ~; our station is on the ~)

9. off the ~ (that station never goes off the ~)

['appearance']

10. to assume an ~ (to assume an ~ of innocence)

11. a detached; knowing; nonchalant; superior, triumphant ~

['tune']

12. a martial ~ (the band struck up a martial ~) ['misc.']

13. in the ~ ('imminent'); to walk on ~ ('to be elated'); to

give smb. the ~ ('to reject smb.'); up in the ~ ('unsettled');

to disappear into thin ~

II v. (B) he is ready to ~ his views to anyone

air conditioner

n. 1. to run: turn on an ~

2. to turn off an ~

3. a central; room ~

4. the ~ was on, was running

air conditioning

n. central ~

aircraft

n. enemy; friendly; unidentified ~

airline

n. a domestic; feeder; international, overseas; local ~

airmail

n. by ~ (to send a letter by ~)

airplane, aeroplane

n. 1. to board; take an ~

2. to bring down, land; ditch; fly, pilot; hijack; navigate an ~

(a pilot flies an ~)

3. to bring down, shoot down an ~ (our fire brought down an

enemy ~)

4. a jet; propeller-driven ~

5. an ~ crashes; cruises; flies; gains altitude; lands, touches

down; levels off; loses altitude; reaches an altitude; takes

off; taxis along the runway

airport

n. at an ~

air raid

n. to carry out, conduct an ~ against

airs

n. ['affected manners'] to give oneself, put on ~

air show

n. to hold, put on, stage an ~

air superiority

n. 1. to establish ~

2. complete, overwhelming, total ~

aisle

n. 1. to clear the ~s

2. in the ~ (don't stand in the ~)

3. on the ~ (to sit on the ~)

ajar

adj. to leave ~ (she left the door ~)

akin

adj. (formal) (usu. does not stand alone) ~ to (a feeling ~ to

love)

alarm

n. ['warning device'] ['warning'] 1. to activate; give, send

in, set off, sound; set an ~ (she set the ~ to go off at five)

2. to deactivate, turn off an ~

3. a burglar; fire; silent; smoke ~

4. a false ~

5. an ~ goes off, rings, sounds ['apprehension, fear']

6. to express; feel ~

7. to cause ~ (the incident caused great ~)

8. ~ at (to express ~ at the danger of war)

alarm clock

n. 1. to set an ~

2. an ~ goes off, rings, sounds

alarmed

adj. ~ at, by (we were ~ at the news of the earthquake)

alarming

adj. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ to think of the possible consequences)

album

n. an autograph; photograph; stamp ~

alcohol

n. 1. to distill, make ~

2. to abstain from ~

3. to reek of ~

4. ethyl, grain; methyl, wood; pure, unadulterated; rubbing (AE;

BE has surgical spirit) ~

alcoholic

n. a chronic ~

alcoholism

n. acute; chronic ~

alert

I adj. ~ to (~ to danger)

II n. 1. to call an ~

2. to place, put (troops) on ~

3. to call off, cancel an ~

4. (a) full; preliminary; red ~ (the troops were on full ~)

5. on (the) ~ (to be on the ~)

6. (misc.) in a state of ~

III v. (D; tr.) to ~ to (we must ~ the public to the danger)

A levels

n. (BE) to sit one's ~

algebra

n. to do ~

alias

n. under an ~

alibi

n. 1. to establish; provide an ~ for

2. to confirm smb.'s ~

3. to break, disprove an ~

4. an airtight, foolproof, unassailable ~

5. his ~ held up

alien

I adj. (formal) ~ to (such ideas are ~ to us)

II n. 1. to intern an ~

2. an enemy; illegal ~

alienate

v. (D; tr.) to ~ from (she was ~d from her family)

alienation

n. ~ from (~ from one's old friends)

alight

v. (formal) (D: intr.) to ~ from (to ~ from a vehicle)

align

v. (D; refl., tr.) to ~ with (the wheels must be ~ed with the

frame; he ~ed himself with the left wing of the party)

alignment

n. in; out of ~ (the wheels are out of ~)

alimony

n. to award ~ (the judge awarded the wife ~)

alive

adj. 1. very much ~

2. (cannot stand alone) ~ to (~ to the danger of becoming

overconfident)

all

determiner, pronoun ~ of (we saw ~ of them) USAGE NOTE: The use

of the preposition of is necessary when a personal pronoun

follows. When a noun follows, of is omitted--the dean saw all

students ('the dean saw every student'). To express limited

meaning, of the or the (very common in BE) can be inserted--the

dean saw all students who had received poor grades = the dean

saw all (of) the students who had received poor grades.

allegation

n. ['assertion'] 1. to make an ~

2. to drop, retract, withdraw an ~

3. to deny; refute an ~

4. a false; serious; unproved, unsubstantiated, unsupported;

vague ~

5. an ~ about; against (~s of fraud were made against him)

6. an ~ that + clause (their ~ that she had taken the money

proved to be false)

allege

v. (L) it has been ~d that you stole the money

allegiance

n. 1. to give; pledge, swear ~

2. to disavow, forsake one's ~ to

3. true, unfailing, unswerving ~

4. ~ to (~ to a cause)

allergic

adj. ~ to (~ to dust)

allergy

n. to acquire, develop an ~ to

alliance

n. 1. to enter into, form an ~

2. to dissolve an ~

3. a defense; military; political; unholy ~

4. an ~ against; between; with (to form an ~ with one's

neighbors against the common enemy)

5. an ~ to + inf. (an ~ to defend an area against any invader)

allied

adj. ~ against; to, with (we were ~ with them against the

aggressor)

allocate

v. 1. (B; more rarely -- A) the dean ~d the funds to several

students

2. (D; tr.) to ~ for (our committee ~d money for the memorial)

allocation

n. 1. to make an ~

2. a budget ~

3. an ~ for; to

allot

v. 1. (A) the city has ~ted space to us; or: the city has ~ted

us space

2. (D; tr.) to ~ for

allow

v. 1. (A; usu. without the preposition) ('to permit') he ~ed

himself no meat

2. (d; intr.) ('to provide') to ~ for (we ~ed for the

difference in age; you must ~ for shrinkage)

3. (D; tr.) ('to give') to ~ for (they ~ed an hour for lunch)

4. (formal) (d; intr.) to ~ of ('to permit') (our financial

situation ~s of no unnecessary expenditures)

5. (H) ('to permit') we ~ed the children to go to the park

6. (formal) (L) ('to admit') I must ~ that he is capable

allowance

n. ['taking into account'] 1. to make (an) ~ for (to make ~/an

~ for inexperience; to make ~s for wear and tear) ['sum

granted']

2. to grant an ~

3. a cost-of-living; depletion; trade-in ~

4. a daily; fixed; weekly ~

allude

v. 1. to ~ vaguely

2. (d; intr.) to ~ to (the story ~d to a mystery in his past)

allusion

n. 1. to make an ~ to (she made no ~ to the incident)

2. a vague ~

ally

I n. a faithful, staunch ~

II v. (D; intr., refl.) to ~ against; to, with (we allied

ourselves with our friends against the common enemy)

alms

n. (formal) 1. to dispense, give ~

2. ~ for (~ for the needy)

alone

adj. to leave smb. ~

aloof

adj. 1. to hold oneself, remain, stand ~

2. ~ from (he remained ~ from the others)

alphabet

n. 1. the Arabic; Cyrillic; Greek; Hebrew; Latin; Phoenician;

Sanskrit ~

2. a phonetic; runic ~

altar

n. 1. at the ~

2. to lead smb. to the ~

alteration

n. 1. to make an ~

2. a major; minor, slight ~

altercation

n. 1. to have an ~

2. an ~ about, over; between; with

alternate

v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ between (they ~ between supporting us and

opposing us)

2. (D; intr.) to ~ in (we ~ in doing the household chores)

3. (d; intr., tr.) to ~ with (sunny weather ~d with rain; the

coach ~d Jones with Wilson)

alternative

n. 1. to propose an ~

2. to fall back on an ~

3. a viable ~

4. an ~ to

5. no ~ but to + inf. (we have no ~ but to compromise)

altitude

n. 1. to reach an ~ of

2. to lose ~

3. a cruising ~

4. at an ~ (at high ~s)

amalgamate

v. (D; intr., tr.) to ~ with (our firm will be ~d with a

Japanese company)

amateur

n. a rank ~

amaze

v. (R) it ~d me (to learn) that he had been promoted

amazed

adj. 1. ~ at, by (he was ~ at what he saw)

2. ~ to + inf. (she was ~ to see the results of the research)

3. ~ that + clause (we were ~ that he agreed so quickly)

amazement

n. 1. complete, total, utter

2. ~ at, with (they expressed their ~ at/with our performance)

3. in ~ (they stared in ~)

4. to one's ~ (to my utter ~, he arrived on time)

amazing

adj. 1. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ to watch them perform)

2. ~ that + clause (it was ~ that she was able to solve the

problem so quickly)

ambassador

n. 1. to appoint an ~

2. to recall an ~

3. an ~ extraordinary; an ~ plenipotentiary; an ambassador-at-

large

4. a goodwill; roving ~

5. an ~ to (our ~ to Rome)

ambiguity

n. 1. to clear up, remove an ~; to avoid ~

2. an ~ about, concerning

ambition

n. 1. to achieve, attain, fulfill, realize one's ~

2. to spur, stir smb.'s ~

3. to limit, restrain one's ~

4. boundless, unbridled; overweening ~

5. a burning, cherished; frustrated; unrealized ~

6. territorial ~s (of an aggressor)

7. an ~ to + inf. (he achieved his ~ to become mayor)

ambitious

adj. (formal) (esp. BE) ~ to + inf. (she is ~ to succeed)

ambivalent

adj. ~ about

amble

v. (P; intr.) to ~ along the road

ambush

n. 1. to lay, set an ~ for

2. to draw smb. into an ~

3. to lie in ~ (for)

4. to run into an ~

5. from ~ (to attack from ~)

amenable

adj. ~ to (~ to compromise) amendment n. 1. to adopt; propose;

ratify an ~

2. a constitutional ~

3. an ~ to (an ~ to the constitution) amends n. to make ~ for

(he wanted to make ~ for the damage that he had caused)

amenities n. ['comforts'] 1. to provide the ~ for

['greetings']

2. to exchange ~ ['proper manners']

3. to observe the ~ American n. 1. a native ~ ('an American

Indian')

2. General ~ ('the English spoken in most of the US')

amiss

adj., adv. (formal) 1. to take smt. ~

2. to go

ammunition

n. 1. to provide ~ for (also fig.)

2. to issue ~

3. blank; dummy; live; tracer ~

amnesty

n. 1. to declare, grant, offer (an) ~ (he was granted ~)

2. a general; political ~

3. an ~ for (the government declared a general ~ for political

prisoners)

amok, amuck

adv. to run ~

amorous

adj. (rare) ~ of

amount

I n. 1. an ample, considerable, enormous, huge, large,

tremendous; moderate; negligible, paltry, small ~

2. the full ~

II v. (d; intr.) to ~ to (it ~s to fraud; he'll never ~ to

anything)

amuse

v. 1. to ~ greatly, thoroughly, very much

2. (D; refl., tr.) to ~ by, with (she ~d the children with

tricks; they ~d themselves by playing games)

3. (R) it ~d us to watch them play; it ~d me that they would

never admit to being wrong

amused

adj. 1. highly, thoroughly, vastly ~

2. ~ at, by (she was ~ at/by that story)

3. ~ to + inf. (I was ~ to see him playing up to the boss)

4. to keep smb. ~ (he kept the children ~ by reading stories)

amusement

n. 1. to provide ~ for

2. to find ~ in

3. to smb.'s ~ (much to my ~, everyone believed her story)

amusing

adj. 1. highly ~

2. ~ to (it was ~ to everyone)

3. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ to watch the trained elephants

perform)

anaemia (BE) see anemia

anaesthesia (BE) see anesthesia

anaesthetic (BE) see anesthetic

analogous

adj. ~ to, with

analogy

n. 1. to draw, make an ~

2. a close; superficial ~ (there is a close ~ between these two

phenomena)

3. an ~ between; to, with

4. by ~ (to reason by ~)

5. on the ~ of (to say thunk on the analogy of sunk)

analysis

n. ['examination of component parts'] 1. to make an ~

2. a careful, painstaking, thorough; in-depth; penetrating ~

3. (ling.) discourse ~

4. (chemistry) qualitative; quantitative ~

5. (math.) vector ~

6. upon ~ (upon further ~, we concluded that...)

7. in the last, final, ultimate ~ ['psychoanalysis']

8. to undergo ~

anarchy

n. 1. complete, total, utter ~

2. ~ reigns

anathema

n. 1. to declare, pronounce an ~ on

2. to lift an ~ from

3. ~ to (his theories were ~ to his colleagues)

anatomy

n. comparative; descriptive ~

ancestor

n. a common; remote ~

ancestry

n. 1. to trace one's ~

2. of (a certain) ~ (to be of French ~)

anchor

I n. 1. to cast, drop ~

2. to raise, weigh ~

3. at ~ (to ride at ~)

II v. to ~ firmly

anecdote

n. 1. to relate, tell an ~

2. a funny, witty; off-color ~

anemia, anaemia

n. 1. to develop ~

2. pernicious; sickle-cell ~

anesthesia, anaesthesia

n. 1. to induce, produce ~

2. to undergo ~

3. general; local ~

4. the ~ wears off

anesthetic, anaesthetic

n. 1. to administer, give an ~

2. to have, take an ~

3. a general; local ~

4. the ~ wears off

5. under (an) ~

angel

n. (lit.) a guardian, ministering ~

anger

I n. 1. to arouse, stir up ~

2. to express; feel; show ~

3. to allay, appease, calm smb.'s ~; to repress, swallow one's

~

4. to vent one's ~

5. blind, burning, deep, profound, seething; righteous;

unbridled ~

6. a blaze, fit, outburst of ~

7. ~ at; towards, with (he finally expressed his deep ~ at

being mistreated)

8. in; with ~ (she struck back in ~; burning with ~)

II v. (R) it ~ed me (to learn) that they had not kept their

promise

angle

I n. ['space between two straight lines that meet'] 1. an

acute; alternate; complementary; exterior; interior; obtuse;

right; solid ~

2. a sharp ~ (at a sharp ~)

3. the side; vertex of an ~ ['deviation from a straight

line']

4. at an ~ (at an ~ of thirty degrees; at a rakish ~; at a

right ~) ['viewpoint'] ['aspect']

5. from an ~ (to examine a question from various ~s) ['motive;

scheme'] (colloq.) (esp. AE)

6. to have an ~

II v. (d; intr.) to ~ for ('to try to obtain') (she was angling

for an invitation)

angry

adj. 1. to become, get ~

2. ~ about; at, with; for (he was ~ at/with his neighbor about

the noisy party; we were ~ at being disturbed; she was ~ at/with

me for being late)

3. ~ to + inf. (I was ~ to learn of his refusal to help)

4. ~ that + clause (we were ~ that our request had been

rejected)

anguish

n. (formal) 1. to cause ~

2. deep; mental ~

3. ~ at, over

4. in ~ (in ~ over smb.'s death)

animadversion

n. (formal) to make an ~ on, upon

animadvert

v. (formal) (D; intr.) to ~ on, upon (to ~ on corruption)

animal

n. 1. to domesticate an ~; to tame; train a wild ~

2. to trap an ~

3. to hunt wild ~s

4. to butcher, slaughter ~s (for food)

5. to skin an ~

6. to stuff an ~

7. to neuter an ~

8. a carnivorous, flesh-eating; domestic; draft; herbivorous;

pack; predatory; wild ~

9. (misc.) like a caged ~; human beings are social ~s

animation

n. suspended ~

animosity

n. 1. to arouse, stir up ~

2. to feel ~

3. burning, deep, seething ~

4. racial; religious ~

5. ~ against, to, towards (she felt a burning ~ towards them)

ankle

n. 1. to sprain, turn, twist one's ~

2. a well-turned ('shapely') ~

3. (misc.) ~ deep in mud

annex I annexe

I n. an ~ to (an ~ to the main building; an ~ to a treaty)

II v. (D; tr.) to ~ to (they annexed the conquered territory to

their country)

anniversary

n. 1. to celebrate, commemorate, mark, reach an ~

2. a wedding ~

3. a diamond; golden; silver ~

4. on an ~ (on their tenth wedding ~)

annotation

n. 1. to make an ~ (to make ~s on a text)

2. copious ~s

announce

v. 1. (B) they ~d the news to the reporters

2. (L; to) the president of the firm ~d (to the employees) that

there would be a bonus

announcement

n. 1. to issue, make an ~

2. a formal, official; public; spot ~

3. an ~ about, of

4. an ~ that + clause (they made a public ~ that an amnesty

would be declared)

announcer

n. a radio; sports ~

annoy

v. 1. to ~ greatly, very much

2. (R) it ~ed me to be kept waiting so long; it ~ed us that

they took so long to answer

annoyance

n. 1. to express; feel; show ~

2. ~ at, over, with

3. ~ that + clause (his ~ that he had been awakened so early

was evident)

4. to one's ~ (much to my ~, he was late)

annoyed

adj. 1. ~ at, with (we were ~ at losing the order; he was ~

at/with the children)

2. ~ to + inf. (he was ~ to find his door unlocked)

3. ~ that + clause (she was ~ that the library was still

closed)

annoying

adj. 1. highly ~

2. ~ to (it was ~ to everyone)

3. ~ to + inf. (it is ~ to read nothing but bad news)

4. ~ that + clause (it's ~ that there is no hot water)

annulment

n. 1. to grant an ~

2. to obtain an ~

anoint

v. (N; used with a noun) they ~ed him king

answer

I n. 1. to give, offer, provide an ~

2. a blunt, curt; civil; diplomatic; direct; equivocal;

evasive, vague; glib; ready; straight; wise; witty ~

3. a negative; positive ~

4. the right; wrong ~

5. (BE) a dusty ('unsatisfactory') ~

6. an ~ to

7. in ~ to (in ~ to your question)

II v. 1. ('to respond') to ~ glibly

2. (d; intr.) ('to be responsible') to ~ to smb. for smt. (the

directors had to ~ to the stockholders for the loss)

3. (d; intr.) ('to respond') to ~ to (to ~ to a name; the child

~s only to its nickname)

4. (d; intr.) ('to correspond') to ~ to (she ~s to the

description)

5. (L; may have an object) ('to respond') they ~ed (us) that

they would come

answerable

adj. ~ for; to (we are ~ to our superiors for our actions)

answerback

v. (D; intr.) to ~ to (children should not ~ to their parents)

ant

n. 1. army; carpenter; harvester; honey; leaf-cutter ~s

2.a colony of ~s

antagonism

n. 1. to arouse, stir up ~

2. to feel (an) ~

3. deep, deep-rooted, profound, strong ~

4. ~ between; to, towards (to feel a strong ~ towards smb.)

antagonist

n. a formidable ~

antagonistic

adj. ~ to, towards (he is very ~ to us)

antelope

n. a herd of ~

antenna

n. (AE) a loop; TV ~ (BE has aerial)

anterior

adj. (formal) ~ to

anthem

n. a national ~ (the band played/struck up the national ~)

anthropology

n. cultural; physical; social ~

antibiotic

n. 1. to prescribe an ~

2. to take an ~

3. a broad-spectrum ~

anticipate

v. 1. (G) we ~ spending two weeks here

2. (K) we ~d his winning first prize

3. (L) I ~d that they would be late

anticipation

n. 1. eager, keen ~

2. in ~ of (an exhibit was scheduled in ~ of his visit)

3. with ~ (to look forward to smt. with eager ~)

anticlimax

n. an ~ to (everything was an ~ to winning an Olympic gold

medal)

antidote

n. 1. to administer, give an ~

2. to take an ~

3. an ~ against, for, to (he took an ~ for the poison; an ~ to

complacency)

antifreeze

n. to add; drain ~

antipathy

n. 1. to feel (an) ~

2. (a) deep, strong; natural ~

3. ~ to, towards (he felt strong/a strong ~ towards foreigners)

antique

n. a genuine ~

antithesis

n. 1. the direct, very ~

2. an ~ between

3. an ~ of, to (the ~ to my theory)

antithetical

adj. ~ to

antlers

n. 1. to lock ~

2. to shed ~

3. a pair of ~

anxiety

n. 1. to feel ~

2. to relieve one's ~

3. deep, grave, great, high ~

4. ~ about; for (~ for smb.'s safety)

5. ~ to + inf. (in his ~ not to offend them, he agreed to

concessions)

6. in ~ (see 5)

anxious

adj. 1. ~ about (~ about the world situation)

2. ~ for (we were ~ for them to meet you)

3. ~ to + inf. (she is ~ to help)

4. ~ that + clause; subj. (he was very ~ that we meet/should

meet)

any

1. adv. (used with the comparative form of adjectives and with

good) ~ better (I wonder if they can work ~ better); ~ good (I

don't think that this wine is ~ good); ~ easier (that doesn't

make my job ~ easier); ~ more difficult (do not make my job ~

more difficult than it is now)

2. determiner, pronoun ~ to + inf. (we don't have ~ books to

sell; we don't have ~ to sell)

3. determiner, pronoun ~ of (I did not see ~ of them) USAGE

NOTE: The use of the preposition of is necessary when a pronoun

follows. When a noun follows, the use of of the limits the

meaning--did you see any students? did you see any of the

students whom we had discussed earlier? (see the Usage Note for

something)

anybody

pronoun do you have ~ to talk to? (see the Usage Note for

something)

anyone

see anybody

anyplace

(AE) see anywhere

anything

pronoun 1. do you have ~ to say?

2. (misc.) ~ but ('not at all') (see the Usage Note for

something)

anywhere

adv. do you have ~ to go? (see the Usage Note for something)

apart

adj., adv. 1. to fall ~

2. to tell ~

3. ~ from (~ from everything else)

apartment

n. (esp. AE) 1. to rent an ~ from

2. to rent (out) an ~ to

3. to furnish; redecorate; renovate an ~

4. a duplex; efficiency; furnished; garden; high-rise;

penthouse; studio; unfurnished ~

apathetic

adj. ~ about; to, towards (he is ~ about everything)

apathy

n. 1. to feel; show ~ towards

2. to cast off, shed, throw off one's ~

3. ~ towards

apes

n. the higher ~

aplomb

n. 1. the ~ to + inf. (she had the necessary ~ to order the meal

in French)

2. with great ~

apologetic

adj. ~ about, for (she was ~ for her blunder)

apologist

n. an ~ for

apologize

v. 1. to ~ humbly

2. (D; intr.) to ~ for; to (he ~d to us for being late)

apology

n. 1. to make, offer an ~

2. to demand an ~

3. an abject, humble; public; sincere ~

4. an ~ for; to (Jim made an ~ to the teacher for his rude

behavior)

apostasy

n. (formal) (an) ~ from

apostate

n. (formal) an ~ from (an ~ from the true faith)

appall, appal

v. (R) it ~ed me to see such sloppy work; it ~ed them that no

preparations had been made

appalled

adj. 1. ~ at, by (we were ~ at/by the news)

2. ~ to + inf. (I was ~ to see the results of their work

3. ~ that + clause (everyone was ~ that the murderer had been

released on parole)

appalling

adj. 1. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ to see him in that condition)

2. ~ that + clause (it is ~ that so many people evade paying

taxes)

apparel

n. wearing ~

apparent

adj. 1. clearly; increasingly ~

2. ~ to

3. ~ that + clause (it was ~ to all that he was guilty)

apparition

n. 1. a strange ~

2. an ~ appears; disappears

appeal

I n. ['request'] ['request for review'] 1. to make an ~

2. (legal) to file, lodge, make; lose; win an ~

3. (legal) to take an ~ to a higher court

4. (also legal) to deny, dismiss, reject, throw out an ~

5. a desperate, urgent; eloquent, irresistible, ringing,

stirring; emotional; final, last ~

6. an ~ against, from; for; to (to file an ~ against a

decision; to make an ~ to the public for donations; there is no

~ from a verdict of the higher court) ['attraction']

7. box-office; sales; sex; snob

II v. 1. (D; intr.) ('to request a review') to ~ against (to ~

against a decision)

2. (D; intr.) ('to request') to ~ for; to (they ~ed to us for

help)

3. (d; intr.) ('to request') to ~ to smb. to + inf. (he ~ed to

them to support his campaign)

4. (d; intr.) to ~ to ('to resort to') (to ~ to common sense)

5. (d; intr.) to ~ to ('to please') (he doesn't ~ to her)

appear

v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ against; for (she ~ed against him in

court)

2. (D; intr.) to ~ to (she ~ed to him in a dream)

3. (E) she ~s to be well

4. (L; to) it ~s (to me) that they will not come

5. (esp. BE) (S) to ~ sad; to ~ a fool

6. (misc.) to ~ before a committee; to ~ in print; to ~ on the

scene; to ~ on stage; to ~ in person; to ~ at the door; the

story ~ed in the newspaper

appearance

n. ['appearing'] 1. to make, put in an ~ (the policeman made a

timely ~)

2. a guest; personal; public; TV ~ (the actor made a personal

~)

3. at one's ~ (the crowd went wild at their first ~ on stage)

['outward impression']

4. a disheveled; immaculate, neat; shabby; unkempt, untidy ~

5. in ~ (neat in ~)

6. at first ~

appearances

n. ['outward looks'] 1. to keep up ~

2. outward ~

3. by ~ (to judge by ~)

4. for the sake of ~

5. from, to all ~ (to all ~, the matter is closed)

append

v. (D; tr.) to ~ to (to ~ a translation to a document)

appendage

n. an ~ to

appendectomy

n. 1. to do, perform an ~ on

2. to have an ~

appendix

n. 1. (anatomical) an inflamed; ruptured ~

2. (anatomical) an ~ bursts, ruptures

3. an ~ to (an ~ to a textbook)

appertain

v. (formal) (d; intr.) to ~ to

appetite

n. 1. to whet one's; to work up an ~

2. to satisfy one's ~

3. to curb; spoil, take away one's ~

4. a good, healthy, hearty, ravenous, voracious; insatiable ~

5. an ~ for

applaud

v. to ~ heartily, loudly

applause

n. 1. to draw, get, win ~ for

2. heavy, lengthy, prolonged; light, weak; loud, thunderous ~

3. a burst; ripple; round of ~

4. to (the) ~ (she appeared on stage to the thunderous ~ of her

admirers)

apple

n. 1. cooking; eating ~s

2. a baked; green; sour ~

3. (misc.) a rotten ~ ('an undesirable person')

applicable

adj. ~ to (~ to a case)

applicant

n. an ~ for (an ~ for a position)

application

n. ['request'] 1. to file, make, put in, send in, submit an ~

2. to screen ~s

3. to reject, turn down; withdraw an ~

4. a fellowship; membership ~

5. a formal; written ~

6. an ~ for (an ~ for admission to a university)

7. an ~ to + inf. (he filed an ~ to be admitted to the

intensive course)

8. by, on ~ ['putting to use']

9. ~ to (the ~ of theory to practice) ['placing']

10. ~ to (the ~ of ice to the forehead)

application form

n. 1. to fill in (esp. BE), to fill out (AE), fill up (BE, rare)

an ~

2. to file, submit an

apply

v. 1. (D; intr.) ('to request') to ~ for; to (we ~lied to the

authorities for assistance; the captain ~lied to headquarters

for a transfer; she ~lied for a fellowship)

2. (D; intr.) ('to seek admission to') to ~ to (she ~lied to

three universities)

3. (D; intr.) ('to be relevant') to ~ to (the rule does not

apply to this case)

4. (D; refl.) ('to concentrate one's efforts') to ~ to (she

~lied herself to her new duties with great energy)

5. (D; tr.) ('to put on') to ~ to (to ~ paint to a surface; to

~ ointment to a rash)

6. (D; tr.) ('to put to use') to ~ to (to ~ theory to practice)

7. (d; tr.) ('to channel') to ~ towards (to ~ money towards a

purchase)

8. (E) ('to request') he ~lied to be transferred

appoint

v. 1. (D; tr.) to ~ as (we ~ed him as treasurer)

2. (D; tr.) to ~ to (they ~ed her to the commitee)

3. (H) they ~ed me to serve as secretary

4. (M and N; used with a noun) we ~ed her (to be) treasurer

appointment

n. ['agreement to meet'] 1. to keep; make an ~ with

2. to break; cancel an ~

3. by ~ (he will see you by ~)

4. an ~ to + inf. (she had an ~ to see the dean)

['selection']

5. an ~ to (they announced her ~ to the commission)

6. an ~ as (an ~ as professor) ['position']

7. to hold; receive an ~

8. a permanent; temporary ~ ['designation']

9. by ~ to Her Majesty

apportion

v. (D; tr.) to ~ among, between (the funds were ~ed among the

various departments)

apposition

n. (grammar) in ~ to (the second noun is in ~ to the first)

appraisal

n. 1. to give, make an ~ of

2. a down-to-earth; objective ~

appraise

v. (D; tr.) to ~ at (the house was ~d at seventy thousand

dollars)

appreciate

v. 1. to ~ deeply, greatly, keenly, sincerely, very much

2. (K) we ~ your helping us

3. (misc.) we ~ the fact that you have helped us

appreciation

n. 1. to demonstrate, display, show one's ~ for

2. to express; feel ~

3. deep, keen, sincere ~

4. in ~ of (he did this in ~ of the help that he had received)

appreciative

adj. 1. deeply, keenly, sincerely ~

2. ~ of (~ of help)

apprehension

n. ['foreboding'] ['fear'] 1. to express; feel; show ~

2. to allay one's ~(s)

3. grave ~

4. ~ for (we felt ~ for their safety) ['conception']

5. under an ~

apprehensive

adj. 1. ~ about, for, of (~ about recent developments)

2. ~ that + clause (we were ~ that they might forget)

apprentice

I n. an ~ to (he was an ~ to a master craftsman)

II v. (B) at an early age, I was ~d to a carpenter

apprenticeship

n. to fill; serve an ~

apprise

v. (formal) (d; tr.) to ~ of (he was ~d of the decision by his

lawyer)

approach

I n. 1. to make an ~

2. to take an ~ (to take a judicious ~ to a problem)

3. a forthright; holistic; judicious; pragmatic; rational;

scholarly; scientific ~

4. with the ~ (with the ~ of spring, we began to feel better)

5. an ~ from; to (I like her ~ to the problem; the ~es to a

stadium; the pilot began her ~ to the runway)

II v. 1. (D;tr.) to ~ about (I was afraid to ~ them about this

matter)

2. (D; intr., tr.) to ~ from (to ~ from the other direction)

3. (d; tr.) to ~ with (to ~ smb. with a request)

appropriate

I adj. 1. ~ for; to (~ for us; ~ to the occasion)

2. ~ to + inf. (it is not ~ to tip a bus driver)

3. ~ that + clause; subj. (it is ~ that he be/ should be

present)

II v. 1. (B) Congress ~d the funds to the states

2. (D; tr.) to ~ for (the committee ~d money for the memorial)

appropriation

n. 1. to make an ~ for (our government made an ~ for the

project)

2. defense; foreign-aid ~s

approval

n. 1. to give one's ~ for

2. to nod; voice one's ~

3. to meet with, win ~

4. one's complete, unqualified; qualified; tacit ~

5. final; public ~

6. ~ to + inf. (we received their ~ to continue the research)

7. on ~ (we bought it on ~)

8. (misc.) to receive smb.'s stamp of ~

approve

v. 1. to ~ of wholeheartedly

2. (D; intr.) to ~ of (we ~d of his decision)

approximate

v. (BE) (D; intr.) ('to come near') to ~ to (to ~ to the truth)

apt

adj. (cannot stand alone) ~ to + inf. (he is ~ to exaggerate)

aptitude

n. 1. to demonstrate, display, show (an) ~

2. (a) great, outstanding; natural; special ~

3. mechanical; scholastic ~

4. an ~ for, in (an ~ for painting)

arbitrate

v. (D; intr.) to ~ between (to ~ between opposing parties)

arbitration

n. 1. to conduct ~

2. to go to; resort to ~ (the union and management went to ~;

the dispute went to ~)

3. binding; voluntary ~

4.~ between; of

arcade

n. an amusement (BE); penny; video-game ~

architecture

n. Baroque; Byzantine; Colonial; Eastern; Gothic; Greek; Modern;

Renaissance; Roman; Romanesque ~

ardor, ardour

n. 1. to demonstrate, display ~

2. to cool, dampen one's ~

3. fervent, intense; patriotic ~

4. ~ for

area

n. 1. to close off, rope off an ~

2. an assembly, staging; built-up; catchment; disaster;

distressed; drainage; impacted ('crowded with federal

employees'); metropolitan, urban; residential; rural; service ~

3. (soccer) a penalty ~

4. (meteorology) a high-pressure; low-pressure ~

arena

n. a sports ~

arguable

adj. ~ that + clause (it is ~ that some unemployment is

necessary)

argue

v. 1. to ~ calmly, logically, plausibly, sensibly; heatedly,

passionately, strenuously, vehemently

2. (D; intr.) to ~ about, over; with (we ~d with them about the

new law)

3. (d; intr.) to ~ against; for (to ~ against the amendment; to

~ for the new policy)

4. (d; tr.) to ~ out of (to ~ smb. out of doing smt.)

5. (L) she ~d logically that the new regulations would harm the

poor

argument

n. ['dispute'] 1. to get into, have an ~

2. to break off, terminate; clinch, settle an ~

3. an angry, bitter, heated, loud, violent ~

4. an ~ breaks out

5. an ~ about, over; between; with (I had a bitter ~ with him

about politics) ['statement']

6. to drive home, press; offer, present, put forward an ~

7. to confute, rebut, refute an ~

8. an airtight, balanced, cogent, compelling, conclusive,

convincing, irrefutable, logical, persuasive, rational, solid,

sound, telling, trenchant, unassailable, valid ~

9. a groundless; spurious; tenuous, weak ~

10. an ~ about; against; for (she presented a convincing ~

against the proposal)

11. an ~ that + clause (I cannot accept his ~ that war is

inevitable)

12. (misc.) (legal) to hear ~s against; for

aristocrat

n. a born ~

arithmetic

n. to do ~

arm

I n. ['upper limb'] 1. to bend; cross; fold; lower; raise;

stretch; swing; wave one's ~s

2. (misc.) to take smb. by the ~; to fling/put/throw one's ~s

around smb.; to carry smt. under one's ~; to greet smb. with

open/outstretched ~s; to walk ~ in ~ with; with ~s akimbo

['power']

3. the long ~ of the law ['division']

4. our naval air ~ ['attachment']

5. a pickup, tone ~ ['misc.']

6. to twist smb.'s ~ ('to exert pressure on smb.')

II v. (D; intr., refl., tr.) to ~ against (to ~ against a

potential enemy)

armed

adj. ~ to the teeth

armistice

n. 1. to agree on, work out; declare; sign an ~

2. to violate an ~

3. to suspend an ~

armor, armour

n. 1. heavy; light ~

2. (misc.) to pierce ~

arms

n. ['weapons'] 1. to bear; take up ~

2. to call to ~

3. (mil.) inspection; left shoulder; order;

port; present; right shoulder; trail ~!

4. to lay down one's ~

5. small ~

6. under ~ ('armed') ['misc.']

7. up in ~ ('stirred up')

arms race

n. 1. to accelerate, step up the ~

2. to curb the ~

army

n. 1. to command, lead; drill, train; rally an ~

2. to mobilize, raise an ~

3. to equip, supply an ~

4. to array, commit, deploy, field; concentrate, mass an ~

5. to inspect, muster, review an ~

6. to encircle, envelop, surround; outfight; outflank;

outmaneuver; overrun; surprise an ~

7. to crush, decimate, defeat, rout an ~; to put an ~ to flight

8. to demobilize, disband an ~

9. a rebel; regular, standing; territorial; volunteer ~

10. an advancing; conquering; defeated; occupation, occupying;

retreating; victorious ~

11. an ~ advances; attacks; conducts war, engages in combat,

fights; pulls back, retreats, withdraws

12. (misc.) to join the ~

aroma

n. 1. a delicate, delightful, fragrant, pleasant, pleasing;

tantalizing ~

2. an ~ emanates from

arouse

v. (D; tr.) to ~ from (to ~ smb. from a deep sleep)

aroused

adj. easily; sexually ~

arraignment

n. 1. (legal) to hold an ~ for

2. a public ~

arrange

v. 1. to ~ neatly; tastefully

2. (d; intr.) to ~ for (to ~ for a series of lectures; we ~d

for him to give a concert)

3. (E) they ~d to leave early

4. (L) I ~d that they should be seated next to each other

arrangement

n. 1. to make, work out an ~

2. a floral; seating; working ~

3. an ~ for; with

4. an ~ to + inf. (they made an ~/~s to meet secretly)

5. by ~ (by special ~)

6. under an ~ (under a special ~)

array

I n. ['order'] 1. in battle ~; drawn up in full ~

['display']

2. an imposing, impressive ~

II v. (D; tr.) to ~ against (~ed against the enemy)

arrears

n. in ~ (he is in ~ with his rent)

arrest

I n. ['detention'] 1. to make an ~

2. to resist ~

3. a citizen's; false ~; house ~

4. an ~ for, on charges of (to make an ~ for murder)

5. under ~ (to be under ~; to place/put smb. under ~)

['stoppage']

6. a cardiac ~

II v. (D; tr.) to ~ for, on charges of (the police ~ed him for

murder)

arrest warrant

n. (AE) to issue an ~

arrival

n. 1. an early; late ~

2. an ~ at, in; from

3. on one's ~ (on our ~ in Chicago)

arrive

v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ at, in; from (they ~d from Paris)

2. (s) they ~d safe and sound

3. (misc.) to ~ early; late; on time

arrogance

n. 1. to demonstrate, display, exhibit ~

2. insufferable, overpowering, overwhelming ~

3. the ~ to + inf. (he had the ~ to ask for more money)

arrogant

adj. ~ towards

arrogate

v. (formal) (B) to ~ a privilege to oneself

arrow

n. 1. to shoot an ~ at

2. a poisoned; spent ~

3. (misc.) as straight as an ~

arson

n. to commit ~

art

n. 1. to practice an ~ (to practice the occult ~ of the

alchemist)

2. abstract; classical; folk; impressionist; modem; pop;

primitive; verbal ~

3. (the) applied; creative; fine; graphic; industrial;

language; liberal; martial; performing; plastic ~s

4. an ~ to (there is an ~ to making a good omelet)

5. a work of ~

artefacts

(BE) see artifacts

artery

n. ['blood vessel'] 1. a blocked, occluded; coronary;

pulmonary; ruptured ~

2. (misc.) hardening of the ~ries ['channel']

3. a major; traffic ~

arthritis

n. to develop ~

article

I n. ['essay'] 1. to write an ~

2. (BE) a leading ~

3. an ~ about (she wrote an ~ about her research) ['section']

4. according to an ~ (according to ~ two of our constitution)

['object']

5. secondhand; toilet ~s ['grammatical affix']

6. to take an ~ (certain nouns always take the definite ~)

7. the definite; indefinite ~

II v. (BE) (d; tr.) ('to apprentice') to ~ to, with (to ~ smb.

to a firm of solicitors) artifacts, artefacts n. ancient;

cultural ~

artillery

n. antiaircraft; coast; field; heavy; light; long-range; medium;

self-propelled ~

artist

n. 1. a dramatic; gifted, talented; struggling ~

2. a pavement (BE), sidewalk (AE) ~

3. a con; escape; make-up; quick-change; trapeze ~

artistry

n. brilliant ~

ascendancy

n. 1. to attain, gain ~ over

2. (a) clear-cut; overwhelming ~

ascent

n. 1. to make an ~ (to make the ~ of a mountain)

2. a gradual; steep ~

ascertain

v. 1. (L) she ~ed that fraud had been committed

2. (Q) can you ~ who he is?

asceticism

n. to practice ~

ascribe v. 1. (B) the painting was ~d to an unknown artist

2. (d; tr.) to ~ to (she ~d her success to hard work)

ash

n. volcanic ~

ashamed

adj. 1. thoroughly ~

2. ~ of (he was ~ of himself)

3. ~ to + inf. (she was ~ to admit her mistake)

4. ~ that + clause (he was ~ that his family was poor)

ashes

n. 1. to rake; spread ~

2. to reduce to ~

3. (misc.) to rise from the ~

ashore

adv. 1. to put, set ~

2. to come; go ~

aside

adv. 1. to move; stand ~

2. to push, shove; put; take ~

asinine

adj. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ to behave like that)

ask

v. 1. (D; intr., tr.) ('to inquire') to ~ about, after (BE)

(they ~ed me about my work; he ~ed about/after her mother)

2. (d; intr., tr.) ('to request') to ~ for (she ~ed me politely

for the book; the guest ~ed for the manager)

3. (D; tr.) ('to invite') to ~ to (we ~ed them to the party)

4. (D; tr.) ('to request') to ~ smt. of (I have a favor to ~ of

you; he is ~ing a great deal of us)

5. (E) ('to request') she ~ed to be excused; we ~ed to see him

6. (H) ('to request') she ~ed us to come to the concert

7. (L; subj.) ('to request') the family ~ed that the story not

be/should not be printed

8. (0; can be used with one object) ('to pose') he ~ed (her) a

question (also possible is: he ~ed a question of her)

9. (Q; may have an object) ('to inquire of) he ~ed (his son)

point-blank where he was going; she ~ed wistfully how she might

help

askance

adv. to look ~ at

asking

n. (colloq.) for the ~ (it's yours for the ~)

asleep

adj. 1. to be fast, sound ~

2. to fall ~

aspect

n. ['view'] ['side'] 1. a frightening; grim; humorous;

serious ~ (the humorous ~ of the situation)

2. from an ~ (from this ~)

3. in an ~ (in all ~s)

aspersion

n. to cast ~s on

aspirant

n. an ~ for; to (an ~ to the throne)

aspiration

n. (formal) 1. lofty, noble ~s

2. an ~ to (~s to independence)

aspire

v. (formal) 1. (d; intr.) to ~ to (to ~ to success)

2. (E) she ~d to become a lawyer

aspirin

n. 1. to take (an) ~

2. an ~ tablet (he took two ~ tablets; or: he took two ~s) ass

n. ['fool'] 1. a pompous ~ ['donkey']

2. ~es bray

assail

v. (formal) to ~ bitterly

assassination

n. 1. to carry out an ~

2. a character; political ~

assault

n. 1. (often mil.) to carry out, make; lead an ~ on (the troops

carried out an ~ on the enemy position)

2. (legal) to commit ~

3. (usu. legal) aggravated; bodily; criminal; indecent ~

4. an all-out; armed; military ~

5. (usu. mil.) by ~ (to take by ~)

assault and battery

n. (legal) to commit ~

assembly

n. 1. to convene an ~

2. a constitutional; deliberative; general; legislative;

national; public ~

3. (misc.) the right of ~

assent

I n. 1. to give; nod one's ~ to (she gave her ~ to our plan)

2. by common ~

II v. (formal) (D; intr.) to ~ to (we ~ed to his proposal)

assert

v. 1. to ~ boldly

2. (L) she ~ed that she was innocent

assertion

n. 1. to make an ~

2. to deny; refute an ~

3. a bold; sweeping; unfounded ~

4. an ~ that + clause (we do not believe his ~ that he is

innocent)

assess

v. (D; tr.) to ~ at (the value of this property was ~ed at one

million dollars)

assessment

n. to make an ~ (she made a careful ~ of the situation)

asset

n. 1. an invaluable, valuable ~

2. an ~ to (she was an invaluable ~ to our firm)

assets

n. 1. to realize; unfreeze ~

2. current; financial; frozen; hidden; intangible; liquid;

tangible ~

asseverate

v. (formal and rare) (L) they ~ed that they would never

surrender

assign

v. 1. (A) they ~ed a very difficult mission to us; or: they ~ed

us a very difficult mission

2. (D; tr.) to ~ to (headquarters ~ed the soldiers to a

different unit; an experienced detective was ~ed to the case; to

~ a painting to a certain century)

3. (esp. BE) (H) we were ~ed to prepare a meal

assignation

n. (formal) to make an ~

assignment

n. ['task'] ['mission'] 1. to give smb. an ~

2. to carry out an ~ (the ambassador carried out her ~

brilliantly)

3. a dangerous; difficult, rough, tough; easy ~

4. an overseas; rush; special ~

5. an ~ to + inf. (an ~ to guard the president)

6. on ~ ('on a mission') (the correspondent was on ~ in the Far

East) ['homework'] (esp. AE)

7. to give, hand out an ~

8. to do; hand in an ~ (the pupils did their ~)

9. a difficult; easy ~ ['appointment'] (esp. AE)

10. an ~ to (an ~ to a new job)

assimilate

v. 1. (D; intr., tr.) to ~ into, to (the newcomers tried to ~

into the community; America has ~d millions of immigrants into

its way of life)

2. (D; intr.) to ~ with (they did not ~ with the local

population)

assimilation

n. ~ into, to (their ~ into society was swift)

assist

I n. (colloq.) with an ~ from

II v. 1. (D; intr., tr.) to ~ at, in, with (the young nurse was

~ing at her first operation; to ~ in the preparation of a

report; to ~ with the editing of a manuscript)

2. (formal, rare) (H) to ~ smb. to do smt.

assistance

n. 1. to give, offer, provide, render ~

2. considerable, great ~

3. clerical; directory (AE);

economic, financial; legal; material; public; technical ~

4. ~ to (economic ~ to underdeveloped countries)

5. of ~ (he was of considerable ~ to us)

assistant

n. 1. a personal (BE; AE has personal secretary); research; shop

(BE; AE has sales-clerk); teaching ~

2. an ~ to (an ~ to the president)

associate

v. (d; intr., tr.) to ~ with (we ~ with all sorts of people; one

usually ~s poverty with misery)

association

n. ['organization'] 1. to form an ~

2. a bar ~ (AE; BE has law society)

3. a building and loan ~ (AE; BE has building society)

['connection']

4. a close ~

5. an ~ with

6. in ~ with ['connection in the mind']

7. to bring up, call up an ~

8. free ~

assortment

n. a wide ~

assume

v. 1. (L) we ~d that he was dead

2. (M) everyone ~d him to be dead

assumed

adj. (cannot stand alone) ~ to + inf. (she was ~ to be out of

the country)

assumption

n. 1. to make an ~

2. an erroneous, false; implicit; reasonable; safe; valid ~

3. an ~ about; of (to make an ~ of guilt)

4. an ~ that + clause (we all made the ~ that the new company

would fail)

5. on an ~ (we proceeded on the ~ that he would help)

assurance

n. 1. to give an ~ that + clause (he gave every ~ that he would

attend)

2. (BE) life ~ (see the Usage Note for insurance)

assurances

n. 1. to give, provide ~ of

2. ~ that + clause (the contractor gave ~ that the work would

be completed on time)

assure

v. 1. (d; tr.) to ~ of (we ~ed her of our support)

2. (L; must have an object) they ~d us that they would not be

late

astonish

v. 1. to ~ greatly, very much

2. (R) it ~ed me to learn that he was here; it ~ed us that they

were able to survive

astonished

adj. 1. greatly, very much ~

2. ~ at, by (they were ~ at/by the news of his escape)

3. ~ + inf. (I was ~ to learn of his divorce)

4. ~ that + clause (she was ~ that he had survived)

astonishing

adj.. 1. ~ to

2. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ to watch them perform)

3. ~ that + clause (it was ~ to everyone that the court had

made such a decision)

astonishment

n. 1. to express ~

2. ~ at (he could not conceal his ~ at seeing them together)

3. ~ that + clause (they expressed ~ that I won the election)

4. in ~ (they gaped in ~)

5. to smb.'s ~ (to our ~, they arrived on time)

astound

v. (R) it ~ed me to find the country so backward; it ~ed us that

they came

astounded

adj. 1. ~ at, by (~ at the news)

2. ~ to + inf. (everyone was ~ to learn of her exploits)

3. ~ that + clause (I was ~ that the mayor had taken bribes)

astounding

adj. 1. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ to watch)

2. ~ that + clause (it was ~ that an experienced engineer had

made such a miscalculation)

astray

adv. 1. to lead smb. ~

2. to go ~

astride

adv. (formal) to sit ~ (to sit ~ smb.'s knee)

astute

adj. (formal) ~ at (~ at conducting negotiations)

asunder

adv. (formal) to rend, tear ~

asylum

n. 1. to grant ~ to

2. to receive; seek ~

3. to deny smb. ~

4. political ~ (they were granted political ~)

athlete

n. an all-around (AE), all-round; amateur; professional;

weekend; world-class ~

athletics

n. 1. (esp. BE) to go in for ~

2. intercollegiate ~

atlas

n. a dialect, linguistic; geographical ~

atmosphere

n. 1. a formal; friendly; informal, relaxed; stifling,

stultifying; tense ~

2. a polluted; rarified ~

3. the upper ~

atom

n. to split the ~

atone

v. (D; intr.) to ~ for (to ~ for one's sins)

atonement

n. to make ~ for

atrocity

n. 1. to commit an ~

2. a dreadful, grisly, gruesome, horrible, horrid, monstrous,

revolting, vile ~; death-camp ~ties

attach

v. 1. (d; refl.) ('to join') to ~ to (she ~ed herself to our

group)

2. (D; tr.) ('to fasten') to ~ to (she ~ed an aerial/antenna to

the radio; a tag was ~ed to each article)

3. (d; tr.) ('to assign temporarily') to ~ to (the officer was

~ed to headquarters)

4. (d; tr.) ('to ascribe') to ~ to (we ~ed no significance to

her statement)

attache

n. an air-force; commercial; cultural; military; naval; press ~

attached

adj. 1. deeply, strongly ~

2. ~ to

attachment

n. 1. to feel; form an ~

2. a close; lasting; sentimental; strong ~

3. an ~ to (to form a lasting ~ to smb.)

attack

I n. ['assault'] (also fig.) 1. to carry out, make; launch,

mount; lead, spearhead; press an ~

2. to provoke an ~

3. to blunt; break up, repel, repulse an ~

4. (often mil.) an all-out, concerted, full-scale; coordinated;

mock; pre-emptive; sneak, surprise ~

5. (usu. mil.) an air; enemy; flank; frontal; torpedo ~

6. a bitter, blistering, savage, scathing, sharp, violent;

scurrilous, vicious; unprovoked; wanton ~

7. an ~ fails, fizzles out; succeeds

8. an ~ against, on (our forces launched an all-out ~ against

the enemy; he made a blistering ~ on his opponent)

9. under ~ ['onset of an ailment']

10. to have an ~ (she had an ~ of hiccups)

11. an acute; light, slight; recurrent; sudden ~

12. a fatal; heart ~

II v. to ~ viciously

attempt

I n. 1. to make an ~

2. to foil, thwart an ~

3. an abortive, fruitless, futile, vain; all-out, concerted,

last-ditch; bold, brazen, daring; crude; deliberate; feeble,

halfhearted, weak; first; premature; successful ~; repeated ~s

4. an ~ against, on (an ~ on smb.'s life)

5. an ~ at (an ~ at being funny)

6. an ~ to + inf. (we made an ~ to get in touch with them)

II v. 1. (E) she ~ed to find a job

2. (rare) (G) he ~ed walking

3. (misc.) to ~ smt. in vain

attend

v. (d; intr.) to ~ to (to ~ to one's duties; to ~ to a customer)

attendance

n. ['persons present'] ['number of persons present'] 1. to

check ~; to take ~ (in school)

2. average; daily; low, poor; perfect ~

3. ~ has gone up; ~ has fallen, gone down ['presence']

4. ~ at (~ at a ceremony)

5. in ~ (a nurse was in ~) ['misc.']

6. to dance ~ on smb. ('to fawn over smb.')

attendant

n. 1. a flight; wedding ~

2. an ~ to

attention

n. ['concentration'] ['notice'] 1. to attract, capture,

catch, command, draw, get; hold, retain, rivet smb.'s ~

2. to devote one's ~ to; to focus one's ~ on; to pay ~ to

3. to bring smt. to smb.'s ~

4. to distract, divert smb.'s ~

5. to escape one's ~

6. close; meticulous; rapt; undivided ~ (this matter will

require your undivided ~)

7. ~ to (meticulous ~ to detail) ['position of attention']

(usu. mil.)

8. to call smb. to ~ (the sergeant called his platoon to ~); to

come to, snap to ~; to stand at ~; or: to stand at the position

of ~; or: (BE) to stand to ~ ['care']

9. to give ~ to; to lavish ~ on

10. medical ~ (to receive medical ~)

11. individual; personal ~ (the manager gave me her personal ~;

I lavished my individual ~ on him)

attentive

adj. ~ to (~ to our needs)

attest

v. (formal) (d; intr.) to ~ to (several witnesses can ~ to her

good character)

attire

n. 1. casual; civilian; formal ~

2. in ~ (in formal ~)

attitude

n. 1. to assume, strike, take an ~

2. a belligerent, defiant, surly; casual; cavalier;

condescending, patronizing; hands-off; holier-than-thou;

irreverent; liberal; negative; positive; reverent; scornful ~

3. an ~ about; of; to, towards (to assume an ~ of defiance

towards all authority)

4. an ~ that + clause (I didn't like his ~ that he deserves

special treatment)

attorney

n. (esp. AE) 1. to hire, retain an ~

2. a defense; district (AE; BE has public prosecutor);

prosecuting ~

3. an attorney-at-law

4. (CE) an ~ general

5. (CE) a power of ~

attract

v. (D;tr.) to ~ to (a crowd was ~ed to the scene of the

accident)

attracted

adj. ~ to (he was ~ to her)

attraction

n. ['charm'] 1. to feel an ~ to

2. an irresistible, strong; sexual ~ (she felt a strong ~ to

him) ['something that attracts']

3. a box-office; public; scenic; tourist ~

attractive

adj. 1. physically; sexually ~

2. ~ to (the offer is very ~ to us)

attributable

adj. ~ to (the fire was ~ to carelessness)

attribute

v. (d; tr.) to ~ to (we ~ this saying to Shakespeare; they ~d

their success to hard work)

attrition

n. 1. a rate of ~

2. by ~ (the staff will be reduced by ~)

attune

v. (D; refl., tr.) to ~ to (you will have to ~ your ears to this

type of music)

atypical

adj. ~ of (such behavior was ~ of him)

auction

n. 1. to hold an ~

2. an ~ takes place

3. to put smt. up for ~

4. a public ~

5. at (an) ~; by ~ (we bought these items at an ~; they sold

their house by ~)

audacious

adj. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ of her to try that)

audacity

n. 1. to demonstrate, show ~

2. sheer ~

3. the ~ to + inf. (he had the ~ to ask for an increase in

salary)

audience

n. ['interview'] 1. to give, grant an ~

2. to receive; seek an ~ with

3. at an ~ ['group of spectators']

4. to attract, draw an ~

5. to electrify, grip, move, stir, sway an ~

6. an appreciative, enthusiastic, responsive; cold, passive,

unresponsive; sympathetic; unsympathetic ~

7. a capacity; captive; live; mass; select, standing-room-only;

studio ~

audit

n. 1. to carry out, conduct an ~

2. a tax ~

audition

I n. 1. to give smb. an ~

2. to hold ~s

II v. l.(D; intr., tr.) to ~ for (he ~ed for the role of the

butler; they ~ed her for a part in the school play)

2. (E) she ~ed to play Juliet

auditorium

n. 1. a main ~

2. in an ~

augur

v. (D; intr.; P) to ~ for (this ~s well for the future)

aura

n. a glittering ~

auspices

n. under the ~ of smt. (under the ~ of the mayor's office)

austerity

n. 1. to practice ~

2. strict; wartime ~

authenticate

v. (D; tr.) to ~ as (the painting was ~ed as genuine)

authenticity

n. 1. to establish, prove; vouch for the ~ of smt.

2. to doubt, question the ~ of smt.

author

n. an anonymous; beginning; classic; contemporary; established,

famous, noted, recognized, well-known; prolific; rising;

talented; young ~

authorities

n. ['governmental officials'] civil, civilian; government;

local; military; occupation ~

authority

n. ['control'] ['power'] 1. to assume; delegate;

demonstrate, show; establish; exercise, wield; invoke ~

2. to defy; deny, reject; undermine ~

3. absolute, complete, full, supreme, unquestioned; parental ~

4. ~ for; over (he assumed ~ for overseas operations; a

commanding officer has complete ~ over her personnel)

5. in ~ (who was in ~?)

6. of ~ (a man, woman of ~)

7. under smb.'s ~ (these employees are under my ~) ['legal

power'] ['authorization']

8. to abuse, overstep one's ~

9. legal; ministerial; presidential; reviewing (mil.); royal ~

10. by, on smb.'s ~ (by whose ~ were these funds spent? she did

it on her own ~)

11. the ~ to + inf. (the police had the ~ to conduct a search)

['expert'] ['source']

12. to cite, invoke an ~

13. a competent, reliable; indisputable, irrefutable,

unimpeachable, unquestioned; leading, respected ~; the greatest

living ~

14. an ~ on (an outstanding ~ on shipbuilding)

15. on ~ (on good ~; on the highest ~)

authorization

n. 1. to give, grant ~

2. to receive ~

3. to revoke smb.'s ~

4. official ~

5. ~ for

6. (the) ~ to + inf. (we received ~ to begin demolition)

authorize

v. 1. (H) the director ~d us to work in the laboratory

2. (K) she ~d his entering the vault

authorized

adj. 1. (usu. does not stand alone) ~ to + inf. (we are not ~ to

enter the restricted area)

authorship

n. to establish ~ (to establish the ~ of an ancient manuscript)

automatic

adj. fully ~

automatic pilot

n. to engage; disengage the ~

automobile

n. (AE) to drive, operate; park an ~ (see car 1-9)

autonomy

n. 1. to grant ~

2. to seek ~

autopsy

n. to do, perform an ~ on

autumn

n. (esp. BE) in (the) ~

auxiliary

n. 1. (grammar) a modal ~

2. (BE) a nursing ~

avail

I n. (formal) ['aid'] 1. of little ~

2. to no ~

II v. (formal) 1. intr. ('to help') to ~ against (nothing could

~ against the enemy attack)

2. (d; refl.) ('to make use') to ~ of (she ~ed herself of the

offer)

available

adj. 1. easily, readily ~

2. to make oneself ~; to make smt. ~

3. ~ to (the information is ~ to anyone)

4. ~ for (are you ~ for a meeting tomorrow?)

5. ~ to + inf. (is there anyone ~ to replace her?)

avenge

v. (D; refl.) to ~ on, upon (to ~ oneself on an enemy)

avenue

n. ['opportunity'] 1. to explore every ~

2. an ~ to (an ~ to success) ['street']

3. in (BE), on (AE) an ~

aver

v. (formal) (L) he ~red that he was innocent

average

n. 1. to calculate, work out an ~

2. (misc.) above ~; below ~; on the ~ she works seven hours a

day; (AE) he finished school with a B ~

average out

v. (d; intr.) to ~ at, to (snowfall ~s out in this part of the

country at/to twenty inches a year)

averse

adj. (formal) ~ to (I would not be ~ to taking a drink)

aversion

n. (formal) 1. to have; take an ~ to

2. a deep, deep-rooted, distinct, marked; pet ~

3. an ~ to (an ~ to animals)

avert

v. (formal) (D; tr.) to ~ from (he ~ed his eyes from the scene

of the accident)

aviation

n. civil; military ~

avid

adj. (formal) (usu. does not stand alone) ~ for (~ for fame)

avoid

v. 1. to ~ studiously

2. (G) she managed to ~ being punished

avow

v. (formal) (M or N; used with a noun) he ~ed himself (to be) a

socialist

avowal

n. 1. to make an ~

2. an ~ that + clause (she made a solemn ~ that she would never

reveal the secret)

awake

I adj. 1. wide ~

2. ~ to (~ to the danger of inflation)

II v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ from (she awoke from a deep sleep)

2. (d; intr.) to ~ to (I awoke to bright sunlight)

3. (E) they awoke to find the house in flames

awaken

v. l. see awake II

2. (formal and rare) (d; tr.) to ~ to (to ~ smb. to a sense of

duty)

awakening

n. a rude, sudden ~

award

I n. 1. to grant, make, present an ~

2. to receive an ~

3. an ~ for

II v. 1. (A) the judges ~ed the prize to her; or: the judges ~ed

her the prize

2. (D; tr.) to ~ for (to ~ a prize for research)

aware

adj. 1. keenly, painfully, very much ~

2. (cannot stand alone) ~ of (they were ~ of the difficulties)

3. ~ that + clause (he was ~ that the deadline had passed)

awareness

n. ~ that + clause (there is a general ~ that smoking is

harmful)

away

adv. ~ from (he is ~ from home)

awe

I n. 1. to inspire ~ in (he inspired ~ in everyone)

2. to hold smb. in ~

3. in ~ of (to stand in ~ of smb.)

II v. (D; tr.) to ~ into (to ~ smb. into silence)

awful

adj. (colloq.) 1. ~ about (I feel ~ about it)

2. ~ for (the situation is ~ for all of us)

3. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ to work there = it was ~ working

there)

4. ~ that + clause (it's ~ that they were reprimanded because

of my mistake)

awkward

adj. 1. ~ with (he is ~ with children)

2. (BE) ~ for (Monday is ~ for me)

3. ~ to + inf. (it is ~ to discuss such matters in public = it

is ~ discussing such matters in public)

AWOL

adj. to go ~

awry

adj., adv. to go ~ (our plans have gone ~)

ax, axe

n. 1. to swing, wield an ~

2. (misc.) to have an ~ to grind ('to seek personal advantage')

axiom

n. 1. to lay down an ~

2. an ~ that + clause (we accept the ~ that a straight line is

the shortest distance between two points)

axis

n. on an ~ (to rotate on an ~)

babble

I n. childish; confused; incessant ~

II v. 1. to ~ ceaselessly, incessantly

2. (B) he ~d a few words to her

3. (D; intr.) to ~ about

babe

n. a ~ in the woods ('a naive person')

babel

n. 1. above the ~ (his voice was heard above the ~)

2. a ~ of tongues

baboon

n. a troop of ~s

baby

n. 1. (of a woman) to have a ~

2. (of a woman) to carry a ~ (a pregnant woman carries a ~ for

nine months; to carry a ~ to term)

3. (of a mother) to nurse a ~

4. (of a midwife, nurse, doctor) to deliver a ~

5. (of a clergyman) to baptize a ~

6. to change a ~ ('to change the baby's diaper/ nappy')

7. to calm, comfort, hush a ~

8. to lull; put; rock a ~ to sleep

9. to diaper (AE); swaddle a ~

10. to wean a ~

11. to bubble (AE), burp a ~

12. a blue; full-term; newborn; premature; stillborn; test-

tube; thalidomide ~

13. a ~ babbles, coos; bawls; burps; crawls, creeps; cries;

drools; teethes; throws up; toddles; whimpers

baby carriage

n. (AE) to push, wheel a ~ (BE has pram)

baby-sit

v. (D; intr.) to ~ for (who ~s for you?)

bachelor

n. a confirmed; eligible ~

back

I adj., adv. 1. ~ to (things are ~ to normal)

2. way ~ (~ back in the eighteenth century)

3. (misc.) to go ~ on one's promise/word ('to fail to keep

one's promise')

II n. ['part of the body opposite to the front'] 1. to turn

one's ~ to smb.; (usu. fig.) to turn one's ~ on smb.

2. to arch one's ~ (the cat arched its ~)

3. a broad ~

4. on one's, smb.'s ~ (to lie on one's ~; a heavy bag was on

his ~)

5. to stand ~ to ~; they stood with their ~s to the door

['rear part']

6. at, in the ~ (of) (a room at the ~ of the house; we sat in

the back of the car)

7. from the ~ ['area behind smt. ']

8. at the, in (AE) ~ of (BE: a garden at the ~ of the house =

AE: a yard in ~ of the house) ['misc.']

9. he did it behind my ~ ('he did it without my knowledge'); in

the ~ of one's mind ('subconsciously'); to break one's ~ ('to

work very hard'); to get one's ~ up ('to balk at smt.'); get off

my ~ (colloq.) ('leave me alone'); if you scratch my ~, I'll

scratch yours (colloq.) ('if you help me, I'll help you'); in ~

of (AE) ('behind'); to have one's ~ to the wall ('to be in a

desperate position'); to break the ~ of a job ('to do most of a

job'); to put some ~ into one's work ('to make a maximum

physical effort'); who will sit in ~?

III v. 1. (D; tr.) ('to support') to ~ against (the independents

will ~ us against the majority party)

2. (D; tr.) to ~ for (we will ~ her for public office)

3. (d; intr., tr.) ('to move') to ~ into (to ~ into a garage;

she ~ed the car into the driveway)

4. (d; intr., tr.) to ~ out of (he ~ed out of the driveway; to

~ a car out of a garage)

5. (D; intr.) ('to withdraw') to ~ out of (they ~ed out of the

deal)

backache

n. 1. to have ~ (BE)/ a ~ (AE)

2. (a) chronic, nagging, persistent ~

back away

v. (D; intr.) to ~ from

backbone

n. ['courage'] the ~ to + inf. (will he have the ~ to tell the

truth?)

backdate

v. (D; tr.) to ~ to (to ~ an agreement to the beginning of the

year)

backdown

v. (D; intr.) to ~ from (they had to ~ from their demands)

backdrop

n. 1. to provide a ~ for

2. against a ~ of

backer

n. a financial ~

back formation

n. (ling. )a~ from (to burgle is a ~ from burglar)

background

n. ['one's experience, past'] 1. to check smb.'s ~

2. a broad; narrow; rich; specialized ~

3. one's academic, educational; cultural; religious ~

4. a ~ for (to have the right ~ for a job) ['rear part of a

picture, scene']

5. against, on a ~ (against a dark ~) ['surroundings']

6. an appropriate, fitting ~

7. a ~ to (the music served as a ~ to the recitation of poetry)

['a less important position']

8. to relegate smb. to the ~

9. in the ~ (to remain in the ~) ['history, past']

10. an historical ~

11. a ~ to (do you know the ~ to this case?)

backing

n. 1. financial ~

2. ~ for (financial ~ for a project)

backlog

n. 1. to accumulate, build up a ~

2. to reduce a ~

back off

v. (D; intr.) to ~ from (to ~ from one's demands)

backseat

n. to take a ~ to smb. (she will not take a ~ to anyone)

backstroke

n. to do, swim the ~

backup

n. ['substitute'] a ~ for, to

back up

v. (D; intr.) to ~ to (he ~ed up to the loading platform)

backwater

n. a cultural ~

bacon

n. 1. crisp; lean; smoked; streaky (BE) ~

2. a rasher of ~

3. (misc.) to bring home the ~ ('to succeed')

bacteria

n. non-pathogenic; pathogenic; virulent

bad

I adj. 1. ~ for (smoking is ~ for your health)

2. ~ to + inf. (it's ~ to lie)

3. ~ that + clause (it's too ~ that he was not able to attend

the meeting)

4. (misc.) not ~ ('quite good'); not half ~ ('fairly good');

that's (just) too ~ ('nothing can be done about that')

II n. 1. (colloq.) to be in ~ with smb. ('to be on bad terms

with smb.')

2. to go from ~ to worse

bad form

n. (esp. BE) ~ to + inf. (it's ~ to be late)

badger

v. 1. (D; tr.) to ~ into (they ~ed me into buying a new car)

2. (D; tr.) to ~ with (to ~ smb. with questions)

baffle

v. 1. to ~ completely

2. (R) it ~d me that they rejected our offer

bag

n. ['suitcase'] 1. to pack, unpack one's ~s

2. to check one's ~s ['container'] ['pouch']

3. an air ~ (that inflates within a car on impact)

4. a barracks; carrier (BE), shopping; duffel, kit (BE);

flight; garment; ice; jiffy ('padded bag used for mailing');

musette (AE); overnight; paper; plastic; sleeping ~

5. (BE) a sponge ~ ('bag for toilet articles')

6. (AE) a doggy ~ ('bag for leftover food given to a diner in a

restaurant')

7. (AE) a grab ~ (BE has lucky dip)

8. a tea ~ ['leather ball']

9. (AE) a punching ~ (BE has punching ball) ['misc.']

10. in the ~ ('assured of success')

baggage

n. 1. (esp. AE) to check; claim one's ~

2. excess ~

bagpipes

n. 1. to play the ~

2. ~ wail

bail

I n. 1. to grant, set ~

2. to post, put up, stand ~ for; (colloq.) to go ~ for

3. to make, raise ~

4. to deny smb. ~

5. to forfeit, jump, skip ~

6. on ~ (to release smb. on ~; to be set free on a thousand

dollars ~)

II v. l. (AE) (d; intr.) ('to parachute') to ~ out of (to ~ out

of an airplane)

2. (d; tr.) ('to remove') to ~ out of (~ water out of a boat)

3. (d; tr.) ('to help') to ~ out of (to ~ smb. out of trouble)

bailiwick

n. in one's own ~

bait

n. 1. to hold out, offer; put out, set out ~

2. to nibble at; swallow, take the ~

3. to rise to the ~

4. tempting ~

bake

v. (C) he ~d a cake for us; or: he ~d us a cake

bakery

n. at, in a ~ (she works at/in a ~)

balance

I n. 1. to strike a ~ between

2. to keep; recover one's ~

3. to lose one's ~

4. to disturb, upset the ~; to throw smt. off ~

5. a delicate ~

6. (bookkeeping) a trial ~

7. a bank; credit; debit; foreign-trade, trade ~

8. a favorable; unfavorable ~ (a favorable trade ~)

9. the strategic ~

10. (misc.) to hang in the ~ ('to be uncertain'); on ~ ('all in

all')

II v. (d; tr.) to ~ against (to ~ one argument against the

other)

balance of power

n. to hold the ~

bale (BE)

see bail III

balk

v. (D; intr.) to ~ at (he ~ed at the price)

Balkans

n. in the ~

ball

I n. ['game'] 1. to play ~ ['round object used in a sport']

2. to bat; bounce; catch; drop; fumble; hit; kick; throw a ~

3. a ~ bounces

4. the ~ is dead ('the ball does not bounce')

5. a cue; medicine ~

6. (BE) a punching ~ (AE has punching bag)

7. a baseball; basketball; football; golf; tennis ~; volleyball

['round mass']

8. a cotton ~

9. in a ~ (to curl up in a ~) ['glass object used in fortune

telling']

10. a crystal ~ ['misc.']

11. to start the ~ rolling ('to begin an activity'); (colloq.)

on the ~ ('efficient'); (AE) to play ~ with ('to cooperate

with')

II n. ['formal dance'] 1. to have, organize a ~

2. a costume; fancy-dress; inaugural; masked ~

3. at a ~ (to dance at a ~)

4. (misc.) (esp. AE; colloq.) to have a ~ ('to enjoy oneself)

ballad

n. a folk; lewd, ribald ~

ballast

n. 1. to take on ~

2. to drop ~

ballet

n. 1. to dance, perform; stage a ~

2. classical; folk ~; (a) water ~

balloon

n. 1. to fly; launch a ~

2. to blow up, inflate; deflate a ~

3. a ~ bursts

4. a barrage; observation ~

5. (fig.) a trial ~ (to send up a trial~)

ballot

n. 1. to cast a ~

2. to invalidate a ~

3. an absentee; open; secret; straw; void ~

4. a ~ against; for

5. by ~ (to vote by secret ~)

ballot box

n. to stuff the ~es

balm

n. 1. to apply a ~

2. a healing, soothing ~

bamboozle

v. (colloq.) ('to trick') 1. (D; tr.) to ~ into

2. to ~ out of

ban

I n. 1. to impose, place put a ~ on

2. to lift a ~ from

3. a test ~

4. a wartime ~

5. a ~ on

II v. 1. (D; tr.) to ~ from (they were ~ned from attending)

2. (K) the police ~ned their demonstrating in the park

banana

n. 1. to peel a ~

2. a green; ripe; rotten ~

band

I n. ['orchestra'] 1. to form a ~

2. a brass; concert; dance; jazz; marching; military;

regimental; school; string ~

3. a big ~

4. a ~ marches; performs, plays

5. (misc.) to strike up the ~ ['group']

6. a predatory; roving ~

7. a ~ of marauders

II n. ['ring'] 1. a wedding ~ ['range of wavelengths']

2. a wave ~

3. a citizens ~ (or: CB) ['circular strip']

4. a brake; rubber ~

bandage

n. 1. to apply, put on a ~

2. to roll a ~

3. to remove a ~

4. to loosen; tighten a ~

Band-Aid

(T) n. (esp. AE) to apply, put on a ~

bandit

n. a masked ~

band together

v. (D; intr., refl.) to ~ against (the liberals ~ed together

against the new legislation)

bandwagon

n. ['attractive cause'] to climb on, jump on the ~

bandy

v. (D; tr.) to ~ with (to ~ words with smb.)

bang

I n. with a ~ (the door slammed with a ~)

II v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ against; into; on (she ~ed on the door;

I ~ed into the wall)

2. (D; tr.) to ~ against, on (he ~ed his head on the low

ceiling)

bang away

v. (colloq.) (D; intr.) ('to shoot') to ~ at (we ~ed away at the

enemy plane)

banish

v. (D;tr.) to ~ from; to (she was ~ ed from the country)

banjo

n. to play; strum a ~

bank

I n. ['financial establishment'] 1. to charter; establish a ~

2. a central; commercial; credit; drive-in; land; national,

people's, state; merchant (BE); reserve; savings ~

3. a ~ closes, collapses, fails

4. at, in a ~ (she works at/in a ~) ['fund held in a gambling

game']

5. to break the ~ ['place of storage']

6. a blood; corneal, eye; data; organ; soil; sperm ~

7. a citation ~ (for dictionaries)

II v. (d; intr.) to-on ('to rely on') (we were ~ing on your

support)

III n. ['shore'] 1. a rugged; sloping; steep ~ 2, a river ~

3. on a ~

IV n. ['row'} ['tier'] an elevator (AE) ~

banker

n. an international; investment; merchant (BE) ~

banking

n. electronic; international ~

bankrupt

adj. to go ~

bankruptcy

n. to declare, go into, file for, petition for ~

banner

n. 1. to plant; unfurl a ~

2. a ~ flutters, waves

3. a regimental ~

4. (fig.) under a ~

banns

n. ['declaration of an impending marriage'] to publish the ~

banquet

n. 1. to arrange, give, hold a ~

2. to cater a ~

3. an elaborate, lavish, sumptuous ~

4. a farewell; formal; state ~

5. a ~ for

6. at a ~

banter

n. 1. to exchange ~ with

2. good-natured, light; witty ~

baptism

n. 1. to administer ~

2. to accept, receive, undergo ~

3. (misc.) the ~ of fire

baptize

v. (N; used with a noun) they ~d him Joseph

bar I

n. ['counter or place where drinks are sold'] 1. to manage,

operate, run a ~

2. to stop at a ~ (on the way home); to drink at the ~; to drop

into a ~

3. a cash (AE); cocktail; coffee (BE); gay; open ('free');

public (BE); salad; saloon (BE); singles ~ ['barrier']

4. the color ~

5. a ~ to (a ~ to success) ['barrier in a law court']

6. at the ~ (the prisoner at the ~; to be tried at the ~)

7. before the ~ (of justice) ['the profession of barrister,

trial lawyer'] (esp. BE)

8. to be admitted, called to the ~

9. to read for the ~ ['metal strip used as a barrier']

10. behind ~s ('in prison') (he was put behind ~s) ['strip

used in gymnastics']

11. a horizontal ~

12. parallel ~s

13. on the ~ (to work out on the ~) ['handrail used by ballet

dancers']

14. at the ~ (to warm up at the ~) ['metal strip used in a

suspension system']

15. a torsion ~ ['lever on a typewriter']

16. a space ~ ['oblong piece']

17. a candy; chocolate ~ ['musical measure']

18. to hum; play; sing a few ~s

II v. 1. (D; tr.) ('to exclude') to ~ from (he was ~red from the

competition)

2. (K) ('to forbid') they ~red his participating

barb

n. ['critical remark'] to sling ~s at

barbarism, barbarity

n. 1. to demonstrate, display ~

2. outright, unmitigated, utter ~

barbarous

adj. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ to treat prisoners in that manner)

barbecue

I n. ['party at which barbecued meat is served'] 1. to have a

~

2. at a ~

II v. (C) she ~d a steak for me; or: she ~d me a steak

barbed wire, barbwire

n. to string ~

barbell

n. 1. to clean; lift; press a ~

2. an adjustable ~

barber

n. at the ~'s

barbershop

n. (esp. AE) at, in a ~ (he is at/in the ~)

bare

adj. 1.~ of (the hills were ~ of vegetation)

2. (misc.) to lay smt. ~

bargain

I n. ['agreement'] 1. to drive; make, strike; seal a ~

2. to meet one's end of a ~

3. a hard ~ (she drives a hard ~)

4. a ~ with (we struck a ~ with them)

5. a ~ to + inf. (they made a ~ not to cut prices)

['advantageous purchase']

6. to find, get a ~

7. to shop for ~s

8. a good, real ~ ['misc.']

9. to make the best of a bad ~ ('to do one's best in a

difficult situation')

II v. 1. ('to negotiate') to ~ shrewdly

2. (D; intr.) ('to negotiate') to ~ for; over; with (we ~ed

with them for the property)

3. (d; intr.) to ~ for (BE), on (AE) ('to count on') (I wasn't

~ing on any trouble)

bargaining

n. collective; plea ~

barge

I n. 1. to drive; float; tow a ~

2. to load; unload a ~

II v. (d; intr.) to ~ into (she ~d into the room)

barge in

v. (D; intr.) to ~ on (to ~ on a conversation)

baritone

n. to sing ~

bark

I n. ['covering of a tree'] ~ peels

II n. ['the sound made by a dog'] a furious; loud, noisy ~

III v. 1. to ~ furiously

2. (B) the sergeant ~ed an order to his squad

3. (D; intr.) to ~ at (the dog ~ed at the jogger)

barn

n. a car ~ (AE; BE has waggon shed)

barnacles

n. ~ cling (to the bottom of a ship)

barometer

n. 1. an aneroid; mercurial ~

2. a ~ is steady; falls; rises

baron

n. ['magnate'] a cattle; coal; oil; robber; steel ~

barracks

n. 1. (AE) to GI the ~

2. (AE) to police (up) the ~

3. disciplinary ~

4. restricted to ~

barrage

n. 1. to lay down a ~

2. to lift a ~

3. a rolling ~

4. an advertising; propaganda ~

barrel

n. 1. to tap a ~

2. (misc.) (colloq.) to have smb. over a ~ ('to have placed

smb. in a difficult position')

barricade

n. 1. to place, set up a ~

2. to man the ~s

3. to remove, take down a ~

4. a barbed-wire ~

5. a ~ against

barrier

n. 1. to erect, place, set up a ~

2. to overcome, take a ~ (the horse took the ~ easily)

3. to break down; remove a ~

4. the sonic, sound ~ (to break the sound ~)

5. a crush (BE), police ~

6. a cultural; language; racial ~ (to break a racial ~)

7. a ~ between

8. a ~ to (a ~ to progress)

barrow

n. to push a ~

barter

I n. 1. to engage in ~

2. ~ between; for; with

II v. 1. (D; intr., tr.) to ~ for (to ~ furs for tobacco)

2. (D; intr.) to ~ with

base

I n. ['center of operations'] 1. to establish, set up a ~

2. an advanced, forward; main ~

3. an air, air-force; army; military; missile; naval ~

4. (misc.) a power ~; a ~ of operations ['goal'] (AE)

(baseball)

5. to reach; touch a ~

6. to steal a ~

7. (misc.) (slang) she couldn't get to first ~ with them ('she

couldn't even begin to achieve any success with them')

['collection']

8. a data ~ ['basic ingredient']

9. an oil ~

II v. (d; tr.) to ~ on, upon (we ~d our conclusions on facts)

baseball

n. ['game'] 1. to play ~

2. night ~ ['ball']

3. to pitch a ~

basement

n. 1. (AE) a finished; full ~

2. (esp. AE) a bargain ~ (in a department store)

bash

I n. (slang) (BE) ['attempt'] to have a ~ at smt.

II v. (D; tr.) to ~ against (he ~ed his head against the door)

bashful

adj. ~ with

basic

adj.. ~ to

basic training

n. (mil.) to go through, take ~

basin

n. 1. a river; tidal ~

2. a handbasin (BE), washbasin, wash-hand (BE) ~

basis

n. 1. to form, provide a ~ for

2. a firm, solid, sound; first-name; scientific; shaky ~

3. on a ~ (on a solid ~; she was promoted on the ~ of her

accomplishments; to be paid on an hourly ~; to be on a first-

name ~)

bask

v. to ~ in (to ~ in the sunshine; to ~ in the adulation of one's

followers)

basket

n. ['receptacle'] 1. to make, weave a ~

2. a laundry, linen (BE); picnic; wastepaper; wicker ~ ['goal

in basketball']

3. to make, score, sink a ~

4. to shoot at the ~

5. to miss the ~

basketball

n. ['game'] 1. to play ~ ['ball used in the game of

basketball']

2. to dribble; pass a ~

bass

n. 1. to sing ~

2. a deep ~

bat

I n. ['club'] 1. to swing a ~

2. a baseball; cricket ~ ['one's turn batting']

3. (AE) at ~ (who's at ~?) ['misc.']

4. (colloq.) (BE) at full ~ ('very fast')

II n. ['flying mammal'] 1. ~s fly at night

2. (misc.) as blind as a ~

batch

n. a fresh ~ (of dough)

bath

n. 1. to have (BE), take a ~

2. to draw, run a ~

3. (BE) a swimming ~

4. a sitz; steam, Turkish; whirlpool ~

5. (misc.) a blood ~ ('slaughter') USAGE NOTE: In BE, one

meaning of bath is 'bathtub'.

bathed

adj. ~ in (~ in sunshine)

bather

n. a sun ~

bathing

n. sun ~

bathing suit

n. (esp. AE) a one-piece; two-piece ~

bathroom

see the Usage Note for room

baton

n. 1. (in a relay race) to pass the ~

2. (of a drum major) to twirl a ~

3. (of an orchestra leader) to raise a ~

battalion

n. to command a ~ (a major commands a ~)

batter

I n. ['mixture for baking'] to mix up; pour; stir (a) ~

II v. (D; tr.) to ~ to (to ~ smt. to pieces)

III n. ['one whose turn it is to bat'] (baseball) a leadoff ~

battery

n. ['a group of cells that store and furnish current'] 1. to

charge; recharge a ~

2. to discharge, run down a ~

3. a flashlight (AE), torch (BE); storage ~

4. a ~ charges (itself)

5. a ~ discharges, runs (itself) down

6. a ~ is dead, flat (BE) ['artillery unit']

7. to command a ~ (a captain commands a ~)

8. a missile ~

battle

I n. 1. to do, give, join ~

2. to fight, wage; lose; win a ~

3. to break off, terminate a ~

4. a bloody; decisive; fierce, pitched, raging; losing; running

~

5. a naval ~

6. a ~ royal

7. a ~ rages

8. a ~ against; among, between; for, over; with (they fought a

~ among themselves for domination of the market; the ~ against

inflation; to join ~ with smb.; a ~ between two strong

adversaries)

9. a ~ to + inf. (it was a real ~ to win the election)

10. at a ~ (at the ~ of Gettysburg)

11. in ~ (to be killed in ~)

II v. (D; intr.) to ~ against, with; for, over

battlefield

n. on the ~ (to die on the ~)

battleship

n. a pocket ~

battle station

n. to take up one's ~

batty

adj. (slang) ['mad'] to go ~ over

baulk

(esp. BE) see balk

bay

I n. 1. to hold, keep at ~

2. to bring to ~

II v. (D; intr.) to ~ at (the hounds were ~ing at the fox)

bayonet

n. 1. to thrust a ~ into (smb.'s body)

2. to fix; unfix ~s

bazaar

n. 1. a charity ~

2. at a ~

bazooka

n. to fire; operate a ~

be

v. l.(E; usu. in the past) he was never to see his family again;

she was to become famous

2. (S) to ~ a teacher; to ~ happy

beach

n. 1. an isolated; private; public; sandy ~

2. at, on the ~

beachhead

n. to establish; hold; secure a ~

beacon

n. 1. a homing; landing; radar; radio; rotating ~

2. (BE) a Belisha ~ ('a light marking a pedestrian crossing')

3. a ~ to (to serve as a ~ to others)

bead

n. ['front sight'] to draw a ~ on

beads

n. 1. (rel.) to say, count one's ~

2. to string ~

3. (rel.) prayer ~

4. a string of ~

beam

I n. ['shaft of light'] 1. to direct, shine a ~ at

2. a high; low ~ (on a car)

3. a ~ from; to ['signal']

4. a radar; radio ~

5. (also fig.) off the ~; on the ~ ['piece of wood']

6. a balance ~

II v. 1. (B) they ~ed the program to the countries of Central

America

2. (AE) (d; tr.) to ~ at (the sales campaign was ~ed at young

professionals)

3. (D; intr.) to ~ with (to ~ with joy)

bean

n. 1. broad; French (BE), haricot (BE), kidney; lima; navy;

pinto; runner (BE), string; wax ~s

2. baked ~s

3. (misc.) to spill the ~s (slang) ('to reveal a secret'); to

use the old ~ (slang) ('to use one's head'); full of ~s (slang)

('mistaken') (AE); ('full of energy') (BE)

bear

I n. 1. the black; brown; grizzly; Kodiak; polar ~

2. a teddy ~

3. ~s hibernate

II v. 1. (formal) (A; the omission of to is rare) ('to carry')

the servants were ~ing food to the guests

2. (A; used without to) ('to give birth to') she bore him two

children

3. (d; intr.) ('to pertain') to ~ on (these facts ~ on the

case)

4. (d; intr.) ('to move') to ~ to (we had to ~ to the right)

5. (d; intr.) ('to have patience') to ~ with (please ~ with me

for a few minutes)

6. (E; preceded by: can -- cannot -- can't) ('to stand,

tolerate') she can't ~ to watch them suffer

7. (G; often used with: can -- cannot -- can't) ('to stand,

tolerate') he can't ~ being alone; her words ~ repeating

8. (K) ('to stand, tolerate') I cannot ~ his behaving in that

manner

9. (0; can be used with one inanimate object) ('to feel') she

~s them a grudge; he ~s (us) no ill will

10. (P; refl.) ('to behave') she bore herself with dignity

11. (misc.) to bring to ~ on (she brought her influence to ~ on

the legislators)

beard

n. 1. to grow a ~

2. to shave off; trim one's ~

3. to stroke one's ~

4. a bushy, heavy, rough, thick; light, sparse; neat, trim ~

bear down

v. (d; intr.) to ~ on (our destroyers bore down on the enemy

carrier)

bearing

n. ['relation'] 1. to have a ~ on (that fact has no ~ on the

case)

2. a direct ~ ['position']

3. to take a ~ on (we took a ~ on the hill) ['carriage']

['manner']

4. a dignified; military; regal, royal ~ ['machine part that

supports']

5. to burn out a ~

6. a ball; roller ~ ['charge on a coat of arms']

7. a heraldic ~ bearings n. ['orientation'] 1. to get one's ~

2. to lose one's ~

bear up

v. (D; intr.) to ~ against, under (to ~ under pressure)

beast

n. ['qualities of an animal'] 1. to bring out the ~ in smb.

['animal']

2. a wild ~

beat

I n. ['a regularly traversed round'] 1. to patrol, walk one's

~

2. to cover one's ~

3. a policeman's ~ ['rhythm']

4. an irregular; regular, steady ~

5. to a ~ (to dance to the ~ of jungle music) ['unit of

rhythm']

6. a ~ to (four ~s to a measure)

II v. 1. to ~ brutally, mercilessly, severely, viciously

2. (d; intr., tr.) ('to strike') to ~ against (the bird beat

its wings against the bars of its cage; the waves ~ against the

rocks)

3. (d; tr.) ('to hammer') to ~ into (to ~ facts into smb.'s

head; to ~ swords into plowshares)

4. (d; tr.) ('to strike') to ~ into, to (to ~ smb. into

submission; to ~ smb. to death)

5. (d; intr.) ('to strike') to ~ on (smb. was ~ing on the door)

6. (colloq.) (D; tr.) ('to arrive ahead of) to ~ to (I'll ~ you

to the car!)

7. (N: used with an adjective) ('to strike') they beat him

unconscious

8. (slang) (R) ('to astound') it ~s me that they turned down

the invitation

beat down

v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ on (the sun beat down on us mercilessly)

2. (BE) (D; tr.) ('to persuade to reduce a price') to ~ to (I

beat them down to ten pounds)

beating

n. 1. to give smb. a ~

2. to get, take a ~

3. a brutal, good, merciless, severe, vicious ~ (he got a good

~)

beat out

v. (D; tr.) to ~ for (we beat them out for the title by ten

points)

beat up

v. (slang) (AE) (d; intr.) to ~ on ('to beat') (to ~ on smb.)

beau

n. (colloq.) a steady ~

beautiful

adj. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ to watch)

beauty

n. ['a beautiful person or thing'] 1. a dazzling, raving,

striking ~

2. a bathing ~ ['good looks']

3. to enhance ~

4. dazzling, striking, wholesome ~

beauty contest

n. 1. to hold, stage a ~

2. to enter a ~

beaver

n. 1. a colony of ~s

2. (misc.) an eager ~ ('an overzealous person')

beaver away

v. (slang) (BE) (D; intr.) ('to work hard') to ~ at

beck

n. to be at smb.'s ~ and call

beckon

v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ to (he ~ed to her)

2. (H) she ~ed me to follow

become

v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ of (what became of her?)

2. (formal) (R) it doesn't ~ you to speak like that

3. (S) she became a teacher; to ~ depressed

becoming

adj. (rare) ~ to (that is not ~ to you)

bed

n. ['article of furniture for sleeping'] 1. to make, make up a

~

2. to undo a ~

3. to lie, stay in ~; to lie, sit on a ~

4. to get out of ~

5. to take to one's ~ ('to remain in bed because of illness']

6. a double; king-size; queen-size; single; twin ~

7. a bunk; camp (BE); folding; hospital; rollaway; sofa;

truckle (BE), trundle (AE); water ~

8. an unmade ~

9. a feather ~ ('a feather mattress') ['ground at the bottom

of a body of water']

10. a river ~ ["plot of ground']

11. a flower ~

bedfellow

n. strange ~s (politics make strange ~s)

bedroom

n. a master; spare ~

bedside

n. at smb.'s ~

bedsore

n. 1. to develop, get a ~

2. to prevent a ~

bee

I n. ['insect'] 1. to keep ~s

2. a killer; queen; worker ~

3. ~s buzz, hum; sting; swarm

4. a cluster; colony; swarm of ~s

5. (misc.) as busy as a ~

II n. (esp. AE) ['meeting to work or compete'] a quilting;

sewing; spelling; spinning ~

beef

I n. 1. to boil; braise; broil; cook; roast; stew ~

2. chipped; corned; salt (BE) ~

3. (AE) ~ Wellington

4. baby; prime ~ USAGE NOTE: Corned beef in the US is not the

same as corned beef in GB.

II v. (D; intr.) ('to complain') to ~ about

beeline

n. ['shortest route"] to make a ~ for ('to go directly

toward')

beer

n. 1. to brew ~

2. cold; strong; weak ~

3. ginger; light; near ~

4. (AE) root ~

5. a bottle; can; glass; mug, stein of ~

beet

n. 1. a sugar ~

2. (misc.) as red as a ~ (AE; BE has: as red as a beetroot)

beg

v. 1. to ~ humbly

2. (D: intr.) to ~ for (to ~ for mercy)

3. (formal) (d; tr.) to ~ of (I must ~ a favor of you)

4. (E) they ~ged to be allowed to go; I ~ to differ

5. (H) they ~ged her to help

6. (L; subj.) he ~ged that his family be/should be spared

7. (misc.) to go ~ging ('to be unwanted') (those jobs went

~ging)

begging

n. to live by ~

begin

v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ by, with (they began by saying a prayer;

or: they began with a prayer)

2. (E) she began to work

3. (G) she began working

beginner

n. a rank ~

beginning

n. 1. to make a ~

2. to mark a ~

3. an auspicious, promising ~

4. at, in the ~

5. from (the) ~ (from ~ to end; from the very ~)

begrudge

v. (0; can be used with one inanimate object) he ~s us our

success

beguile

v. (formal) 1. (D; tr.) to ~ into (he ~d me into lending him

money)

2. (D; tr.) to ~ out of

3. (D; tr.) to ~ with (to ~ children with stories)

behalf

n. in (AE), on smb.'s ~ USAGE NOTE: Some purists maintain that

in AE in smb. 's behalf means 'for smb.'s benefit', whereas on

smb.'s behalf means 'as smb.'s representative'.

behave

v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ like (he ~d like a gentleman)

2. (D; intr.) to ~ towards (how did they ~ towards you?)

behavior, behaviour

n. 1. to exhibit ~ (to exhibit strange ~)

2. abnormal; asocial; criminal; diplomatic; disciplined;

disruptive; inconsiderate; inexcusable; infantile; irrational;

model; modest; neurotic; normal; obsequious; promiscuous;

provocative; ruthless; scandalous; scurrilous; strange; sullen;

undiplomatic; undisciplined; unorthodox; unruly; unsportsmanlike

~

3. good ~ (in prison)

4. ~ towards, with

5. on one's ~ (to be on one's best ~)

behest

n. at smb.'s ~

behind

adv., prep. 1. to fall, lag ~

2. to remain, stay ~

3. ~ by (our team is ~ by two points)

4. ~ in, with (he's ~ with his payments)

5. (misc.) to be solidly ~ smb. ('to support smb.

wholeheartedly')

beholden

adj. (cannot stand alone) ~ for; to (we are ~ to nobody for

anything)

behoove, behove

v. (R) (formal) it ~s them to help the needy

being

n. 1. to come into ~

2. an extraterrestrial; human; mortal; rational; supernatural ~

belch

n. to emit, let out a ~

belief

n. 1. to express; hold a ~

2. to shake one's ~

3. to give up, relinquish one's ~

4. a basic; doctrinaire; erroneous, false, mistaken; firm,

strong, unshakable; popular; prevalent; unpopular ~

5. a ~ in (nothing will shake his ~ in ghosts)

6. a ~ that + clause (it is their firm ~ that the earth is

flat)

7. beyond ~

8. in the ~ that...

believe

v. 1. to ~ firmly, sincerely, strongly; mistakenly

2. (D; intr.) to ~ in (to ~ in ghosts)

3. (D; tr.) to ~ of (I can't ~ it of him)

4. (L) we ~ that she will come

5. (M) they all ~ the story to be true

6. (misc.) I ~ so; I ~ not

believer

n. 1. a firm, sincere, strong; true ~

2. a ~ in (he's no ~ in miracles)

bell

n. 1. to cast a ~

2. to ring, sound a ~

3. a church; door ~

4. a diving ~

5. wedding ~s

6. a ~ chimes, clangs, peals, rings, sounds, tolls

7. (misc.) (boxing) to come out for the ~

belligerency

n. 1. to demonstrate, display, exhibit ~

2. a state of ~

3. ~ towards

belligerent

adj. ~ towards

bellow

v. 1. (B) he ~ed a command to his men

2. (L) he ~ed that he would fight any man at the bar

bellows

n. to operate, use ~

bellyache

v. (slang) (D; intr.) ('to complain') to ~ about

belong

v. 1. (d; intr.) ('to deserve to be') to ~ in (he ~s in jail)

2. (d; intr.) to ~ to ('to be owned by') (the book ~s to her)

3. (d; intr.) to ~ to ('to be a member of) (to ~ to an

organization)

4. (d; intr.) ('to be appropriate') to ~ under (this item ~s

under a different heading)

belongings

n. one's earthly; personal ~

below

prep. ~ in (to be ~ smb. in rank)

belt

I n. ['band'] 1. to buckle, fasten one's ~

2. (also fig.) to tighten one's ~

3. to loosen; undo one's ~

4. a life; money; safety, seat, shoulder ~

5. a cartridge; Sam Browne ~

6. a garter (AE), suspender (BE) ~

7. a chastity ~

8. a conveyor ~

9. (usu. fig.) below the ~ ('unfairly') ['zone'] (AE)

10. the Bible; corn; cotton ~ ['symbol of expertise in judo or

karate']

11. a bla^k; brown; white ~ ['misc.']

12. under one's ~ ('experienced, lived through')

II v. (colloq.) (0) I ~ed him one

bench

n. ['judge's seat'] 1. from the ~ (a reprimand from the ~)

2. on the ~ (who will be on the ~ during her trial?) ['places

in Parliament'] (BE)

3. the back; cross; front ~ ['place where reserve players

sit']

4. on the ~ (he spent ten minutes on the ~) ['table']

5. a work ~

bench warrant

n. to issue a ~

bend

I n. 1. to make a ~ (the river makes a ~)

2. a horseshoe; sharp; slight ~

3. a knee ~

4. (misc.) (colloq.) (BE) round the ~ ('mentally unsound')

II v. 1. (D; Intr., tr.) to ~ to (the road ~s to the right; she

cannot ~ them to her will)

2. (D; tr.) to ~ into (she bent the bar into the right shape)

bender

n. (colloq.) ['drunken spree'] to go on a ~

benediction

n. 1. to give, offer, pronounce the ~

2. to pronounce a ~ over

beneficial

adj. 1. ~ for, to (~ to health)

2. ~ to + inf. (it would be ~ to keep abreast of developments

in Asia)

beneficiary

n. to name a ~; to name smb. (as) (a)

benefit

I n. 1. to derive, get, reap (a) ~ from

2. a death; fringe; sickness (BE); tax ~

3. to be of ~ to

4. for smb.'s ~

5. (misc.) to give smb. the ~ of the doubt; without ~ of clergy

II v. (D; intr.) to ~ from (we all ~ed from her success)

benefits

n. 1. to provide ~

2. to collect; reap ~

3. to withhold ~

4. disability; fringe; health-care; old-age; retirement;

strike; survivors' (AE); unemployment; veterans'; workers' ~

benevolent

adj. ~ towards

bent

I adj. (cannot stand alone) ['determined'] ~ on (he was ~ on

getting himself hurt; ~ on mischief)

II n. ['propensity'] 1. to have; show a ~ for

2. to follow one's (own) ~

3. an artistic; decided; natural ~

bequeath

v. (formal) (A) she ~ed her fortune to him; or: she ~ed him her

fortune bequest n. 1. to make a ~

2. a ~ to

berate

v. (D; tr.) to ~ for

bereft

adj. (cannot stand alone) ['stripped'] ~ of (~ of all hope; ~

of one's senses) USAGE NOTE: In the meaning 'having recently

lost a dear one', the form bereaved is used--the bereaved

parents.

berry

n. to pick ~ies

berserk

adj. to go ~

berth

n. 1. to make up a ~

2. a lower; sleeping; upper ~

3. (misc.) to give smb. a wide ~ ('to avoid smb.')

beseech

v. (formal) (H; no passive) to ~ smb. to show mercy

beset

adj. (cannot stand alone) ~ by, with (~ by doubts)

beside

prep. to be ~ oneself with (he was ~ himself with grief)

best

I adj. 1. ~ to + inf. (it is ~ not to speak of it in public)

2. ~ that + clause; subj. (it is ~ that she say/should say

nothing to the press)

II n. 1. to do, give; try one's (level) ~

2. to make the ~ (ofsmt.)

3. to get the ~ (of smb.)

4. to look one's ~

5. one's level ~

6. next, second ~

7. one's ~ to + inf. (she tried her ~ to finish the job on

time)

8. at one's ~ (she is not at her ~ in the morning)

9. for the ~ (it turned out for the ~)

10. in the ~ of (he's not in the ~ of health)

11. in one's Sunday ~

12. to the ~ of (to the ~ of my ability)

13. (misc.) (colloq.) give my ~ to your family

bestir

v. (formal and rare) (H; refl.) we must ~ ourselves to get there

on time

bestow

v. (formal) (d; tr.) to ~ on, upon (to ~ an honor on smb.)

bet

I n. 1. to make a ~

2. to place a ~ on

3. to accept, take a ~

4. a side ~

5. a ~ that + clause (she made a ~ that her team would win)

6. on a ~ (he did it on a ~)

7. (misc.) to hedge one's ~s ('to protect oneself by placing

several bets')

II v. 1. (D; intr., tr.)to ~ on (he bet on that horse; he bet a

month's salary on that horse)

2. (L; may have an object) I bet (her) that it would snow

3. (0; can be used with one, two, or three objects) we bet him;

we bet ten pounds; we bet him ten pounds; we bet him ten pounds

that it would rain

betake

v. (formal and obsol.) (P; refl.) he betook himself to the fair

betray

v. (B) the informer ~ed them to the police

betroth

v. (rare) (B) they were ~ed to each other at an early age

betrothal

n. 1. to announce a ~

2. a ~ to

better

I adj. 1. any ~ (is she any ~ today?)

2. ~ at (he is ~ at tennis than at squash)

3. ~ to + inf. (it is ~ to give than to receive)

4. ~ that + clause; subj. (it's ~ that she go/should go alone)

II n. 1. to get the ~ of smb.

2. to think ~ of smt.

3. for the ~ (a change for the ~; to take a turn for the ~)

betting

n. off-track; parimutuel ~

beverage

n. an alcoholic; carbonated; intoxicating; non-alcoholic ~

beware

v. (D; intr.; only in the imper.) ~ of (~ of the dog!)

bewildered

adj. ~ to + inf. (she was ~ to find them gone)

bewildering

adj. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ to contemplate all the possibilities)

bias

n. ['prejudice'] 1. to demonstrate, display, exhibit, show ~

2. to root out ~

3. deep-rooted, strong ~

4. a ~ against; for; towards ['diagonal line']

5. on the ~ (to cut on the ~)

biased

adj.. 1. strongly ~

2. ~ against; towards

Bible

n. the Holy ~

bibliography

n. 1. to compile, make up a ~

2. an annotated; comprehensive; selective ~

bicentenary

n. to celebrate, mark, observe a ~

bicentennial

(esp AE) see bicentenary

bicker

v. (D; intr.) 1. to ~ constantly, incessantly

2. to ~ about, over; with

bickering

n. constant, incessant ~

bicycle

n. 1. to pedal, ride a ~

2. to get on, mount a ~

3. an exercise, stationary; racing ~

4. by ~ (to go somewhere by ~)

bid

I n. ['bidding of an amount'] 1. to enter, file, make, put in,

submit a ~

2. to call for, invite ~s

3. to raise one's ~

4. to consider, entertain ~s

5. to recall a ~

6. an opening; sealed ~

7. the highest ~

8. a ~ for, on (she made a ~ on the painting) ['attempt']

9. to make a ~

10. a desperate ~

11. a ~ for (she made a ~ for the nomination)

12. a ~ to + inf. (he made a ~ to regain his former influence)

II v. 1. (D; tr.) to ~ for (she bid twenty pounds for the vase)

2. (esp. AE) (D; intr.) to ~ on (to ~ on a contract)

III v. 1. (formal) (A) she bade farewell to them; or: she bade

them farewell

2. (obsol.) (H) to ~ smb. to do smt.

3. (obsol.) (I) to ~ smb. do smt.

bidder

n. the highest; lowest ~

bidding

n. ['offering of bids'] 1. to open the ~

2. competitive; spirited ~ ['request']

3. to do smb.'s ~

4. at smb.'s ~

big

adj. ['kind'] ['good'] (colloq., ironical) 1. ~ of (that's ~

of you)

2. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ of you to do that) ['older']

3. a ~ boy; brother; girl; sister ['very powerful']

4. ~ business; government; labor

bigamy

n. to commit; practice ~

bigot

n. a fanatical, ingrained, narrow-minded, vicious; religious ~

bigoted

adj. 1. strongly ~

2. ~ against

3. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ to say that)

bigotry

n. 1. to arouse, stir up ~

2. to demonstrate, display ~

3. fanatical, ingrained, narrow-minded, vicious; religious ~

4. ~ against

bike

n. to ride a ~ (see bicycle)

bilk

v. (D; tr.) to ~ out of (they ~ed us out of the money)

bill

I n. ['proposed law'] 1. to draft; introduce, propose; oppose;

pass; support a ~

2. to move; railroad a ~ through a legislature

3. to quash, reject, vote down; veto a ~

4. to shelve a ~ ['banknote'] (AE)

5. to break, change; pass a ~

6. marked ~s ['statement of money owed'] ['debt']

7. to run up a ~

8. to foot (colloq.), pay; settle a ~

9. a hospital, medical; hotel; telephone; utility (gas and

electric; water) ~

10. a ~ falls due, matures ['poster']

11. to post, stick (BE) a ~ (post no ~s!) ['misc.']

12. to fill, fit the ~ ('to meet all requirements')

II v. l.. (D; tr.) ('to charge') to ~ for (the doctor did not ~

them for the visit)

2. (H) ('to cast'); ('to announce') he was ~ed to appear as

Hamlet

billet

n. an officers' ~

billiards

n. to play ~

billing

n. ['prominence in advertising, promotion'] top ~ (to get top

~)

bill of health

n. ['approval'] 1. to give smb. a clean ~

2. to get, receive a clean ~

bill of sale

n. to make up, prepare a ~

bin

n. a storage ~

bind

I n. ['trouble'] ['dilemma'] 1. a double ~

2. in a ~

II v. l.. (D;tr.) ('to put together') to ~ in (to ~ a book in

leather)

2. (D; tr.) ('to tie') to ~ to (they bound him to a post)

3. (D; tr.) ('to require') to ~ to (to ~ smb. to secrecy)

4. (H) ('to require') the contract ~s you to pay interest

binder

n. ['deposit of money'] (esp. AE) 1. to place, put down a ~ on

['holder for sheets of paper']

2. a loose-leaf; ring ~ ['broad bandage'] (AE)

3. to apply a ~

4. an abdominal; breast; straight ~

binding

I adj. ~ on, upon (the agreement is ~ on you)

II n. ['fastening of the sections of a book'] 1. a handsome;

leather ~

2. in a ~ (the book is in a leather ~) ['narrow strip of

fabric']

3. to sew on, tack on a ~

bind over

v. (D; tr.) to ~ to (she was bound over to the grand jury)

binge

n. (colloq.) 1. ['a drunken spree'] to go on a ~

['unrestrained activity']

2. a shopping ~

binoculars

n. 1. to adjust, focus; train ~ on

2. high-powered, powerful ~

3. a pair of ~

biography

n. an authorized; critical; unauthorized

biology

n. molecular ~

bird

n. 1. game; land; migratory; tropical; wading; water ~s

2. ~s of passage; ~s of prey

3. (usu. fig.) a rare ~

4. ~s build nests; chirp, twitter, warble; flock together; fly;

migrate; molt; sing; soar

5. a covey, flock of ~s

6. (misc.) to ring ~s (for scientific purposes); a ~ in the

hand ('smt. already possessed'); ~s of a feather ('people with

similar characteristics, tastes, and standards'); as free as a ~

('absolutely free')

bird call

n. to do, imitate a ~

birdwatching

n. to go in for, take up ~ (as a hobby)

birth

n. 1. to give ~ (she gave ~ to twins)

2. a breech; multiple; normal; premature ~

3. at ~ (she weighed seven pounds at ~)

4. by ~ (he's Spanish by ~)

5. of ~ (of noble ~)

birth control

n. to practice ~

birthday

n. 1. to attain (formal), reach a ~

2. to celebrate, mark a ~

3. at, on a ~ (on her tenth ~)

4. happy ~!

birth pangs

n. to endure, suffer ~

birthrate

n. 1. a falling; high; low; rising; stable ~

2. the crude ~

biscuit

n. 1. to bake ~s

2. a sweet ~ (BE; AE has cookie)

3. a cream ~ (BE; AE has sandwich cookie)

4. baking-powder; soda; tea ~s

5. (misc.) to take the ~ ('to be the best or worst') (BE; CE

has to take the cake)

bishop

n. an Anglican, Episcopal; Catholic; Orthodox ~

bison

n. a herd of ~

bit

I n. ['share'] 1. to do one's ~ ['small piece']

2. a tiny ~ ['tnisc.']

3. every ~ ('completely'); ~ by ~ ('little by little'); he's a

~ of a snob ('he is something of a snob'); she's not the least ~

upset ('she's not at all upset'); wait a ~ ('wait a little')

II n. ['mouthpiece on a horse's bridle'] to take the ~

(between one's teeth) (also fig.)

bitch

v. (slang; vulgar) (D; intr.) to ~ about (they're always ~ing

about the food)

bitchy

adj. (colloq.) ['nasty'] ~ about

bite

I n. ['act of biting'] ['result of biting'] 1. to take a ~

(she took a ~ out of the apple)

2. an insect; mosquito; snake ~ ['ability to bite']

3. a powerful ~ (the large dog has a powerful ~) ['snack']

4. to grab, have a ~

5. a quick ~ ['request for a loan'] (colloq.)

6. to put the ~ on smb. ['amount of money deducted']

(colloq.)

7. to take a ~ from, out of (the wage tax takes quite a ~ from

his paycheck)

II v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ at (also fig.) (to ~ at the bait)

2. (D; intr.) to ~ into, on (she bit into the apple)

bitter

I adj. ~ about (he was ~ about his lot)

II n. to take the ~ (with the sweet)

bitterness

n. 1. to feel ~

2. a touch of ~

3. ~ about, over; towards

bivouac

n. 1. to go on; set up a ~

2. to be on ~

bizarre

adj. ~ that + clause (it was ~ that we ran into each other in

such a remote corner of the world)

blabber

v. (B) he ~ed everything to the press

black

n. ['profit'] 1. in the ~ (to operate in the ~) ['sign of

mourning']

2. to wear ~

3. jet ~

blackboard

n. 1. to clean, wash; erase (esp. AE) a ~

2. to write on the ~

3. at the ~ (two pupils were at the ~)

4. (misc.) to send a pupil to the ~

blacklist

n. on a ~

black magic

n. to practice ~

blackmail

I n. to commit; practice ~

II v. (D; tr.) to ~ into (to ~ smb. into doing smt.)

black market

n. on the ~ (to buy smt. on the ~)

black-marketing, black-marketeering

n. to engage in, to go in for ~

blackout

n. ['extinguishing or concealment of all lights during

wartime'] 1. to impose, order a ~

2. to observe a ~ ['suppression of news']

3. to impose, order a ~

4. to lift a ~

5. to violate a ~

6. a news ~

bladder

n. 1. to empty one's ~

2. a full ~

blade

n. 1. a blunt, dull; sharp ~

2. a rotary ~

3. a razor ~

blame

I n. 1. to ascribe, assign, attribute (the) ~ to smb.

2. to lay, place, put the ~ on smb.; to lay the ~ at smb.'s

door

3. to assess; fix the ~

4. to shift the ~ to smb. (else)

5. to assume, bear, take the ~ for (she took the ~ for my

mistake)

6. the ~ falls on smb.

II v. 1. to ~ unfairly, unjustly

2. (D; tr.) to ~ for (they ~d her for the accident)

3. (d; tr.) to ~ on (they ~d the accident on her)

4. to be to ~ for (I am not to ~ for the mistake)

blanch

v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ at (he ~ed at the sight of the mutilated

corpse)

2. (D; intr.) to ~ with (to ~ with fear)

blank

I adj. to go ~ (my mind went ~)

II n. 1. to draw a ~ ('to achieve no result')

2. a complete ~

blanket

n. 1. a bath; receiving; saddle; sheet ~

2. a security ~

blase

adj. ~ about (they were very ~ about winning first prize)

blaspheme

v. (D; intr.) to ~ against (to ~ against God)

blasphemous

adj. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ to speak in that manner)

blasphemy

n. to commit; utter ~ against

blast

n. ['explosion'] 1. to set off a ~ ['gust of wind']

2. an icy ~ ['verbal attack']

3. to issue a ~ against

4. a vicious, withering ~ ['misc.']

5. at full ~ (the work was proceeding at full ~)

blather

n. ['nonsense'] 1. sheer, utter ~

2. ~ about

blaze

n. to extinguish, put out a ~

blaze away

v. (D; intr.) to ~ at (to ~ at the enemy)

blazes

n. go to ~! ('damn you!')

bleach

n. liquid ~

bleed

v. 1. to ~ profusely, uncontrollably

2. (fig.) (D; intr.) to ~ for (my heart ~s for him)

3. (D; intr.) to ~ from (to ~ from the nose)

4. (N; used with an adjective) to ~ smb. white

5. (misc.) to ~ to death

bleeding

n. 1. to staunch, stop (the) ~

2. heavy, profuse, uncontrollable ~

3. internal; menopausal ~

4. ~ from (~ from the rectum)

blemish

n. a minor; ugly ~

blench

v. (D; intr.) ('to flinch') to ~ at (he ~ed at the sight)

blend

v. 1. to ~ together (their voices ~ together well)

2. (d; intr.) to ~ into (to ~ into the crowd)

3. (D; intr.) to ~ with (water does not ~ with oil)

blend in

v. (D; intr.) to ~ with (she ~ed in with the crowd)

bless

v. (D; tr.) to ~ with (we are ~ed with good health)

blessing

n. 1. to give, make, pronounce, say a ~ over

2. to chant a ~

3. to give one's ~ to; to bestow one's ~ on

4. a divine; priestly ~; God's ~

5. a ~ for (it was a ~ for us)

6. a ~ that + clause (it was a ~ that we didn't have to make

the trip)

7. (misc.) a mixed ~; a ~ in disguise; to count one's ~s

blight

n. 1. to cast, put a ~ on, upon

2. a potato ~

3. urban ~

4. a ~ on (a ~ on one's honor)

blind

I adj. ['sightless'] 1. legally ~

2. (misc.) as ~ as a bat ['blinded'] (cannot stand alone)

3. ~ to (~ to danger)

4. ~ with (~ with rage)

II v. (D; tr.) to ~ to (his infatuation ~ed him to her faults)

III (BE) see window shade

blindness

n. color; congenital; night; snow ~

blinds

n. 1. to adjust; draw; lower; raise the ~

2. Venetian ~

blink

v. (D; intr.) to ~ at ('to show surprise') (she didn't even ~ at

his outrageous proposal)

bliss

n. 1. to enjoy ~

2. complete, pure, sheer, total, utter ~

3. domestic, marital, nuptial, wedded ~

4. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ to be without a telephone = it was ~

being without a telephone)

buster

n. 1. to open a ~

2. a fever ~ (AE; CE has cold sore)

3. a ~ bursts; forms

blizzard

n. 1. a raging; winter ~

2. a ~ rages; strikes

3. a ~ blows itself out

bloc

n. 1. the Communist; eastern; NATO; Soviet ~

2. a voting ~

block

n. ['interruption'] ['obstacle'] 1. (Am. football) to throw

a ~ at smb.

2. a mental ~ (when it comes to word games, I have a mental ~)

3. (med.) a heart; nerve; saddle ~

4. a stumbling ~ ['street'] ['city square'] (AE)

5. a city ~ (the building occupies an entire city ~)

6. around the ~; in, on a ~ (they went around the ~; they live

in this ~) ['apartment house'] (BE)

7. a council ~

8. a tower ~ ('a high-rise apartment')

9. (misc.) a ~ of flats ['platform']

10. a butcher's; chopping; headsman's ~ ['auctioneer's

platform']

11. the auction ~

12. on the ~ ('being auctioned') ['group'] ['bloc']

13. a trade ~ ['rectangular unit used in construction']

14. a building; cinder; concrete ~ ['support'] ['brace']

15. a starting ~ (for a runner) ['section of text']

(computers)

16. to copy; delete; end; move a ~

blockade

n. 1. to impose; maintain a ~

2. to break (through); lift; run a ~

3. a ~ against; on

blocks

n. to play with ~

blonde

n. a natural; platinum ~

blood

n. 1. to draw, let ~

2. to lose; shed, spill ~

3. to staunch the flow of ~

4. to donate; type ~

5. blue; pure, royal ~

6. whole ~

7. hot ('fiery') ~

8. ~ cakes; circulates, flows, runs; clots, coagulates,

congeals, curdles; spurts (~ spurted from the wound)

9. (fig.) ~ boils; freezes; runs cold

10. (fig.) ~ tells

11. by ~ (related by ~)

12. of ~ (of royal ~)

13. (misc.) to run in the ~ ('to be hereditary '); in cold ~

('without feeling'); to draw first ~ ('to score the first

success'); fresh/ new ~ ('new personnel'); old ~ ('old

personnel'); (colloq.) tired ~ ('rundown condition of the body')

blood cell

n. a red; white ~

blood count

n. 1. to do a ~ on

2. to have a ~ (done)

blood pressure

n. 1. to take smb.'s ~

2. elevated, high; labile; low; normal ~

bloodiest

n. 1. to do a ~

2. to have a ~ (done)

blood transfusion

n. 1. to administer, (colloq.) do, give a ~

2. to get, have a ~

blood vessel

n. 1. an occluded ~

2. a ~ bursts

bloom

n. 1. to come into ~

2. full ~

3. in ~ (the tulips are in full ~)

bloomer

(BE) see blooper

blooper

n. (colloq.) (AE) ['blunder'] 1. to commit, make a ~

2. a prize ~

blossom

I n. in ~ (the trees are in ~)

II v. (D; intr.) to ~ into (their friendship ~ed into true love)

blot

n. 1. leave a ~

2. a ~ on (his actions left a ~ on our name)

blotter

n. ['blotting paper'] 1. a ~ absorbs (ink, water) ['record']

2. a police ~

blouse

n. a full; peasant; see-through ~

blow

I n. 1. to deal, deliver, strike a ~ (he dealt us a severe ~)

2. to heap, rain ~s on smb.

3. to come to ~s; to exchange ~s

4. to take a ~ (the boxer took several ~s to the head)

5. to cushion; deflect, parry, ward off; dodge a ~

6. a body; crushing, hard, heavy, powerful, resounding, severe,

staggering, telling; decisive; fatal, mortal; glancing, light ~

7. indiscriminate ~s (to rain indiscriminate ~s on one's

victims)

8. a low ('illegal') ~ (also fig.)

9. an exchange of ~s

10. a ~ against, at (to strike a ~ against poverty)

11. a ~ for (to strike a ~ for freedom)

12. a ~ on, to (a ~ on the head; he took a ~ to the chin; a ~

to one's hopes)

13. under ~s (to reel under crushing ~s)

II v. 1. to ~ hard (the wind was ~ing hard)

2. (A; usu. without to) she blew him a kiss

3. (D; intr.) to ~ on (~ on the soup; it's too hot)

4. (misc.) (slang) he blew ('came') into town

blowout

n. ['flat tire'] 1. to have a ~

2. to fix a ~

bludgeon

v. 1. (d; tr.) ('to force by beating') to ~ into (to ~ smb. into

doing smt.) (also fig.)

2. (misc.) to ~ smb. to death

blue

n. ['color'] 1. dark; light ~ ['something colored blue']

2. a patch of ~ ['symbol of belonging to a team at Oxford or

Cambridge'] (BE)

3. to get, win one's ~ ['misc.']

4. out of the ~ ('unexpectedly')

blueprint

n. 1. to draw up, make a ~

2. a ~ for; of (fig.: a ~ for peace)

blues

n. (colloq.) to sing the ~ ('to complain')

bluff

I n. ['false threat'] 1. to call smb.'s ~ ('to challenge smb.

to carry out a false threat')

2. to fall for smb.'s ~ ('to be deceived by a false threat')

II v. 1. (D; tr.) to ~ into; out of (they ~ed him into making

concessions)

2. to be caught ~ing

blunder

I n. 1. to commit, make a ~

2. a costly, egregious, fatal, glaring, grave, serious, stupid,

terrible ~

3. a ~ to + inf. (it was a ~ to invite them)

II v. (d; intr.) to ~ on, upon ('to happen on')

blush

I n. 1. a deep ~

2. (misc.) at first ~ ('at first sight'); in the first ~ of

youth ('as a youth')

II v. 1. to ~ deeply; readily

2. (D; intr.) to ~ at (to ~ at the very suggestion)

3. (D; intr.) to ~ for, with (he ~ed with shame)

boar

n. a wild ~

board

n. ['ship's deck'] 1. to go on ~ ['commission']

2. an advisory; draft (AE); editorial; liquor-control (AE);

parole; school; zoning ~

3. on a ~ (to serve on a ~) ['footboard']

4. a running ~ (on a car) ['flat piece of wood or other

material']

5. a baseboard (AE), skirting (BE); bulletin (AE), notice (BE)

~; checkerboard; chessboard; cutting; dart; diving; drawing;

emery; ironing ~ ['misc.']

6. a sounding ~; across the ~ ('for everyone')

boarder

n. to keep, take in ~s

boards

n. (esp. AE) ['qualifying examination'] 1. to pass; take one's

~

2. college; state ~

boast

I n. 1. to make a ~

2. an empty, idle, vain; proud ~

II v. 1. to ~ idly; proudly

2. (D; intr.) to ~ about, of (to ~ of one's success)

3. (L; to) she ~ed (to the reporters) that she would win the

race

boastful

adj. ~ about, of

boat

n. 1. to row; sail; steer a ~

2. to launch, lower a ~

3. to overturn, swamp, upset a ~

4. an assault;

fishing; flying ~; gunboat; lifeboat; mosquito, PT (AE; BE has

MTB); patrol ~; rowboat (AE), rowing (BE) ~; sailboat (AE),

sailing (BE) ~; torpedo ~

5. a ~ goes, sails; heaves; pitches; rolls

6. by ~ (to cross a river by ~)

7. (misc.) to be in the same ~ ('to be in the same

circumstances'); to miss the ~ ('to let an opportunity slip

by'); to push the ~ out (BE; colloq.) ('to make a special

effort')

bobsled, bobsleigh

n. to ride a ~; to race on ~s

bode

v. 1. (D; intr.; P) to ~ for (these events ~ well for us)

2. (formal) (0) this ~s us no good

body

n. ['substance'] ['firmness'] 1. to give ~ to ['group']

['unit']

2. an advisory; deliberative; elected; governing; student ~;

the ~ politic

3. in a ~ (they presented their petition in a ~) ['physical

object']

4. a foreign ~ (to remove a foreign ~ from one's eye)

5. a gaseous; liquid; solid ~

6. a celestial, heavenly ~ ['corpse']

7. to cremate; embalm; exhume a ~

8. a bloated; decomposing ~ ['physical structure of a

person']

9. to build up, condition, strengthen one's ~

10. to sell one's ~

11. a healthy ~

12. (colloq.) the ~ beautiful

bog

n. a peat ~

boggle

v. (d; intr.) to ~ at (the mind ~s at the idea)

boil

I n. ['state of boiling'] 1. to bring to a ~ (bring the milk

to a ~)

2. to come to a ~ (the water must first come to a ~)

II v. l. to ~ gently; hard

2. (C) he ~ed an egg for her; or: he ~ed her an egg

3. (D; intr.) to ~ with (to ~ with rage)

III n. ['furuncle'] 1. to lance a ~

2. a ~ comes to a head

3. to apply hot compresses to a ~

boil down

v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ to (it all ~s down to one simple fact)

2. (D; tr.) to ~ to (she ~ed the whole story down to one

paragraph)

boiler

n. a ~ cracks, ruptures

boiling point

n. to reach the ~

bold

adj. (often used humorously) to be so ~ as to + inf. (may I be

so ~ as to ask how old you are?)

boldface

n. to print in ~

bolshy

adj. (colloq.) (BE) ['rebellious'] ~ about

bolt

I n. 1. a lightning ~

2. (misc.) like a ~ out of the blue ('unexpectedly')

II v. to ~ upright

bomb

n. 1. to detonate, explode, set off; drop; fuse a ~

2. to plant a ~

3. to deactivate, defuse a ~

4. to dispose of an unexploded ~

5. an atom, atomic, fission, nuclear; fusion, hydrogen; neutron

~

6. a clean; dirty ~

7. a buzz; car; fragmentation; high-explosive; incendiary;

letter; napalm; petrol (esp. BE); pipe; plastic; smoke; stink;

time ~

8. a smart ('guided') ~

9. (AE) a cherry ~ ('a type of firecracker')

10. a ~ explodes, goes off

11. (misc.) (colloq.) (BE) to go like a ~ ('to be very

successful')

bombardment

n. 1. to conduct a ~

2. air; intensive

bomber

n. 1. a dive-bomber; fighter; heavy; light; long-range; medium ~

2. an enemy ~

bombing

n. area; around-the-clock; carpet; dive; indiscriminate, random;

pin-point, precision; saturation; shuttle; strategic; tactical ~

bombshell

n. ['sensation'] to drop a ~

bond

n. ['certificate'] 1. to issue a ~

2. to cash (in), redeem a ~

3. a debenture; development; government; long-term; municipal;

negotiable; savings; serial; treasury; war ~ ['tie']

['link']

4. to form; strengthen a ~ (of friendship) with

5. a close, firm, strong; spiritual ~

6. a ~ between ['fetters']

7. to break, cast off one's ~s ['guarantee'] ['obligation']

8. to set ~ (the judge set ~ for him at two thousand dollars)

9. to furnish, post a ~

10. to forfeit a ~ ['storage under supervision']

11. in ~; out of ~ (bottled in ~; to take wine out of ~)

bondage

n. 1. to sell into ~

2. to deliver from ~

3. in ~ to

bone

n. ['part of a skeleton'] 1. to set a (broken) ~

2. to break, fracture a ~

3. a (broken) ~ knits

4. to the ~ (chilled/frozen to the ~) ['complaint'] (colloq.)

5. to pick a ~ with smb.

boner

n. (slang) (AE) ['blunder'] to pull a ~

bone up

v. (colloq.) (AE) (D; intr.) to ~ on (she had to ~ on her

French)

bonfire

n. 1. to build, light, make a ~

2. to sit around/round a ~

3. a blazing, roaring ~

bonnet

(BE) see hood

bonus

n. 1. to give, pay a ~

2. to get, receive a ~

3. an annual; Christmas; cost-of-living ~

booby trap

n. 1. to set a ~

2. to set off, trigger a ~

3. to deactivate a ~

4. a ~ explodes, goes off

book

I n. 1. to bring out, publish, put out; write a ~

2. to ban; censor; copyright; dedicate, inscribe; edit;

expurgate; pirate; proofread; review; revise; translate a ~

3. to bind a ~

4. to set a ~ in type

5. to charge, check a ~ (out of a library)

6. to renew a ~ (borrowed from a library)

7. a children's; comic; complaint ~; cookbook (AE), cookery

(BE) ~; handbook; illustrated; library; phrase; picture; prayer;

rare; ration; reference; ring (BE) ~; schoolbook; telephone ~;

textbook

8. (colloq.) the Good Book ('the Bible')

9. a ~ appears, comes out, is published

10. a ~ goes out of print; is sold out

11. a ~ about, on (a ~ about computers)

12. (misc.) to make ~ ('to make or accept bets'); a closed ~

('an obscure matter, person'); ('a completed event, condition');

an open ~ ('an accessible subject, person'); (slang) to throw

the ~ at smb. ('to punish an accused person severely'); to go by

the ~ ('to adhere strictly to regulations')

II v. (esp. BE) l. (C) she ~ed as eat for me; or: she ~ed me a

seat

2. (D; intr. tr.) to ~ through to (can we ~ a ticket through to

Berlin?)

bookcase

n. built-in ~s

bookends

n. a pair of ~

booking

n. (esp. BE) 1. to make a ~

2. to cancel a ~

bookkeeping

n. 1. to do the ~

2. double-entry; single-entry ~

books

n. ['financial records'] 1. to keep (the) ~

2. to audit, go over, inspect the ~

book up

v. to ~ fully, solid (the hotel is ~ed up solid == the hotel is

fully ~ed up)

boom

n. 1. a sonic ~

2. a baby; business, economic; postwar; wartime ~

boomerang

n. 1. to throw a ~

2. a ~ always returns

boon

n. a ~ to (a ~ to science)

boor

n. an insufferable ~

boost

n. 1. to give (smb.) a ~

2. a big ~

3. a ~ to (a ~ to their morale)

boot

see the Usage Note for trunk

booth

n. an information; phone, telephone; polling, voting; projection

~

boots

n. 1. to put on; take off (one's) ~

2. bower (BE; slang; worn by young rowdies); hip; leather;

riding ~

3. a pair of ~

4. (misc.) to lick smb.'s ~ ('to be overly subservient to

smb.')

bootstraps

n. to pull oneself up by one's own ~ ('to emerge from poverty

through one's own efforts')

booty

n. 1. to capture, seize, take ~

2. war ~

border

I n. 1. to draw, establish, fix a ~

2. to cross, slip across a ~

3. to patrol a ~

4. a closed; common; disputed; fixed; open; recognized;

unguarded ~

5. a ~ between

6. across, over a ~ (to smuggle goods across a ~)

7. at, on the ~

8. as far as, up to the ~ (she drove me as far as the ~)

9. (misc.) north of the ~; south of the ~

II v. (d; intr.) to ~ on, upon (to ~ on the absurd)

borderline

n. 1. a ~ between

2. on the ~

bore

I n. a crashing, frightful, insufferable, utter

II v. 1. (D; intr., tr.) ('to dig') to ~ through (to ~ a hole

through a board)

2. (D; tr.) ('to weary') to ~ to (he ~d us to death/to tears)

bored

adj. 1. ~ to (~ to death/to tears)

2. ~ with; BE also has, esp. in children's language: ~ of (~

with life)

3. (misc.) he was ~ doing nothing

boredom

n. 1. complete, sheer, utter ~

2. out of ~ (he started drinking again out of ~)

boring

adj. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ to sit there without anything to do)

born

adj. 1. ~ of (~ of poor parents)

2. ~ to (~ to wealth; ~ to illiterate parents)

3. ~ to + inf. (he was ~ to rule)

4. (misc.) ~ free

borrow

v. 1. (D; intr., tr.) to ~ from (she ~ed a book from me; they

are always ~ing from us)

2. (D; tr.) to ~ from; into (the word was ~ed from English into

German)

borrowing

n. a ~ from (a ~ from French)

bosom

n. 1. an ample ~

2. (formal) in the ~ (in the ~ of one's family)

boss

n. 1. an absolute, undisputed ~

2. a straw ~ ('one who has little authority')

3. a party, political

both

determiner, pronoun ~ of (we saw ~ of them) USAGE NOTE: The use

of the preposition of is necessary when a pronoun follows. When

a noun follows, two constructions are possible--we saw both of

the students; we saw both students.

bother

I n. 1. a ~ to (he was a ~ to everyone)

2. a ~ to + inf. (it was no ~ to take care of them)

3. (BE) a spot of ~

4. (esp. BE) he had a lot of ~ finding our house

II v. 1. (D; intr., tr.) to ~ about, with (she didn't ~ me

about/with the details)

2. (E; usu. in neg. sentences) he didn't ~ to shave; don't ~ to

get up

3. (G; usu. in neg. sentences) he didn't ~ getting up

4. (R) it ~ed me (to learn) that she had not been promoted

bottle

n. ['container for liquids'] 1. to break; empty; fill; rinse;

uncork a ~

2. a baby (AE), feeding (BE), nursing (AE); hot-water ~

3. a Thermos ~ (AE; BE has Thermos flask)

4. a disposable, no-deposit, no-return; plastic; returnable,

reusable ~ ['alcohol']

5. to take to the ~ ('to begin to drink to excess')

6. to hit the ~ ('to drink to excess')

7. over a ~ ('while drinking') ['courage'] (slang) (BE)

8. to have a lot of ~

9. the ~ to + inf. (she hasn't got the ~ to do it)

bottleneck

n. 1. to form, produce a ~

2. to be caught, trapped in a ~

3. to eliminate a ~

4. a ~ in

bottom

n. 1. (usu. fig.) to scrape the ~ of the barrel ('to use one's

last resources')

2. (fig.) to hit ('reach') ~

3. to sink to the ~

4. a double, false ~

5. a ~ to (there's a false ~ to the suitcase)

6. at, on the ~ (at the ~ of the well; we never could find out

what was at the ~ of the affair)

7. (misc.) to get to the ~ of an affair ('to clear up a matter)

bough

n. 1. a slender ~

2. ~s sway in the breeze

bounce

I n. 1. a ~ to (there's a ~ to his walk)

2. on the ~ (to catch a ball on the ~; to hit on the first

II v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ out of (she ~d out of the chair)

2. (d; intr.) to ~ to (he ~d to his feet)

3. (misc.) to ~ up and down (she ~d the ball up and down)

bounce back

v. (D; intr.) to ~ from (our team ~d back from its defeat)

bound

I adj. (cannot stand alone) ['headed'] 1. ~ for (~ for London)

2. homeward ~

II adj. ['covered'] ~ in (the book was ~ in leather)

III adj. ['sure'] (cannot stand alone) ~ to + inf. (she is ~

to find out)

IV v. (formal) (D; tr.) to-on, to (Germany ~s France on the

east)

V n. see bounds

boundary

n. 1. to draw, fix, set; redraw a ~

2. to form a ~

3. a common ~

4. a ~ between

bounds

n. 1. to set the ~

2. out of ~ to

3. within ~

4. (misc.) to know no ~ (her generosity knew no ~)

bound up

adj. (cannot stand alone) ['connected'] ~ in; with (~ in one's

work; her future is ~ with this firm)

bounty

n. 1. to offer; pay a ~

2. a cash ~

3. a ~ for

bow

I /bau/ n. ['bending of the head or body'] 1. to make; take a

~ (the actor took his ~)

2. a low ~

3. a ~ to ['debut']

4. to make one's ~

II v. 1. ('to bend the head or body') to ~ politely

2. (D; intr.) ('to bend the head or body') to ~ before; to (to

~ politely to one's host; to ~ before an emperor)

3. (d; intr.) to ~ out of ('to abandon') (to ~ out of politics)

III /bou/ n. ['device for shooting arrows'] 1. to draw a ~ (in

order to shoot an arrow) ['decorative ribbon']

2. to wear a ~ (in one's hair) ['knot']

3. to tie a ~

bow down

/bau/ v. (D; intr.) to ~ to

bowels

n. 1. to move one's ~

2. loose ~

bowl

n. ['dish, vessel'] 1. a punch; salad; soup; sugar (AE);

washing-up (BE) ~ ['championship football game'] (AE)

2. the Cotton; Rose; Sugar ~ ['region'] (esp. AE)

3. a dust; rice ~

bowling

n. 1. to go in for ~

2. to go ~

bowling alley

n. at a ~ (she works at a ~)

bow out

v. (D; intr.) ('to give up') to ~ as (he had to ~ as a

contender)

bow tie

/bou/ n. 1. to tie a ~

2. to undo, untie a ~

box

n. 1. a call (BE), telephone (BE) ~

2. a letter (BE) ~, mailbox (AE), pillar (BE) ~

3. a signal ~ (BE; AE has signal tower)

4. (ice hockey) a penalty ~

5. a witness ~ (BE; AE has witness stand)

6. a music (AE), musical (BE) ~

7. a prompt (BE), prompter's (AE) ~

8. a shooting ~ (BE; CE has hunting lodge)

9. a black ~ ('electronic recording device')

10. a jewelry; lunch; spice ~

11. a poor ~ (in a church)

12. a press ~ (for journalists)

13. a safe-deposit ~

14. (BE) a Christmas ~ ('a Christmas gift')

15. a suggestion ~

16. a fire-alarm ~

17. (slang) (BE) on the ~ Con television')

boxer

n. 1. a clean; dirty ~

2. ~s box; break; clinch

3. (misc.) to knock out a ~

boxing

n. to go in for ~

boy

n. 1. an altar; barrow (BE; CE has street vendor); bugle; cabin;

chorus; college (esp. AE); delivery; messenger; newspaper;

office; shoe-shine; stock; water ~

2. a best ~ ('assistant gaffer on a TV or film set')

3. a ball ~ (who retrieves tennis balls)

4. (AE; southern) a good old (ole) ~ ('a good fellow')

5. a mere ~

6. a whipping ~ ('a scapegoat')

7. a blue-eyed (BE), fair-haired (AE) ~ ('a favorite')

8. (BE) a back-room ~ ('a scientist') USAGE NOTE: The meaning

of 'non-white servant', now obsolete, is considered offensive.

The AE use of boy in the meaning of 'black male', now obsolete,

is also considered offensive.

boycott

n. 1. to impose a ~

2. to lift a ~

3. an economic, trade; secondary ~

4. a ~ of, on (they imposed a ~ on all imports; they lifted

their ~ of imports

boyfriend

n. a steady ~

brace

I n. a back; leg; shoulder ~

II v. 1. (D; Intr., refl.) to ~ for (to ~ for an attack)

2. (E; refl.) she ~d herself to hear what the doctor would say

braces

(BE) see suspenders

bracket

n. ['support'] 1. to put up ~s (on a wall) ['mark used to

enclose']

2. to enclose (a word) in ~s; to put (a word) into ~s

3. angle, broken; round; square ~s ['group with similar

characteristics']

4. an age; income; tax ~

brag

v. (D; intr.) to ~ about

braid

I n. gold; silver ~

II v. (D; tr.) to ~ into (to ~ one's hair into pigtails)

brain

n. 1. to use one's ~

2. to beat, rack one's ~ over (she racked her ~ over the

problem)

3. to pick smb.'s ~

4. (colloq.) on the ~ (he has nothing but rock music on the ~)

brains

n. 1. to blow one's ~ out ('to shoot oneself through the head')

2. the ~ to + inf. (does he have enough ~ to figure it out?)

brainstorm

n. (AE) ['sudden bright idea'] to have a ~ (see the Usage Note

for wave)

brake

n. 1. to apply, step on a ~; to pump the ~s; to put on the ~s;

to jam on/slam on the ~s

2. to ride the ~s ('to use the brakes excessively')

3. (fig.) to put a ~ on (the government put a ~ on plans for

expansion)

4. to release a ~

5. an air; coaster; disk; electric; emergency; foot; hand;

hydraulic; mechanical; power ~

6. the ~s jammed, locked; faded; failed; held, worked;

screeched

branch

n. ['division'] 1. the executive; judicial; legislative ~

(of the government) ['limb of a tree']

2. to trim ~es

branch off

v. (D; intr.) to ~ from (the spur ~es off here from the main

line)

branch out

v. (D; intr.) to ~ from; into (our firm has ~ed out into various

industries)

brand

I n. 1. to put a ~ on (an animal)

2. a name, popular ~

II v. 1. (d; tr.) to ~ as (he was ~ed as a traitor)

2. (N; used with a noun) to be ~ed a traitor

brash, brassy

adj. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ of him to demand more)

brass

n. (colloq.) ['officers'] 1. air-force; army; navy; Pentagon

~

2. the top ~ ['daring']

3. the ~ to + inf. (she had the ~ to ask for a raise)

brat

n. (colloq.) 1. a spoiled ~

2. an Army ~ ('child in an Army family')

brave

adj. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ of you to do that)

bravery

n. to demonstrate, display, exhibit, show; inspire ~

brawl

n. a barroom, drunken ~

breach

n. ['violation'] 1. to commit a ~ (of etiquette, of the peace)

2. an egregious, flagrant ~ ['gap']

3. to effect, make a ~ (in enemy lines)

4. to close, seal off a ~

5. to fling oneself, throw oneself into the ~ ['break in

friendly relations']

6. to cause a ~

7. to heal a ~

bread

n. ['baked food'] 1. to bake ~

2. to toast ~

3. to break ~ with ('to eat with')

4. fresh; moldy; stale ~

5. black; brown; corn; dark; leavened; rye; sliced; unleavened;

wheat; white; whole meal (BE), whole wheat (AE) ~

6. a crust; loaf; piece, slice of ~ ['living']

7. to earn one's daily ~

8. (misc.) to take the ~ out of smb.'s mouth

breadth

n. (formal) in ~ (it is ten feet in ~)

break

I n. ['dash'] 1. to make a ~ (for safety) ['escape']

2. a mass; prison ~ ['interruption']

3. to make a ~

4. a ~ in, with (a ~ in the conversation; to make a ~ with

tradition) ['rest']

5. to have (esp. BE), take a ~

6. a coffee; news; station (AE); tea (esp. BE) ~

7. during, on a ~ ['opportunity'] (colloq.)

8. to give smb. a ~ ['good fortune']

9. to get a ~

10. a lucky; unexpected ~

11. a tax ~

II v. 1. (B) ('to communicate') I had to ~ the news to them 2,

(D; intr.) ('to curl and fall') to ~ against, on (the waves were

~ing against the rocks)

3. (d; intr.) ('to dash') to ~ for (to ~ for cover)

4. (d; intr.) ('to take time') to ~ for (they broke for lunch)

5. (d; intr.) ('to enter forcibly') to ~ into (burglars broke

into the house)

6. (d; intr.) ('to begin') to ~ into (to ~ into song)

7. (d; tr.) ('to cure') to ~ of (in time he was broken of his

drug habit)

8. (D; tr.) ('to crack') to ~ on (she broke a tooth on a bone)

9. (d; intr.) ('to escape') to ~ out of (two prisoners broke

out of jail; our troops broke out of the encirclement)

10. (d; intr.) ('to penetrate') to ~ through (to ~ through

enemy lines)

11. (d; intr.) ('to end relations') to ~ with (I broke with

them)

12. (D; tr.) ('to cut off) to ~ with (she broke all ties with

her friends)

13. (misc.) to ~ loose; to ~ smb. on the wheel

breakaway

v. (D; intr.) to ~ from (he broke away from his captors)

breakdown

n. 1. to have, suffer a ~ (he had a nervous ~)

2. a complete; mental; nervous ~

3. a ~ in communications

break down

v. 1. (D; intr., tr.) to ~ into (to ~ a substance into its

components)

2. (misc.) to ~ in tears

breaker

n. a circuit ~

breakfast

n. 1. to eat, have ~

2. to make, prepare ~

3. a continental; full; hurried; nutritious, wholesome;

substantial ~

4. at ~ (what did you discuss at ~?)

5. for ~ (to eat eggs for ~)

6. (misc.) to have ~ in bed; bed and ~ (as in a tourist home)

break free

v. (D; intr.) to ~ from

break-in

n. to commit a ~

break in

v. (D; intr.) to ~ on (he broke in on their conversation)

breaking

n. (the crime of) ~ and entering

break loose

v. (D; intr.) to ~ from

break off

v. (D; intr.) to ~ from (they broke off from the main wing of

the party)

breakout

n. 1. to organize a ~ (from prison)

2. to achieve, effect a ~ (from an enemy encirclement)

break out

v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ in (he broke out in a rash)

2. (misc.) (Am. football) the back broke out in/into the open

breakthrough

n. 1. to achieve, effect, make a ~

2. a scientific ~

break through

v. (D; intr.) to ~ to (they broke through to the encircled unit)

break up

v. 1. (D; intr., tr.) to ~ into (they broke up the estate into

small lots; our party broke up into several splinter groups)

2. (colloq.) (D; intr.) to ~ with (he broke up with his

girlfriend)

3. (misc.) ~ it up! (esp. AE; slang) ('stop fighting/

congregating and separate!')

breast

n. 1. to beat one's ~

2. to put a (newborn) infant to ~

3. (of an infant) to take the ~

4. a pigeon ~ ('a deformity of the chest')

5. (cut.) chicken ~s

6. (misc.) to make a clean ~ of smt. ('to confess smt.')

breaststroke

n. to do, swim the ~

breath

n. 1. to draw, take a ~

2. to catch; hold one's ~

3. to get one's ~ back

4. to lose one's ~

5. a deep; long ~ (she took a deep ~)

6. out of ~ ('breathless')

7. (misc.) to spare, save one's ~ ('to avoid a futile

conversation'); to waste one's ~ ('to speak in vain'); to take

smb.'s ~ away ('to stun smb.'); in the same ~ ('at the same

time'); to one's last ~ ('to the end of one's life'); under

one's ~ ('in a whisper'); with bated ~ ('with the breath held,

in suspense')

breathe

v. 1. to ~ deeply

2. (B) he didn't ~ a word to anyone

3. (d; tr.) to ~ into (she ~d new life into the project)

breather

n. ['rest'] to have (BE), take a ~

breathing

n. 1. deep; heavy, labored, noisy; irregular; regular, steady ~

2. (ling.) rough; smooth ~

breathtaking

adj. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ to watch the acrobats perform)

breeches

n. riding ~

breed

n. 1. a ~ apart

2. a hardy; rare ~

breeder

n. a cattle, livestock; horse; poultry ~

breeding

n. 1. cattle; livestock; horse; poultry ~

2. selective ~

3. of ~ (a person of good ~)

breeze

n. ['light wind'] 1. a ~ blows, comes up

2. a gentle, light, soft ~ ['easy task'] (slang) (AE)

3. a ~ to + int. (it was a ~ to get him to agree = it was a ~

getting him to agree) ['misc.']

4. (colloq.) (AE) to bat, shoot the ~ ('to chat')

brew

I n. (a) home ~

II v. (C) she ~ed some tea for us; or: she ~ed us some tea

brew-up

n. (BE) ['making tea'] to have a ~

bribe

I n. 1. to give, offer a ~

2. to accept, take a

II v. 1. (D; tr.) to ~ into (to ~ smb. into collusion)

2. (H) they ~d him to overlook the violation

brick

n. (colloq.) (BE) ['blunder'] to drop a ~

brickbats

n. ['insults'] to hurl ~ at

bricks

n. 1. to lay ~ (a bricklayer lays ~)

2. to point ~

bride

n. 1. to take a ~

2. a ~ takes a husband

3. a beautiful, lovely ~

4. a child; war ~

5. a bride-to-be; a future ~; one's intended ~

bridge

I n. ['structure carrying a roadway'] 1. to build, construct,

erect a ~

2. to throw a ~ across a river

3. an arch; Bailey; bascule; cantilever; covered ~; drawbridge;

footbridge; pontoon; railroad (AE), railway (BE); suspension;

toll; truss ~ (to raise a drawbridge)

4. a jet ~ (at an airport)

5. a ~ collapses

6. a ~ across, over (a ~ across a river)

7. (misc.) our planes knocked out the enemy ~ ['partial

denture']

8. to make; put in a ~

II n. ['card game'] auction; contract; duplicate ~

bridgehead

n. 1. to establish a ~

2. to develop. enlarge a ~

bridle

I n. to put on a ~

II v. (D; intr.) to ~ at (she ~d at her friend's nasty remark)

brief

I n. ['summary of a legal case'] 1. to draw up; file a ~

['brevity']

2. in ~ ['misc.']

3. to hold no ~ for ('not to argue for")

II v. (D; tr.) to ~ smb. about, on (he had to ~ his lawyer on

the case)

briefing

n. 1. to give smb. a ~

2. to get, receive a ~

3. a ~ about, on

brigade

n. 1. a bucket; fire ~ (BE; AE has fire department)

2. (misc.) a brigadier (BE)/brigadier general (AE) commands a ~

brilliant

adj. ~ + inf. (it was ~ of him to find a solution so quickly)

brim

I n. to the ~ (to fill smt. to the ~)

II v. (D; intr.) to ~ with (she was ~ming with enthusiasm)

brim over

v. (D; intr.) to ~ with (to ~ with enthusiasm)

bring

v. 1. (A) ('to carry') she brought word to them; or: she brought

them word

2. (C) ('to carry') he brought a book for me; or: he brought me

a book

3. (d; tr.) ('to present') to ~ before (to ~ a proposal before

a committee)

4. (d; tr.) ('to summon') to ~ before (he was brought before

the court)

5. (d; tr.) ('to carry') to ~ into (she brought the chairs into

the house)

6. (d; tr.) to ~ on ('to cause') (he brought trouble on

himself)

7. (d; tr.) to ~ to ('to cause to reach') (to ~ water to a

boil; her speech brought the crowd to its feet; we must ~ him to

his senses; to ~ smb. to life)

8. (d; tr.) to ~ within ('to cause to reach') (another few feet

will ~ them within range)

9. (H; no passive) ('to induce') we could not ~ him to share

our views; she could not ~ herself to read the letter

10. (J) ('to cause to come') his last-minute appeal brought

them rushing to his aid

11. (misc.) to ~ a child into the world

bring around

v. (AE) (D; tr.) ('to convince') to ~ to (she brought them

around to our point of view)

bring back

v. 1. (C) bring back some coffee for me; or: bring me back some

coffee

2. (D; tr.) ('to return') to ~ to (to ~ smb. back to life)

bring down

v. 1. (mil.) (D; tr.) ('to call for') to ~ on (the artillery

spotter brought down fire on the enemy tanks)

2. (D; tr.) ('to reduce') to ~ to (they finally brought the

price down to a reasonable figure) bring home v. (D; tr.) ('to

make known') to ~. (the bombing brought the war home to the

civilian population)

bring in

v. (D; tr.) ('to include') to ~ on (we must ~ them in on our

plans)

bring out

v. (D; intr.) ('to evoke') to ~ in (the crisis brought out the

best in her)

bring over

v. (D; tr.) ('to move') to ~ to (the incident brought them over

to our side)

bring round

(CE) see bring around

bring together

v. (D; tr.) ('to unite') to ~ for (we brought them together for

negotiations)

bring up

v. 1. (B) I didn't want to ~ the subject to her at that time

2. (d; tr.) to ~ against ('to confront with') (the drought

brought us up against serious difficulties)

3. (D; tr.) ('to raise') to ~ for (to ~ up a question for

discussion)

4. (D; tr.) to ~ on ('to inculcate with') (they brought the

children up on stories about the Old West)

5. (D; tr.) ('to lift') to ~ to (we brought their proficiency

up to the required level)

6. (H) ('to educate, raise') our parents brought us up to

respect others

7. (misc.) her scream brought us up short ('her scream startled

us')

brink

n. at, on the ~ (he teetered on the very ~ of disaster; at the ~

of war)

brinkmanship, brinksmanship

n. to practice ~

bristle

v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ at (he ~d at the remark)

2. (D; intr.) to ~ with (she ~d with anger)

broach

v. 1. (B) I would like to ~ the subject to him

2. (D; tr.) to ~ with (I didn't want to ~ the matter with her)

broadcast

I n. 1. to carry a ~

2. to beam a ~ to

3. to jam a ~

4. a live ~

II v. 1. to ~ live

2. (B) they ~ the news to the local population every day

3. (N; used with an adjective) they broadcast the interview

live

broadside

n. to fire a ~ at

brogue

n. 1. to speak (in, with) a ~

2. a heavy, incomprehensible, thick ~

broil

v. (C) he broiled a few steaks for us; or: he broiled us a few

steaks broiled adj. (AE) charcoal ~

broke

adj. (colloq.) ['having no money']!. to go ~

2. flat ~

broker

n. 1. to act as a ~ for

2. an insurance; marriage; real-estate (AE; BE has estate

agent) ~

3. (AE) a power ~

4. an honest ~

bromide

n. (colloq.) ['platitude'] a (tired, old) ~ about

bronco

n. 1. to ride a ~

2. to break a ~

Bronx cheer

n. (AE) to give, let out a ~

brood

v. (D; intr.) to ~ about, over

brook

n. a babbling ~

broth

n. beef; chicken; clear ~

brother

n. 1. a big, older; kid (colloq.), little, younger; twin ~

2. a foster; half ~; stepbrother

3. a blood; lay; soul ~

4. a ~ to (he was like a ~ to us)

5. (misc.) Big Brother ('government that exercises complete

control')

brouhaha

n. ['fuss'] a ~ over

brow

n. to knit, wrinkle one's ~

browbeat

v. (D; tr.) to ~ into (they could not ~ him into confessing)

browse

v. (D; intr.) to ~ through (to ~ through books)

brunt

n. to bear, take the ~ (our battalion bore the ~ of the attack)

brush

I n. 1. to apply a ~ to

2. a bottle; clothes ~; hairbrush; nailbrush; paintbrush; scrub

(AE), scrubbing (BE); shaving ~; toothbrush; upholstery ~

II v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ against (she ~ed against the table)

2. (d; intr.) to ~ by, past (she ~ed by me)

3. (d; tr.) to ~ off (he ~ed the crumbs off the table)

4. (N; used with an adjective) she ~ed her coat clean

III n. ['brief encounter'] 1. to have a ~ with (to have a ~

with the authorities)

2. a close ~ (a close ~ with the law)

brush-off

n. ['snub'] to give smb. the ~

brush up

v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ against (to ~ against a wall)

2. (D; intr.) to ~ on (to ~ on one's Latin)

brutal

adj. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ of him to do that)

brutality

n. 1. to demonstrate, display, exhibit ~

2. extreme ~

3. police ~

4. an act of ~

5. ~ to, towards, with

bubble

n. 1. to blow ~s

2. to prick a ~

3. to burst a ~

4. a ~ bursts

5. soap ~s

bubble over

v. (D; intr.) to ~ with (the children were ~ling over with

excitement)

bubbling

adj. ~ with (~ with enthusiasm)

buck

I n. (colloq.) (AE) ['responsibility'] to pass the ~

II v. (colloq.) (AE)l.(d; intr.) to ~ against ('to oppose')

2. (D; intr.) ('to make an all-out effort') to ~ for (to ~ for

a promotion)

bucket

n. 1. a coal; fire; ice; water ~

2. a metal; wooden ~

3. an empty; full ~

4. (misc.) (colloq.) to kick the ~ ('to die')

buckle

I n. 1. to fasten a ~

2. to undo, unfasten a ~

3. a brass ~

II v. (D; intr.) ('to collapse') to ~ under (to ~ under severe

pressure)

buckle down

v. (colloq.) (D; intr.) to ~ to (to ~ to work)

bud

n. ['cell embedded in the tongue'] 1. a taste ~ ['early

stage']

2. to nip in the ~

buddy

n. a bosom; old ~

budget

I n. 1. to draw up a ~

2. to submit a ~3. to balance a ~

4. to adhere to; keep, remain within a ~

5. to exceed; stretch a ~

6. to cut, reduce a ~

7. an annual; federal; household; itemized; municipal;

national; state ~

8. an item in, on a ~

II v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ for (they ~ed for a new copying

machine)

2. (D; tr.) to ~ for (we ~ed a thousand dollars for new books)

buff

n. ['the bare skin'] 1. in the ~

2. (BE) to strip to the ~ ['devotee']

3. a history; jazz; opera, theater ~

buffalo

n. a herd of ~

buffer

n. 1. to act as a ~ between

2. (misc.) a ~ state

buffet

v. to be ~ed from pillar to post ('to be forced to go to many

places')

buffoon

n. to play the ~

bug

n. ['listening device'] 1. to install a ~

2. to remove, tear out a ~

bugle

n. 1. to blow, play a ~

2. a ~ sounds

build

I n. ['figure'] a heavy; slight; slim; stocky; sturdy ~

II v. 1. (C) they built a new library for us; or: they built us

a new library

2. (D; tr.) to ~ into (he built cupboards into the walls)

3. (D; tr.) to ~ on (to ~ a relationship on trust)

4. (D; tr.) to ~ out of (they built a boat out of wood)

building

n. 1. to build, erect, put up; renovate a ~

2. to demolish, raze, tear down a ~

3. to gut a ~ (fire gutted the ~)

4. a dilapidated, gutted, ramshackle, tumbledown; low; tall ~

5. an apartment (AE); public ~

buildup

n. a military ~

build up

v. 1. (D; tr.) to ~ into (they built him up into a huge success)

2. (D; intr.) to ~ to (the tension built up to a climax)

built

adj. (cannot stand alone) 1. ~ around (the whole story was ~

around one character)

2. ~ into (quality was ~ into their products)

3. (misc.) jerry ('cheaply') ~; purpose ~ (BE)

bulb

n. ['light bulb'] 1. to change, put in, screw in (AE) a ~

2. a ~ blows out; burns out

3. an electric; frosted; light; three-way ~

4. the glare of a ~ ['tuber']

5. a crocus; tulip ~

bulge

v. (D; intr.) to ~ with (her suitcase was ~ing with presents)

bulk

I n. 1. a lumbering ~

2. in ~ (to sell smt. in ~)

II v. (rare) to ~ large (the case ~ed large in his thoughts)

bull

I n. ['adult male of a bovine animal'] 1. a ~ bellows; gores

['nonsense'] (colloq.)

2. to shoot the ~ ['misc.']

3. to take the ~ by the horns ('to confront a problem boldly');

like a ~ in a china shop ('in a rough, crude, or clumsy manner')

II n. ['letter'] a papal ~

bulldoze

v. to ~ through (they ~d their way through all obstacles)

bulldozer

n. to operate a ~

bullet

n. 1. to shoot a ~

2. a stray; tracer ~

3. a ~ ricochets

4. a ~ lodges somewhere (the ~ lodged in her shoulder)

5. a hail, volley of ~s

6. (misc.) to bite the ~ ('to perform a very unpleasant task')

bulletin

n. 1. to issue a ~ about

2. an all-points ~

3. a daily; news ~

4. the ~ that + clause (we heard the ~ that the dam had burst)

bullfight

n. to hold, stage a ~

bull's eye

n. to hit, score a ~

bully

I n. (colloq.) a big ~

II v. (D; tr.) to ~ into (they ~ied him into doing it)

bulwark

n. a ~ against

bump

v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ against, into (she ~ed into me)

2. (D; tr.) to ~ against, on (she ~ed her arm against the

table)

3. (colloq.) (AE) (D; tr.) ('to remove without warning') to ~

from (he was ~ed from the flight)

bumpkin

n. a country ~

bump up

v. (esp. AE) (d; intr.) to ~ against (he ~ed up against me)

bum's rush

n. (colloq.) to give smb. the ~ ('to eject smb.')

bun

n. ['knot of hair that resembles a bun'] 1. in a ~ (she wore

her hair in a ~) ['type of pastry']

2. a cinnamon, sticky ~

bundle

n. (slang) ['a large amount of money'] to make a ~

bundle oft

v. (D; tr.) to ~ to (we ~d the children off to school)

bundle up

v. (D; intr., refl., tr.) to ~ against (they ~d up against the

cold)

bungle

v. to ~ completely (they completely ~d the job)

bunk

n. (slang) (BE) to do a ~ ('to disappear')

buoy

n. 1. to anchor a ~

2. a bell; breeches; life ~

burden

I n. 1. to bear, carry, shoulder a ~

2. to impose, place a ~ on smb.

3. to alleviate, lighten, relieve a ~

4. to share a ~

5. to distribute a ~ equitably

6. a crushing, heavy, onerous ~

7. a financial; tax ~

8. a ~ on, to (he became a ~ to his family)

9. (misc.) it was a heavy ~ to bear

II v. (D; tr.) to ~ with (she didn't want to ~ us with her

problems)

bureau

n. a better-business (AE); credit; farm; missing-persons; news;

service; speakers'; travel; weather (AE; BE has meteorological

office) ~

bureaucracy

n. a government; overgrown, swollen-

burglar

n. a cat ~

burglar alarm

n. see alarm

burglary

n. to commit (a) ~

burial

n. a ~ takes place (the ~ took place at sea)

burn

I n. 1. to receive a ~

2. a brush, friction; first-degree; minor, superficial; second-

degree, moderate; third-degree, severe ~

3. (misc.) (esp. AE) a slow ~ ('increasing fury')

II v. (d; refl.) to ~ into (the incident ~ed itself into my

memory)

2. (D; intr., tr.) to ~ to (he ~ed the meat to a crisp; the

wood ~ed to ashes; she was ~ed to death)

3. (D; intr.) to ~ with (his cheeks ~ed with shame)

4. (N; used with a noun) to ~ smb. alive

5. (misc.) to ~ smb. at the stake; she ~ed her hand on the

stove

burner

n. 1. to light, turn on; turn off a ~

2. a Bunsen; charcoal; gas; oil ~

3. (misc.) (esp. AE) to put smt. on the back ~ ('to postpone

action on smt.')

burnout

n. (colloq.) (AE) ['exhaustion'] to experience, suffer ~

bum up

v. (slang) (AE) (R) it ~ed me up that she was not promoted

burp

n. 1. to let out, make a ~

2. a loud, noisy ~

burrow

v. (D; intr.) to ~ into (the moles ~ed into our lawn)

bursary

n. (BE) 1. to award a ~

2. to receive a ~

burst

I n. ['series of shots'] 1. to fire a ~ at ['outbreak']

2. a sudden ~

3. in ~s ['misc.']

4. she finally finished the job in/with a sudden ~ of energy

II v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ into (the mob burst into the room; to ~

into flames; to ~ into tears)

2. (d; intr.) to ~ out of (to ~ out of a room)

3. (D; intr.) to ~ with (to ~ with pride; the granaries are

~ing with grain)

4. (E) she was ~ing to tell everyone the news

burst in

v. (D; intr.) to ~ on, upon (we burst in on them without

warning)

burst out

v. (G) they burst out laughing

burton

n. (slang) (BE) to go for a ~ ('to be lost; to be broken; to be

killed; to fail')

bury

v. 1. (d; refl., tr.) to ~ in (he ~ied himself in his work)

2. (N; used with an adjective) they ~ied him alive

bus

n. 1. to drive a ~

2. (as a passenger) to board, get on; catch a ~; get off a ~;

to go by ~; to ride a ~; to ride in a ~; to take a ~

3. a city; double-decker; local; long-distance (AE; BE has

coach); school; sightseeing ~

4. by ~ (they came by ~)

bush

n. 1. to prune, trim a ~

2. (misc.) to beat about/around the ~ ('to speak indirectly')

bushel

n. by the ~ (to sell by the ~)

business

n. ['commerce'] ['trade'] 1. to conduct, do, transact; drum

up ~ (to do ~ with smb.)

2. to go into ~

3. to go out of ~

4. big; small ~

5. a mailorder ~; show ~; the travel ~

6. retail; wholesale ~

7. (AE) a land-office ('brisk') ~ (to do a land-office ~ in

real estate)

8. ~ drops off; picks up

9. ~ is brisk, booming, flourishing, thriving; slack; ~ is at a

standstill

10. in ~ (to be in ~ for oneself)

11. on ~ (to travel on ~) ['firm']

12. to build up; establish; launch a ~

13. to manage, operate, run a ~

14. to buy into; buy out; take over a ~ ['work']

15. to get down to ~

16. to go about one's ~

17. to talk ~ ['affairs']

18. to mind one's (own) ~

19. bad; dirty; funny; (colloq.) monkey ~

20. company; personal; unfinished ~ ['misc.']

21. he has no ~ leaving so early ('he should not leave so

early'); to know one's ~ ('to be competent in one's field'); to

state one's ~ ('to explain what one is doing'); to mix ~ with

pleasure ('to combine work and recreation'); to mean ~ ('to be

serious about achieving one's ends'); to give smb. the ~ ('to

deceive smb.'); it's none of your ~ ('the matter doesn't concern

you')

busing

n. (US) forced; school; voluntary ~

bust

n. (colloq.) ['arrest'] 1. to make a ~

2. a drug

bustle off

v. (D; tr.) to ~ to (she ~ed the children off to school)

busy

I adj. 1. ~ at, with (the children were ~ with their homework)

2. to be ~ doing smt. (she was ~ getting dinner ready)

3. to keep smb. ~

II v. (d; refl.) to ~ by, with (he ~ied himself with various

jobs)

butcher

n. a family ~ (BE) ('a butcher's business run by a single

family'); ('a butcher's business that sells retail rather than

wholesale')

butt

I n. a cigarette; rifle ~

II v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ against

2. (colloq.) (d; intr.) to ~ into (to ~ into smb.'s business)

butter

n. 1. to churn; cream; make ~

2. to spread ~ (on bread)

3. apple (AE); cocoa; peanut; prune; salted; sweet; whipped ~

4. fresh; rancid ~

5. a pat; stick of ~

6. in ~ (to fry in ~)

butterfly

n. 1. to collect ~flies

2. a ~ flits from flower to flower

3. (misc.) a social ~ ('one who leads an active social life')

butter up

v. (colloq.) (d; intr.) to ~ to (he keeps ~ing up to the boss)

butt in

v. (D; intr.) to ~ on (to ~ on a conversation)

button

n. ['fastener'] 1. to sew on a ~

2. to lose; rip off, tear off a ~

3. a ~ comes off (my ~ came off) ['push button']

4. to press, push a ~

5. a panic (colloq.); push ~ ['badge']

6. a campaign ~

buy

I n. (colloq.) ['purchase'] a good ~

II v. 1. (C) we bought a book for her; or: we bought her a book

2. (D; tr.) to ~ from (she bought her car from a local dealer)

3. (d; intr.) to ~ into (to ~ into a business)

4. (misc.) to ~ as is ('to purchase with no guarantee of

quality'); to ~ retail; to ~ wholesale; to ~ at a reasonable

price

buy back

v. (D; tr.) to ~ from

buyer

n. a prospective ~

buying

n. impulse; panic ~

buzz

I n. (colloq.) ('telephone call') to give smb. a ~

II v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ for (to ~ for one's secretary)

2. (D; intr.) to ~ with (to ~ with activity)

buzzer

n. 1. to press, sound a ~

2. at the ~ (at the ~, stop work immediately!)

bye

n. (sports) to draw a ~

by-election

see election

bypass

n. a coronary ~

byplay

n. ~ between

bystander

n. an innocent ~

cab

n. 1. to call for; get; hail; hire; take a ~

2. to drive a ~ (for a living)

3. a radio ~

4. by ~; in a ~ (to go somewhere by ~)

cabbage

n. 1. red; savoy; white ~

2. boiled ~

3. a head of ~

4. (AE) corned beef and ~

cabin

n. ['compartment'] 1. a first-class; second-class ~ ['small

house']

2. a log ~

3. a tourist ~

cabinet

n. ['case'] ['cupboard'] 1. a built-in; china; file, filing;

kitchen ~ ['body of advisors']

2. the president's ~

3. a coalition; kitchen ('informal') ~

4. a shadow ~ ('members of the opposition party who will form

the next cabinet')

5. (misc.) a ~ minister (not US); a ~ reshuffle ['cabinet

meeting'] (BE)

6. to hold a ~

7. in ~ (to take a decision in ~)

cable

I n. ['wire'] 1. to lay, strings

2. a submarine ~; the transatlantic ~

3. an electric, power; telegraph; telephone ~ ['cablegram']

4. to send a ~

5. a ~ from; to

II v. 1. (A) we ~d the message to them; or: we ~d them the

message

2. (d; intr., tr.) to for (they ~d for immediate delivery)

3. (H) we ~d them to return home immediately

4. (L; may have an object) she ~d (us) that the manuscript had

arrived

5. (Q; may have an object) they ~d (us) where to meet

cablegram

n. 1. to send a ~

2. to get, receive a ~

3. a ~ from; to

cadence

n. (usu. mil.) 1. to count ~

2. in ~

cadet

n. 1. an air-force; military; naval ~

2. (slang) (AE) a space ~ ('an absent-minded person')

caesarean, caesarean section

n. 1. to do, perform a ~ on

2. (misc.) to be delivered by ~

cafe

n. a transport ~ (BE; AE has truck stop)

cafeteria

n. a school ~

cage

n. a bank teller's (AE) ~

cagey

adj. (colloq.) ['sly'] ~ about

cahoots

n. (esp. AE) in ~ with ('in partnership with')

cajole

v. 1. (d; tr.) (with an inanimate object) to ~ from, out of (she

~d some money from him)

2. (d; tr.) to ~ into (he ~d me into signing over the property)

3. (d; tr.) (with an animate object) to ~ out of (they ~d him

out of changing his will)

cake

n. 1. to bake; frost (esp. AE), ice a ~

2. a birthday; chocolate; coffee; honey; layer; Madeira (BE),

pound (AE); marble; sponge; wedding; white ~

3. a piece, slice of ~

4. (misc.) a piece of ~ ('smt. very easy to do'); to take the ~

('to be the best or worst')

calamity

n. 1. to avert; ward off a ~

2. to survive a ~

3. a ~ befalls smb.

4. a crushing, dire, great; national ~

calculate

v. (L) we ~d that the trip would take two days

calculated

adj. 1. ill; well ~

2. (usu. does not stand alone) ~ to + inf. (his actions were ~

to provoke his opponents)

calculations

n. 1. to do ~

2. mathematical ~

calculator

n. 1. to use, operate a ~

2. a pocket ~

calculus

n. ['mathematical method'] 1. differential; integral; vector ~

['deposit formed in an organ of the body']

2. a renal; urinary ~

calendar

n. ['chart that shows the days and months'] 1. the Chinese;

Gregorian; Hindu; Islamic, Muslim; Jewish; Julian; Roman ~

2. a perpetual ~ ['schedule']

3. to clear one's ~

4. a court; full; school; social ~

5. on a ~ (what's on your ~ this week?)

calf

n. 1. a ~ bleats

2. in ~ (the cow was in ~)

3. (misc.) the meat of the ~ is veal

caliber, calibre

n. ['diameter of the barrel of a weapon'] 1. heavy; light ~

['quality']

2. high; low ~

3. of a certain ~ (there are few workers left of her ~)

calisthenics, callisthenics

n. 1. to do ~

2. daily; group, mass ~

call

I n. ['appear'] ['summons'] 1. to issue a ~ for (the

government issued a ~ to the populace for voluntary

contributions)

2. to answer, heed, respond to a ~ (to answer the ~ of duty)

3. a clarion ~

4. a curtain ~ (the actor had five curtain ~s)

5. at smb.'s beck and ~ ['visit']

6. to make, pay a ~ on smb.

7. to make a ~ at a place (the ships made ~s at several ports)

8. a business; courtesy; port; professional ~

9. a house ~ (my doctor makes house ~s)

10. a ~ to (a ~ to arms) ['invitation']

11. to accept a ~ ['telephone call']

12. to give smb. a ~

13. to make, place a ~ to smb.

14. to answer; return; take a ~ (who will take her ~?)

15. to put a ~ through (the operator put my ~ right through)

16. a business; collect (AE), transferred-charge (BE);

conference; dial-direct (AE), direct-dialled (BE); emergency;

local; long-distance, toll (AE), trunk (BE); operator-assisted;

ordinary (BE), station-to-station (AE); personal (BE), person-to-

person (AE); telephone; wake-up ~

17. a ~ from; to ['signal']

18. a bugle ~ [heading aloud']

19. a roll ~ ['duty']

20. on ~ (which nurse is on ~?) ['need']

21. a ~ for (there is no ~ for such behavior)

22. a ~ to + inf. (there was no ~ to complain) ['formation']

(AE) (usu. mil.)

23. sick ~ (to go on sick ~) ['misc.']

24. a close ~ ('a narrow escape')

II v. 1. (C) ('to summon') she ~ed a taxi for me; or: she ~ed me

a taxi

2. (d; intr.) ('to visit') to ~ at (the ship will ~ at several

ports)

3. (d; intr.) to ~ for ('to fetch') (I'll ~ for you at two

o'clock)

4. (d; intr.) to ~ for ('to require') (the position ~s for an

experienced engineer)

5. (d; intr.) to ~ for ('to seek') (to ~ for help)

6. (d; tr.) ('to summon') to ~ into (she was ~ed into the room)

7. (D; intr.) to ~ on ('to visit') (several friends ~ed on us)

8. (colloq.) (d; tr.) to ~ on ('to reprimand') (the boss ~ed me

on my sloppy writing)

9. (d; tr.) ('to summon') to ~ out of (she was ~ed out of town

on business)

10. (D; intr.) ('to shout') to ~ to (she ~ed to me in a loud

voice)

11. (d; tr.) ('to summon') to ~ to (to ~ smb. to account; to ~

smt. to mind; the chair ~ed the delegates to order; to be ~ed to

the bar)

12. (N; used with a noun or adjective) ('to describe as') she

~ed him a stuffed shirt; I ~ that mean

13. (0) ('to describe as ') to ~ smb. a bad name

14. (misc.) (esp. AE) ('to telephone') to ~ long-distance

call down

v. 1. (D; tr.) ('to summon') to ~ on, upon (to ~ the wrath of God

on smb.'s head)

2. (D; intr.) ('to shout') to ~ to (he ~ed down to us from the

roof)

call on

v. 1. (D; tr.) to ~ for (to ~ a pupil for an answer)

2. (H) the mayor ~ed on the people to remain calm

callous

adj. 1. ~ to (~ to suffering)

2. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ of him to say that)

call out

v. (D; intr., tr.) ('to shout') to ~ to (he ~ed smt. out to me)

call over

v. (D;tr.) to ~ to (I ~ed him over to our table)

call up

v. (D; intr.) ('to shout') to ~ from; to (she ~ed up to us from

the basement)

call upon

v. see call on

calm

n. 1. to shatter the ~

2. a dead, perfect ~

3. (misc.) the ~ before the storm

calories

n. 1. to count ~

2. to burn ~

3. empty ~ (in junk food)

calumny

n. to heap ~ on

camel

n. an Arabian, one-humped; Bactrian, two-humped ~

camera

n. 1. to load a ~

2. an automatic; box; cine (BE), motion-picture (AE), movie

(AE); miniature; television, TV ~

3. candid ~ ('taking pictures of people without their

knowledge')

4. off ~ ('not being filmed')

5. on ~ ('being filmed')

6. (misc.) to face the ~ (in order to be photographed)

cameraman

n. a motion-picture (AE); television

camouflage

n. 1. to utilize ~

2. natural ~

3. by ~ (to conceal by ~)

camp

n. 1. to make, pitch, set up a ~

2. to break, strike ~

3. an army; concentration; detention; displaced-persons, DP;

internment; labor; prisoner-of-war, POW, PW (AE); refugee;

repatriation; summer; training; work ~

4. a trailer ~ (AE; BE has caravan park)

5. the enemy; rival ~

6. an armed ~

campaign

I n. 1. to carry on, conduct, wage; launch, mount, organize a ~

2. an active, vigorous; feeble, weak; whirlwind ~

3. an advertising; anti-smoking; educational; election,

political; membership; military; national, nationwide; public-

relations; smear; whispering; whistle-stop; write-in ~

4. the ~ got off to a good start; the ~ fizzled (out)

5. a ~ against; for (the ~ against smoking; a ~ for equal

rights)

6. a ~ to + inf. (a ~ to curb alcoholism)

II v. 1. to ~ vigorously

2. (D; intr.) to ~ against; for

camp bed

(BE) see cot 1,2

camper

n. a summer ~ (person)

campus

n. (esp. AE) 1. a college, university ~

2. off; on ~ (to live on ~)

can

I n. 1. (AE) an ash, garbage, trash ~ (BE has dustbin)

2. a milk; watering ~

3. a tin ~

II v. (F) she ~ work (see the Usage Note for able)

Canadian

n. a French ~

canal

n. 1. to build, construct, dig a ~

2. an irrigation ~

canard

n. 1. to circulate, spread a ~

2. an absurd, preposterous ~

canary

n. a ~ sings

cancer

n. 1. to develop ~

2. breast; colon, colorectal; lung; metastatic; rectal; skin;

stomach ~

3. inoperable; terminal ~

4. ~ metastasizes; spreads

candid

adj. 1. ~ about

2. ~ with

candidacy, candidature

n. 1. to announce, file one's ~

2. to withdraw one's ~

candidate

n. 1. to put up a ~ (for office)

2. to adopt (BE); endorse a ~

3. (BE) to de-select a ~ ('to refuse at the local level to

support a party candidate adopted at the national level')

4. a party; write-in ~

5. a defeated; handpicked; leading; successful; unsuccessful;

victorious (a successful ~ for admission to the university; a

victorious ~ for the party's nomination)

6. a ~ for (a ~ for the presidency)

candle

n. 1. to dip ~s

2. to light a ~

3. to blow out, extinguish, snuff out a ~

4. the ~ was burning; was flickering; was going out; was

sputtering

5. a wax ~

6. the flame of a ~

7. (misc.) to bum the ~ at both ends ('to dissipate one's energy

by doing too much'); not to hold a ~ to smb. ('to be far

inferior to smb.')

candlelight

n. by ~ (to read by ~)

candlestick

n. 1. brass; silver ~s

2. a pair of ~s

candor

n. 1. complete; disarming ~

2. the ~ to + inf. (she had enough ~ to tell them the truth)

candy

n. (AE) 1. chocolate; cotton; hard ~

2. a box; piece of ~ (BE has sweets)

cane

n. ['walking stick'] 1. to carry; twirl a ~ ['plant']

2. sugar ~

cannibalism

n. to engage in, practice ~

cannon

n. 1. to fire a ~

2. to aim a ~ at; to train a ~ on

3. to load a ~

4. a ~ booms, roars; fires

5. a water ~ (the police trained a ~ on the mob)

canoe

n. to paddle a ~

canon n. ['dogma'] 1. to establish, lay down a ~ ['round']

(mus.)

2. to sing a ~

cap

n. ['container holding an explosive charge'] 1. a percussion ~

['head covering']

2. to place, put a ~ on one's head

3. a baseball; bathing; dunce; forage (BE), garrison; overseas;

service; skull ~

4. (BE) a cricket; rugby ~ (showing that the wearer is a member

of a certain team)

5. (fig.) a thinking ~ ['ceiling']

6. to place a ~ on (to place a ~ on expenditures)

capability

n. 1. to demonstrate one's ~ties

2. a defense; nuclear ~

3. the ~ to + inf. (the ~ to win)

4. beyond; within one's ~ties

capable

adj. ~ of (he is ~ of anything)

capacity

n. ['ability to hold'] 1. to -(filled to ~)

2. lung; seating; storage ~

3. a ~ of (a ~ of twenty gallons) ['ability']

4. intellectual, mental ~

5. one's earning ~

6. a ~ for (a ~ for making friends)

7. the ~ to + inf. (she has the ~ to go all the way to the top)

['ability to produce']

8. plant; productive ~ (our country's productive ~)

9. full, peak ~

10. at ~ (to operate at peak ~) ['function']

11. an administrative; advisory; official; professional;

unofficial ~

12. in a ~ (she acted in an advisory ~; in his ~ as legal

advisor, he helped us a great deal)

caper

n. 1. to cut a ~

2. a childish ~

capital

n. ['wealth'] 1. to borrow; raise ~

2. to invest, put up; tie up ~

3. to withdraw ~

4. borrowed; circulating, working; fixed, permanent; foreign;

idle ~ ['gain']

5. to make ~ out of smt.

6. political ~ (they made political ~ out of the incident)

['official seat of government']

7. to establish a ~

8. a national; provincial; state ~

9. foreign; world ~s ['main center']

10. a diamond; fashion; film ~ (Hollywood is the film ~ of the

world)

capitalize

v. (d; intr.) to ~ on (to ~ on smb.'s mistakes)

capital punishment

n. 1. to impose; re-introduce ~

2. to abolish ~

capitulate

v. (D; intr.) to ~ to (to ~ to the enemy)

capricious

adj. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ to act in that manner)

capsule

n. a space; time ~

captain

n. 1. (AE) a bell ~

2. a ship's; team ~

3. (AE) a precinct ~ (in the police)

4. (mil.) a ~ commands a company or battery

5. (misc.) ~s of industry ('leading industrialists')

captive

adj.. to hold smb. ~

car

n. ['automobile, motorcar'] 1. to drive, operate a ~

2. to bring a ~ to a stop; to stop a ~

3. to back a ~ (she backed the ~ into the garage)

4. to ride in a ~

5. to go, travel by ~

6. to hire (BE), rent a ~

7. to break in (AE), run in (BE) a (new) ~

8. to jack up; park; register; repair; road-test; service; tune

up; winterize a ~

9. to smash up, total, wreck a ~

10. an armored; command; getaway; Panda (BE), patrol, police,

prowl (AE), squad (AE); passenger; racing; scout; sports; stock

~

11. an estate ~ (BE; AE has station wagon)

12. a new; secondhand, used ~ ['vehicle that moves on rails']

13. (on a train) (AE; BE has carriage, wagon, van) a baggage;

box; cattle; club, lounge, parlor; dining, restaurant (BE);

flat; freight; mail; railroad; sleeping; tank ~

14. a trolley ~ (AE; BE has tram)

15. a cable ~

16. (misc.) to uncouple railroad/railway ~s

carbon

n. radioactive ~

card

n. 1. a boxing; calling, visiting; credit; filing; identity;

index (AE), record (BE); library (AE); membership; playing;

postal; race (BE), racing (AE); ration; time ~

2. a boarding ~ (for boarding a plane)

3. a report ~ (AE; BE has school report)

4. a trump ~ (also fig.) ('advantage')

5. a flash ~ (used as a teaching aid)

6. an anniversary; birthday; Christmas; confirmation; Easter;

get-well; graduation; greeting; Hanukkah; New Year's; sympathy ~

7. (misc.) a drawing ~ ('one who attracts large audiences')

cards

n. 1. to play ~

2. to cut; deal; shuffle the ~

3. playing ~

4. (misc.) to stack the ~ ('to prearrange conditions to one's

own advantage') to hold all the ~ ('to be in a strong

negotiating position'); to be in (AE), on (BE) the ~ ('to be

destined by fate')

care

I n. ['caution'] 1. to exercise, take ~

2. great, meticulous, painstaking, scrupulous, utmost ~

3. ~ to + inf. (she took ~ to avoid catching cold)

4. ~ that + clause (take ~ that you don't get involved)

['solicitude'] ['maintenance'] ['keep']

5. to provide ~ for

6. to take ~ of

7. to entrust smb. to smb.'s ~; to put smb. in smb.'s ~

8. (tender) loving; parental ~

9. antenatal (BE), antepartal, prenatal (AE); child; coronary;

custodial; day; dental; domiciliary; emergency; extended;

foster; health; hospice; in-patient; intensive; long-term;

medical; nursing; out-patient; postnatal, postpartum; respite;

special ~ (this patient requires intensive ~; day ~ for

children)

10. primary (health) ~

11. in smb.'s ~ (the children were left in my ~)

12. under smb.'s ~ (under a doctor's ~)

13. (misc.) a coronary-care unit; an intensive-care unit

['misc.']

14. in ~ of ('at smb.'s address')

II v. 1. (D; intr.) ('to be interested') to ~ about (she doesn't

~ about our opinions)

2. (D; intr.) ('to like') to ~ about, for (he ~s about us; she

~s a lot for you; would you ~ for some more coffee?)

3. (d; intr.) ('to take care of) to ~ for (she ~s for her

elderly mother)

4. (E) ('to want') I don't ~ to attend

career

n. 1. to carve out, make a ~ (for oneself)

2. to enter on; launch a ~

3. to abandon, give up one's ~

4. to cut short smb.'s ~ (the accident cut short her ~)

5. a brilliant, distinguished; checkered; promising;

successful; turbulent ~

6. an academic; amateur; diplomatic; literary; military;

political; professional; public; stage ~

7. a ~ as (to carve out a ~ as a diplomat)

8. a ~ in (she made a ~ for herself in politics)

careful

adj. 1. ~ about, of (a good writer is ~ about details)

2. ~ in (to be ~ in negotiating a new trade agreement)

3. ~ with (we must be ~ with dynamite)

4. ~ to + inf. (she was ~ to avoid controversy)

careless

adj. 1. ~ about, in, or, with (~ about one's appearance)

2. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ of you to leave the door unlocked)

carelessness

n. ~ about, in, with

caress

I n. a gentle ~

II v. to ~ gently

cargo

n. 1. to carry, haul ~

2. to load, take on; stow; transfer ~

3. to unload ~

4. contraband; general ~

5. (misc.) a ~ plane; ship

caricature

n. 1. to draw a ~ of

2. a bold, striking ~

carol

I n. a Christmas ~

II v. to go ~ing

carp

v. (D; intr.) to ~ at

carpet

n. 1. to beat a ~

2. to lay a ~

3. to take up a ~ (the ~ must be taken up and cleaned)

4. (misc.) to roll out the red ~ for smb. ('to give smb. a warm

reception'); a flying, magic ~; to call smb. on the ~ ('to call

smb. to account for her/his actions')

carpeting

n. ['floor covering'] 1. fitted (BE), wall-to-wall ~ ['severe

reprimand'] (BE)

2. to give smb. a ~

carriage

n. ['vehicle'] 1. see baby carriage

2. a railway ~ (BE; AE has railroad car)

3. a horse-drawn ~ ['support']

4. a gun; typewriter ~ ['bearing']

5. an erect; proud ~

carriageway

n. a dual ~ (BE; AE has divided highway)

carrier

n. 1. an aircraft; escort; personnel; troop ~

2. a letter, mail ~ (AE; CE has postman)

3. a common, public ~ ('a transport service used by the

public')

4. a chronic ~ (of a disease)

carrot

n. 1. diced ~s

2. a bunch of ~s

carry

v. 1. (B) she ~ied the books to me

2. (d; tr.) to ~ from; to (we ~ied the table from the door to

the center of the room)

3. (d; tr.) to ~ into (~ the chairs into the house)

4. (d; tr.) to ~ out of (we ~ied the books out of the room)

5. (P; refl.) she ~ies herself well

6. (misc.) to ~ to excess, to an extreme ('to go too far')

carry back

v. (B) he ~ied the books back to her

carry forward

v. (D; tr.) to ~ to (the figures must be ~ied forward to the

next page)

carry on

v. 1. (D; intr.) ('to continue') to ~ with (~ with your work)

2. (D; intr.) ('to have an affair') to ~ with (he was ~ying on

with a married woman)

3. (BE) (G) to ~ talking

carry-over

n. a ~ from; to (a ~ from the past)

carry over

v. (D;tr.) to ~ from; to (~ these figures over to the next page;

to ~ a tradition from one generation to another)

cart

n. 1. to draw, pull; push a ~

2. a ~ creaks; lumbers

3. a shopping ~ (AE; BE has trolley)

4. (misc.) to put the ~ before the horse ('to do in the wrong

order'); to upset the apple ~ ('to ruin smb.'s plans')

cartel

n. 1. to form a ~

2. to break up a ~

3. an international, multinational ~

cartilage

n. (a) torn ~

cart off

v. (D; tr.) to ~ to (they ~ed him off to jail)

cartoon

n. 1. to draw a ~

2. an animated; political ~

3. a strip ~ (BE; CE has comic strip)

cartridge

n. a blank; practice; ruptured; spent ~

cartwheel

n. to do, turn a ~

carve

v. 1. (C) he ~d an ornament for me; or: he ~d me an ornament

2. (D; tr.) to ~ from, out of (to ~ a figure from ivory)

3. (d; intr.) to ~ in (to ~ in wood)

carving

n. an ivory; wood ~

case

I n. ['legal action'] ['argument'] 1. to hear, try a ~ (the

court will not hear this ~)

2. to argue, plead a ~ (the lawyer argued the ~ skillfully)

3. to make (out), present, state; take a ~ (she made out a good

~ for her client; the president took his ~ to the people)

4. to lose; win a ~

5. to decide; settle a ~ (they settled the ~ out of court)

6. to rest one's ~ ('to cease introducing evidence') (the

defense lawyer rested her ~)

7. to dismiss, throw out a ~ (the judge dismissed the ~)

8. an airtight, ironclad, open-and-shut, watertight; clear;

strong; weak ~

9. a civil; criminal; pending; test ~

10. a ~ goes to trial

11. a ~ against (we had an airtight ~ against him)

12. (misc.) to have a good ~ ('to have a convincing argument')

(often ironic) ['crime, felony']

13. to break, crack, solve a ~ (the detective broke the ~)

14. to investigate, work on a ~ (the police worked on the ~ for

a year) ['instance, occurrence, example']

15. to cite a ~

16. an attested; authenticated; borderline; celebrated; clear;

flagrant; hypothetical; isolated, rare; open-and-shut ('easily

settled'); similar; special ~

17. (med.) an acute; advanced; chronic; hopeless; lingering;

mild; terminal ~

18. to be the ~ ('to be so')

19. in a certain ~ (in this ~; in any ~; in ~ of emergency)

20. a ~ in point ('a pertinent case') ['inflectional form']

21. to govern, take a ~ (certain Russian verbs take the dative

~)

22. the ablative; accusative; dative; genitive; instrumental;

locative; oblique; prepositional; vocative ~ ['misc. ']

23. a basket ~ ('smb. without arms or legs or who is in a

completely hopeless situation'); as the ~ may be

II n. ['container'] ['cover'] an attache; display; jewelry;

packing; pillow; watch ~

caseload

n. 1. to carry a ~

2. to increase; reduce smb.'s ~

3. a heavy; light ~ (the social worker carries a heavy ~)

cash

I n. 1. to pay (in) ~

2. to run out of ~

3. out of, short of ~

4. cold, hard; loose; ready; spare ~

5. petty ~

6. (misc.) ~ on the barrel (esp. AE)/nail (BE) ('pay now in

cash'); ~ on delivery ('pay when the order is delivered')

II v. (D; tr.) to ~ for (she ~ed the money order for me)

cash in

v. (colloq.) (d; intr.) to ~ on (to ~ on one's sudden

popularity)

casino

n. a gambling ~

casserole

n. 1. to bake a ~

2. a meat; vegetable ~

cast

I n. ['set of performers'] 1. to head a ~

2. to select a ~

3. an all-star; supporting ~ ['rigid dressing of gauze']

(med.)

4. to apply a ~ to; to put a ~ on (to put a ~ on a leg)

5. a plaster ~

II v. 1. (D; tr.) ('to assign to a role') to ~ as (he was cast

as Hamlet)

2. (d; tr.) ('to throw') to ~ on (his actions have cast doubts

on our entire campaign)

cast about

v. (d; intr.) to ~ for ('to seek') (to ~ for a solution)

caste

n. 1. a warrior ~

2. a ~ system

cast in

v. to ~ one's lot with smb. ('to join forces with smb.')

casual

adj. ~ about (she was very ~ about winning the prize)

casualties

n. 1. to inflict ~ on

2. to incur, suffer, take ~

3. to report ~

4. heavy, serious; light ~ (to inflict heavy ~ on the enemy)

5. civilian; military; traffic ~

cat

n. 1. to neuter a ~; to spay a (female) ~

2. an alley; stray ~

3. an Angora; Burmese; Persian; Siamese ~

4. ~s meow (AE), miaow (BE); purr; scratch

5. a young ~ is a kitten

6. a male ~ is a tomcat

7. (misc.) to let the ~ out of the bag ('to reveal a secret')

catalog,

catalogue

n. 1. to compile, make up a ~2. an author; card; subject; union

~

3. a college, school, university; mail-order; museum ~

catapult

v. (D; intr., tr.) to ~ to (he was ~ed to fame)

cataract

n. (med.) 1. to develop a ~

2. to remove a ~

catastrophe

n. 1. to suffer a ~

2. a financial; major, overwhelming ~

3. a ~ for, to (the fire was a ~ to everyone)

catch

I n. ['hook'] 1. to fasten a ~

2. a safety ~ ['smt. caught']

3. a good ~ (the fishermen brought in a good ~)

4. the ~ of the day; the day's ~ ['act of catching']

5. a running ~ (as in baseball)

II v. 1. to ~ red-handed, in the act

2. (C) she caught a small fish for me; or: she caught me a

small fish

3. (D; tr.) to ~ from (she caught a cold from her brother)

4. (D; intr., tr.) to ~ in (the kite caught in a tree)

5. (D; intr., tr.) to ~ on (his shirt caught on a nail; he

caught his shirt on a nail)

6. (J) we caught him stealing

7. (colloq.) (esp. BE) (0) she caught him one in the eye

8. (misc.) we caught him at his old tricks

catch on

v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ to ('to comprehend') (he caught on to what

I said immediately)

2. (D; intr.) ('to become popular') to ~ with (to ~ with the

public)

catch up

v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ on (to ~ on one's correspondence)

2. (D; intr.) to ~ to (AE), with (I'll ~ with you later; BE

also has: I'll ~ you up later)

catechism

n. (rel.) to recite the ~

category

n. 1. to establish, set up a ~

2. to assign to, put into a ~

3. to fit into a ~

cater

v. (d; intr.) to ~ for (BE), to (to ~ to all tastes) USAGE NOTE:

In BE cater to is typically pejorative, meaning 'to pander to'

cater-cornered, catty-cornered

adj., adv. (AE) ~ to

catheter

n. (med.) to change; insert; irrigate; remove a ~

Catholicism

n. Roman ~

cattle

n. 1. to breed; raise (esp. AE), rear (BE) ~

2. to drive; graze; round up ~

3. to brand ~

4. dairy; prize ~

5. ~ graze

6. a head of ~; a herd of ~

7. young ~ are calves

8. female ~ are cows

9. male ~ are bulls

catty

adj. (colloq.) ['malicious'] ~ about

catty-cornered

see cater-cornered

caucus

n. 1. to hold a ~

2. a party ~

caught up

adj. ['involved'] ~ in (~ in radical movements)

cause

I n. ['movement'] ['objective'] 1. to advance, champion,

fight for, promote; serve a ~

2. to espouse, plead a ~

3. to take up a ~

4. a common; good, just, worthwhile, worthy ~ (to make common ~

with smb.)

5. a lost ~ ['reason']

6. to give; show ~ for

7. (legal) probable ~

8. a deep-rooted, root, underlying; immediate; leading, major;

primary; secondary; ultimate ~

9. natural ~s (to die of natural ~s)

10. (a) ~ for (there is no ~ for alarm)

11. ~ to + int. (to find ~ to rejoice; there is no ~ to

complain; she had good ~ to be disappointed)

II v. 1. (A; usu. without to) we ~d them a lot of trouble

2. (rare) (H; no passive) the incident ~d me to reflect

caution

I n. 1. to exercise, use ~

2. due; extreme, great ~

3. with ~ (to view with ~)

4. (misc.) to fling/hurl/throw ~ to the winds

II v. 1. (D;tr.) to ~ about, against (they ~ed us against

drinking the water)

2. (H) she ~ed us not to go

cautious

adj. 1. ~ about, of (he was ~ about committing himself; she was

~ of strangers)

2. ~ in (~ in using firearms)

3. ~ with (be ~ with them)

cavalry

n. 1. to commit ~

2. heavy; light ~

cave

n. 1. to explore a ~

2. a deep ~

cavil

v. (formal) (D; intr.) to ~ at

cavity

n. 1. to fill a ~ (in a tooth)

2. the abdominal; chest; oral ~

cease

v. 1. (E) the old empire has ~d to exist

2. (rare) (G) we ~d pretending

cease-fire

n. 1. to declare; sign; work out a ~

2. to honor, observe a ~

3. to break, violate a ~

4. a temporary ~

5. the ~ has gone into effect

cede

v. (A) France ~d the territory to them; or: France ceded them

the territory

ceiling

n. ['upper limit'] 1. to place, set a ~ (on prices)

2. to lower; raise a ~

3. to abolish, lift a ~ (on prices)

4. a high; low ~

5. a price; rent ~ ['top of a room']

6. a high; low ~ ['misc.']

7. (slang) to hit the ~ (AE; CE has roof) ('to lose one's

temper')

celebrate

v. to ~ formally; joyously; noisily; officially; privately;

publicly; quietly; solemnly

celebrated

adj. 1. ~ as (~ as a painter)

2. ~ for (~ for scientific research)

celebration

n. 1. to hold a ~

2. a formal; joyous; noisy; quiet; solemn ~

3. a centenary; official; public; religious ~

celebrity

n. ['famous person'] a film, Hollywood; international;

literary; local; national; visiting ~

celery

n. 1. crisp ~

2. a bunch of ~

celibacy

n. to practice ~

cell

n. ['cubicle, small room'] 1. a jail, prison; monk's; padded ~

['small mass of protoplasm']

2. to form a ~

3. a blood; cancer; egg; germ; nerve; sperm ~ ['receptacle

containing electrodes and an electrocyte']

4. a dry; photoelectric; primary; voltaic ~ ['smallest unit of

an organization']

5. to form a ~

6. a local; party ~

cellar

n. a cyclone, storm; wine ~

cellophane

n. to wrap smt. in ~

cement

I n. 1. to mix; pour ~

2. Portland ~

3. ~ sets

II v. to ~ smt. together

cemetery

n. at, in a ~ (she works a t/in the ~; to be buried in a ~)

censor

n. a government; military ~

censorship

n. 1. to impose, introduce ~

2. to exercise, practice ~

3. to abolish, lift ~

4. rigid, strict ~

5. film; government(al); military; press ~

6. ~ of, over

censure

I n. bitter, strong; public ~

II v. 1. to ~ bitterly, strongly

2. (D; tr.) to ~ as (they were ~d as traitors)

3. (D; tr.) to ~ for (the senator was ~d for income tax

evasion)

census

n. 1. to conduct, take a ~

2. a national ~

3. at, in a ~ (at the last ~)

cent

n. (colloq.) not to have a red ~ ('to have no money at all')

center

I n. ['point equally distant from all points on a.

circumference'] 1. dead ~

2. at, in the ~ (at the ~ of a circle) ['central point']

3. a storm ~ (also fig.)

4. at, in a ~ (at the ~ of operations; right in the ~ of

activity) ['location where an activity takes place; focus of

activity']

5. an amusement; birthing (AE), childbearing (AE); business,

commercial; civic; communications; community; convention;

crisis; cultural; day-care; fashion; financial; health;

industrial; job (BE); literary; manufacturing; medical;

research; science; senior-citizen; separation (mil.); service;

shopping; social; trade; wine-producing ~

6. (fig.) a nerve; storm ~

7. a national; world ~ ['group of nerve cells']

8. a nerve ~

v. (d; intr., tr.) to ~ on, upon (attention ~ed on their opening

statements)

central

adj. (formal) (cannot stand alone) ~ to (such values are ~ to our

way of life)

century

n. 1. from; to a ~ (from the fifth to the tenth ~)

2. in a ~ (in the ninth ~)

3. over, through the ~ries

ceremony

n. ['formal act'] 1. to conduct, hold, perform a ~

2. a flag-raising; formal; funeral; marriage, wedding; opening;

religious; solemn; wreath-laying ~ (to perform a religious ~)

['formality']

3. to stand on ~

4. appropriate ~

5. with ~ (with appropriate ~)

6. without ~ (they all pitched in without ~)

certain

adj. 1. absolutely, completely, totally; almost, nearly; quite;

very ~

2. far from ~

3. for ~

4. ~ about, of (we were ~ of his support)

5. ~ to + inf. (she is ~ to agree)

6. ~ that + clause (it is ~ that they will sign the contract;

make ~ that all doors are locked; are you ~ that you turned the

gas off?)

certainty

n. 1. absolute, dead; mathematical; moral ~

2. ~ of (there is no ~ of success)

3. ~ that + clause (there is no ~ that an agreement will be

reached)

4. with ~ (to state with ~)

certificate

n. 1. to issue a ~

2. to cash (in) a ~

3. a baptismal; birth; death; marriage; medical ~

4. a money ~ market; savings; stock; tax-free; treasury ~

5. a gift ~

6. a teaching ~ (you cannot teach in this state without a

teaching ~)

7. (BE) a school ~

certification

n. 1. to grant ~

2. to receive ~

certify

v. 1. (esp. BE) (D; tr.) to ~ as (the psychiatrist ~fied him as

insane)

2. (L) she ~fied that it was a true copy

3. (M) can you ~ this to be a true copy?

4. (esp. BE) (N; used with an adjective) he was ~fied insane

certitude

n. 1. absolute, complete, utter ~

2. ~ that + clause (it is with ~ that I can attest to her good

character)

chafe

v. (d; intr.) to ~ at, under (to ~ at the delay; to ~ under

restrictions)

chaff

n. to separate the (wheat from the) ~ (by threshing or winnowing)

chagrin

n. 1. to express; feel ~

2. deep, profound ~

3. (formal) ~ at (to feel ~ at being rejected)

4. ~ that + clause (she expressed her ~ that the bill had been

voted down)

5. to smb.'s ~ (to my great ~, the trick did not work)

chagrined

ad;. 1. ~ at (~ at being rejected)

2. ~ to + inf. (she was ~ to learn of the outcome)

3. ~ that + clause (we are ~ that the meeting cannot take place)

chain

I n. ['series of metal links'] 1. to keep (a dog) on a ~

2. to put ~s on (the tires of a car)

3. bicycle; tire ~

4. a link in a ~ ['measuring instrument']

5. an engineer's; surveyor's ~ ['shackles']

6. in ~s (the prisoners were in ~s) ['group of associated

enterprises']

7. a department-store; hotel; restaurant ~ ['misc.']

8. a human ~; to pull the ~ (BE) ('to flush the toilet')

II v. (D;tr.) to ~ to (to ~ a dog to a fence)

chair

n. ['piece of furniture for sitting'] 1. a camp (BE), folding;

deck; easy; rocking; swivel ~ ^professorship']

2. to endow; establish a ~

3. to be appointed to, receive a ~

4. to hold, occupy a ~

5. to give up, relinquish a ~

6. a university ~ ['position of chairperson']

7. (esp. BE) to occupy; take the ~

8. a rotating ~ ['chairperson']

9. to address one's questions to the ~ ['misc.']

10. an electric ~ ('a device for executing criminals')

chairman

n. 1. a department(al) ~

2. ~ of the board USAGE NOTE: BE usu. has department head, head

of (the) department.

chairmanship

n. a rotating ~

chairperson

see chairman 1

chairwoman

see chairman 1

chalet

n. a Swiss ~

chalk

n. 1. to write with ~ (on a blackboard)

2. a piece of ~

chalk up

v. 1. (d; tr.) to ~ against (to ~ ten victories against two

defeats)

2. (D; tr.) to ~ for (to ~ another victory for our team)

3. (d; tr.) to ~ to (to ~ smt. up to lack of experience)

challenge

I n. ['dare'] 1. to issue, send a ~

2. to accept, respond to, take up a ~

3. to meet a ~

4. a formidable, real ~

5. a ~ to (it was a ~ to our very existence)

6. a ~ to + inf. (it was a ~ just to survive) ['demand for

identification'] (usu. mil.)

7. to give the ~ (the sentry gave the ~) ['objection to a

prospective juror'] (legal)

8. a peremptory ~ (to use one's peremptory ~)

II v. 1. (D; tr.) to ~ to (to ~ smb. to a duel)

2. (H) he ~d me to fight

challenger

n. to take on a ~

chamber

n. 1. the lower; upper ~

2. an assembly; council; parliamentary; senate ~ ['room']

['compartment']

3. a gas; torture ~

4. a combustion; decompression ~

chameleon

n. ~s change their color

champ

v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ at (to ~ at the bit)

2. (E) they were ~ing to get home

champagne

n. to drink; quaff; sip ~

champion

n. a defending; national; world ~

championship

n. ['position of a champion'] 1. to hold; win a ~

2. to regain; retain a ~

3. to give up, lose, relinquish a ~

4. an individual; national; team; world ~

championships

n. ['contest'] 1. to hold ~

2. (the) national; world ~

chance

I n. ['opportunity'] ['possibility'] 1. to have, stand a ~ of

(she has a good ~ of success; he doesn't have a ghost of a ~)

2. to let a ~ slip by; to miss one's ~

3. an earthly, poor, slight, slim; even; fair; fighting; good;

last; only; outside; sporting ~ (he doesn't have an earthly ~ of

being elected)

4. little, small ~ (there is little ~ of that happening)

5. a ~ against (she doesn't stand a ~ against such strong

competitors)

6. a ~ for (a ~ for success)

7. a ~ to + inf. (she had a ~ to visit her family)

8. a ~ that + clause (there is no ~ that she will win)

['luck']

9. to take a ~ on ('to try one's luck at']

10. to leave smt. to ~

11. pure, sheer ~

12. a lucky ~

13. by ~ (it was by pure ~ that we met)

II v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ upon ('to find by chance') (to ~ upon a

rare item)

2. (formal) (E) ('to happen') I ~d to be there when they arrived

chandelier

n. a crystal ~

change

I n. ['alteration'] ['transition'] 1. to bring about, effect,

make a ~

2. to undergo ~

3. a drastic, great, marked, momentous, radical, striking,

sweeping; long overdue, needed, welcome; quick; sudden ~; little

~ (there was little ~ in his condition)

4. a ~ occurs, takes place

5. a ~ for (a ~ for the better)

6. a ~ from; into, to (the ~ from spring to summer)

7. a ~ in, of (a ~ in the weather; ~s in personnel; a ~ of diet;

the ~ of seasons)

8. for a ~ (let's eat out for a ~) ['money returned'] ['metal

coins']

9. to give; make; return ~ for (can you give me ~ for a pound?)

10. to count; get, take one's ~

11. to keep the ~

12. loose; small ~ ['change of clothing']

13. to make a ~

14. a quick ~ (to make a quick ~)

II v. 1. to ~ drastically, radically

2. (D; intr.) ('to transfer') to ~ for (we must ~ at the next

station for Chicago)

3. (D; tr.) ('to exchange') to ~ for (to ~ dollars for pounds)

4. (D; intr.) ('to put on different clothes') to ~ for (to ~ for

dinner)

5. (D; intr., tr.) ('to be transformed; to transform') to ~

from; into (the disease ~d him from an athlete into an invalid;

to ~ dollars into pounds)

6. (D; intr.) ('to put on different clothes') to ~ into (to ~

into smt. less formal)

7. (D; intr., tr.) ('to transfer') to ~ to (we must ~ to an

express; she ~d the appointment to Monday)

8. (D; tr.) ('to exchange') to ~ with (I would not want to ~

places with her)

change back

v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ from; to (they ~d back to peacetime

production)

2. (d; intr.) to ~ into (we ~d back into casual wear)

changeover

n. 1. a complete, radical, thorough, total ~

2. a ~ from; to (a ~ from a peacetime to a war economy)

v. (d; intr.) to ~ from; to (the country ~d over to a war

economy; to ~ to the decimal system)

changer

n. a coin; record ~

channel

I n. 1. to change ~s

2. a television, TV ~

II v. (D; tr.) to ~ into (we had to ~ their energy into useful

activities)

channels

n. 1. diplomatic; military; regular ~

2. through ~ (he sent his request for transfer through regular

~; to go through ~)

chaos

n. 1. to cause, create ~

2. complete, total, utter ~

3. economic; political ~

4. ~ ensues, results

5. a state of ~

chap

n. (colloq.) a decent, fine, good, nice ~

chapel

n. ['place of worship'] 1. (a) hospital; military; prison;

ship's ~ ['Nonconformist place of worship'] (BE) (used as an

adjective)

2. are you church or ~?

chaperon, chaperone

n. to serve as a ~ (to serve as a ~ at a dance)

chaplain

n. a hospital; military; prison; ship's ~

chapter

n. 1. a closing; introductory, opening ~

2. a ~ about, on

3. (misc.) a closed ~ in one's life ('smt. that belongs to the

past'); to quote ~ and verse ('to cite an exact source')

character

n. ['personality'] ['behavior'] 1. to form, mold one's ~

2. to epitomize; reflect smb.'s ~

3. one's moral; true ~

4. a bad, disreputable; firm, strong; excellent, fine, good;

impeccable, stainless; lovable; national; upright; weak ~

5. of ~ (a person of good ~) ['role'] ['person playing a

role']

6. to assume; play, portray a ~

7. to delineate, depict, draw; develop; kill off a ~

8. a fictitious; leading, main, major, principal; minor,

supporting ~

9. in ~; out of ~ (his behavior was in ~ with his upbringing;

her actions were out of ~) ['person, esp. dubious or

eccentric']

10. a dangerous; disreputable; historical; seedy, shady;

strange, weird; suspicious; tough; underworld; unforgettable ~

['letter, figure']

11. to form, trace; write ~s

12. Arabic; Chinese; cuneiform; Cyrillic; Greek; Hebrew; Hindi;

Latin; mathematical; special ~s ['nature']

13. to have a ~ of one's own

14. an official; political; subversive; unofficial ~ (the

statements were of a political ~)

characteristic

I adj. ~ of

II n. 1. a distinctive, marked; distinguishing, identifying;

dominant, outstanding; unique ~

2. facial; individual; national; physical ~s

characterize

v. (d; tr.) ('to describe') to ~ as (he can be ~d as a fanatic)

charades

n. to play ~

charcoal

n. to bum ~

charge

I n. ['accusation'] 1. to bring, level, make a ~; to prefer,

press ~s

2. to concoct, cook up, fabricate, trump up a ~ (they trumped up

various ~s against her)

3. to prove, substantiate a ~

4. to face a ~

5. to dismiss, throw out a ~ (the judge dismissed all ~s)

6. to drop, retract, withdraw a ~

7. to deny; refute; repudiate a ~

8. a baseless, fabricated, false, trumped-up; frivolous ~

9. a ~ against smb. (to bring ~s of forgery against smb.)

10. a ~ that (he denied the ~ that he had taken bribes)

11. on a ~ of (he was arraigned on a ~ of embezzlement; to be

arrested on various ~s)

12. ['attack'] to lead; make a ~ against

13. to sound the ~

14. to fight off, repel, repulse a ~

15. a bayonet; cavalry; infantry ~ ['explosive']

16. to set off a ~

17. a depth ~ ['responsibility']

18. to place, put smb. in ~ of smt.

19. to take ~ of smt.

20. to be in ~ of smt. ['custody']

21. in smb.'s ~ (the child was in my ~) ['cost'] ['price']

22. to make a ~

23. to reverse, transfer (BE) (the) ~s (when telephoning)

24. an exorbitant; reasonable ~

25. an admission; carrying; cover; minimum; service ~

26. a ~ against, to (a ~ to smb.'s account)

27. a ~ for (there will be no ~ for installation) ['infusion of

stored energy']

28. to give (a battery) a ~

29. an electric; quick; slow ~ ['thrill'] (slang)

30. to give smb. a big ~

31. to get a ~ out of smt.

32. an emotional ~ ['instructions']

33. to give one's ~ (the judge gave her ~ to the jury)

34. a ~ to (the judge's ~ to the jury)

II v. L ('to ask in payment') to ~ double

2. (D; intr.) ('to rush') to ~ at (the bull ~d at us)

3. (d; intr.) ('to ask payment') to ~ for (they didn't ~ for it)

4. (D; intr., tr.) to ~ for ('to ask in payment') (they ~d ten

dollars for shipping our books; he ~s by the hour for laying a

carpet)

5. (d; intr.) ('to rush') to ~ into; out of (to ~ into a room)

6. (D; tr.) to ~ out of ('to borrow from') (to ~ a book out of a

library)

7. (D; tr.) ('to impose as an obligation') to ~ to (~ it to my

account)

8. (D; tr.) ('to accuse') to ~ with (he was ~d with murder)

9. (D; tr.) ('to saturate') to ~ with (the air was ~d with

tension)

10. (D; tr.) ('to assign') to ~ with (our agency has been ~d

with the responsibility of gathering all pertinent information)

11. (L) ('to accuse') they ~d that he had cheated them

12. (O; may be used with one object) ('to ask payment') she ~d

(me) fifty dollars for her services; how much did he ~? did they

~ you?

chargeable

adj. ~ to

charitable

adj. 1. ~ towards

2. ~ to + int. (it was ~ of her to say that)

charity

n. 1. to dispense, distribute, give ~ to; to bestow ~ on, upon

2. to accept ~

3. to ask for, beg for, plead for ~

4. an act of ~

5. ~ for (~ for the needy)

6. (misc.) (proverb) ~ begins at home

charm

n. ['amulet'] 1. to wear a ~ ['attractive quality']

2. to turn on, use one's ~

3. to exude; have, possess ~

4. to lend ~ to

5. great, irresistible; natural; particular, special; unfailing

~

6. the ~ to + inf. (she has enough ~ to win anyone over)

['misc.']

7. it works like a ~ ('it works perfectly')

charmed

adj. ~ to + inf. (I would be ~ to accept your invitation)

charmer

n. 1. (to be) a real ~

2. a snake ~

charming

adj. 1. ~ to (she is ~ to everyone)

2. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ to watch them)

chart

I n. 1. to compile a ~

2. an aeronautical; clinical; eye; flow; genealogical;

statistical; wall ~

II v. (D; tr.) to ~ for (he has ~ed a difficult course for us)

charter

n. 1. to apply for; take out a ~

2. to grant a ~

3. to revoke a ~

4. a ~ to + inf. (the company was granted a ~ to trade in the

occupied territory)

charter flight

n. to organize a ~

chary

adj. 1. ~ about (~ about doing smt.)

2. ~ of (~ of strangers)

chase

I n. 1. to give ~ to

2. to abandon, give up the ~

3. a wild-goose ~

4. in ~ of (in full ~)

5. (misc.) (AE) to lead smb. a merry ~ (BE has to lead smb. a

merry dance}

II v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ after (to ~ after fame)

2. (D; tr.) to ~ from, out of (~ the dog out of our yard!)

chaser

n. 1. a submarine ~

2. (misc.) (colloq.) an ambulance ~ (esp. AE) ('a lawyer who

seeks clients among accident victims'); whiskey with a beer ~

('whiskey served with a glass of beer')

chasm

n. 1. to bridge a ~

2. a gaping, yawning ~

chat

I n. 1. to have a ~

2. a friendly, nice, pleasant ~

3. a ~ about; with (I had a pleasant ~ with them about our new

grandchildren)

4. a ~ between

II v. (D; intr.) to ~ about; to (BE), with

chatter

I n. constant, endless, idle, incessant ~

II v. 1. ('to talk fast') to ~ incessantly

2. (D; intr.) ('to talk fast') to ~ about

3. (D; intr.) ('to click') to ~ from, with (his teeth were ~ing

with the cold)

cheap

adj. 1. (colloq.) dirt ~

2. ~ to + inf. (it's not ~ to live in the city; it is ~er to

live in the south than in the north)

3. (misc.) to hold life ~

cheat

I n. 1. a downright; notorious ~

2. a tax ~

II v. 1. (D; mtr., tr.)to ~ at (to ~ at cards)

2. (D; intr.) to ~ on ('to deceive') (to ~ on one's wife)

3. (D; tr.) to ~ out of (he ~ed us out of our money)

4. (misc.) to ~ on an examination

check

I n. ['order to a bank'] (BE has cheque) 1. to issue, make out,

write out a ~ to

2. to draw a ~ against one's account; to draw a ~ on a bank

3. to cash; clear; deposit; present a ~

4. to cover a ~ (by making a deposit)

5. to endorse; negotiate a ~

6. to pass a (bad) ~; to kite a ~ (AE) ('to write a bad ~'); to

raise ('increase fraudulently') a ~

7. to stop payment of, on a ~

8. a bad ('not covered'); blank; cashier's; certified; crossed

(BE); negotiable; traveler's ~

9. a ~ bounces; clears

10. by ~ (to pay by ~) ['verification'] ['control']

11. to conduct, make, run a ~ of, on

12. a background; bed; loyalty; spot ~ (to run a background ~ on

all new employees) ['endangered position of the king'] (chess)

13. to produce a ~

14. to discover ~

15. discovered; perpetual ~

16. in ~ (your king is in ~) ['bill in a restaurant'] (AE)

17. to pay the ~ ['token of ownership, of a right']

18. a baggage (AE); claim; hat; rain (AE) ~ ['blocking of an

opponent'] (ice hockey)

19. a board; body; hook ~ ['device for braking']

20. a door ~ ['restraint']

21. to hold, keep in ~

II v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ into ('to verify') (to ~ into smb.'s

story)

2. (d; intr.) to ~ into ('to register at') (to ~ into a hotel)

3. (d; intr.) to ~ on ('to verify') (to ~ on smb.'s story)

4. (d; intr.) to ~ out of ('to announce one's departure from')

(to ~ out of a hotel)

5. (d; tr.) to ~ out of ('to borrow from') (she ~ed the book out

of the library)

6. (D; intr.) to ~ through ('to look through') (to ~ through the

files)

7. (AE) (d; tr.) to ~ through to ('to register as far as') (she

~ed her suitcase through to Chicago)

checkbook

n. to reconcile a ~ with (a bank statement)

checkers

n. 1. to play ~

2. Chinese ~

check in

v. (D; intr.) to ~ at (to ~ at a hotel)

checking account

n. (AE) to balance a ~ (every month)

checklist

n. 1. to compile, make up a ~

2. to go down, go through a ~

check out

v. (D; tr.) ('to borrow') to ~ from (she ~ed out a book from the

library)

checkrein

n. (rare) a ~ on, upon

checkup

n. 1. to do, give a ~ (the doctor gave me a thorough ~)

2. to have a ~ (I had a ~ at the hospital yesterday)

3. an annual; careful; regular; thorough ~

check up

v. (D; intr.) to ~ on (to ~ on smb.'s story)

cheek

n. ['side of the face'] 1. to puff (out) one's ~s

2. burning, flushed; dimpled; full, rounded; hollow, sunken;

pale; rosy, ruddy ~s ['impudence'] (colloq.)

3. the ~ to + inf. (she had the ~ to phone me at home)

cheekbones

n. high, prominent ~

cheeky

adj. (colloq.) ['impudent'] ~ to + inf. (it was ~ of her to

phone you at home)

cheer

I n. ['rallying cry'] ['cry of approval'] 1. to give, shout a

~ (let's give him three ~s)

2. to draw a ~ (her performance drew ~s)

3. to acknowledge the ~s (of the crowd)

4. a loud, ringing, rousing ~

5. a school ~ (let's give the school ~!) ['good mood']

6. Christmas; good ~

7. of ~ (to be of good ~ )

II v. 1. to ~ enthusiastically, loudly

2. (D; intr.) to ~ for (they ~ed loudly for their team)

3. (N; refl.; used with an adjective) they ~ed themselves hoarse

cheese

n. 1. grated; grilled (AE), toasted (BE); hard; mild; semi-soft;

sharp; smoked; soft ~

2. (misc.) (colloq.) say ~! ('smile'!)

chemistry

n. ['science that deals with substances'] 1. analytical;

inorganic; organic; physical ~ ['personal feelings'] (colloq.)

2. personal ~; the right; wrong ~

3. the ~ between

cheque

(BE) see check 1,1-10

chequebook

(BE) see checkbook

chess

n. 1. to play ~

2. (misc.) a ~ game; master; match

chest

n. ['thorax'] 1. to beat; throw out one's ~ (with pride)

2. a barrel ~ ['box']

3. a hope (AE; BE has bottom drawer); ice; medicine; silver;

tool ~

chestnuts

n. 1. to roast ~

2. (misc.) to pull smb.'s ~ out of the fire ('to extricate smb.

from an unpleasant situation')

chewing gum

n. a piece; stick of ~

chic

I adj. ['fashionable'] ~ to + inf. (it's very ~ to give up

smoking)

II n. 1. an indefinable ~

2. radical ~

chick

n. 1. to hatch ~s

2. ~s cheep

3. a brood of ~s

chicken

I n. 1. ~s cluck

2. a brood of ~s

3. a young ~ is a chick, cockerel (BE)

4. a female ~ is a hen

5. a male ~ is a cock (esp. BE)/rooster (esp. AE)

6. (misc.) to count one's ~s before they are hatched ('to

rejoice prematurely')

II v. (colloq.) (d; intr.) to ~ out of ('to abandon') (to ~ out

of an agreement)

chickenpox

n. to catch, come down with (the) ~

chide

v. (D; tr.) to ~ for

chief

n. 1. an Indian ~

2. a fire; police (AE) ~

chieftain

n. a tribal ~

child

n. 1. to adopt; bear, give birth to, have a ~ (she had four

children)

2. to carry a ~ (a mother carries a ~ for nine months)

3. to beget; conceive a ~

4. to bring up, raise, rear a ~

5. to feed; nurse; wean a ~

6. to indulge, pamper, spoil a ~

7. to toilet-train, train a ~

8. to acknowledge a ~ (as one's own)

9. to marry off one's ~

10. an adopted; foster; illegitimate, love, natural; legitimate;

only; unwanted ~

11. a delinquent; disobedient; incorrigible; mischievous;

problem; recalcitrant; stubborn; unruly; self-willed, wilful;

wayward ~

12. an indulged, pampered, spoiled ~

13. a disciplined, obedient, well-behaved ~

14. a bright, gifted, intelligent; sensitive ~

15. a precocious; young ~

16. a dull, slow; handicapped; retarded; underprivileged ~

17. a flower (of the 1960s); latchkey (who comes home to an

empty house) ~

18. a happy; loving; well-cared for ~

19. an abused, mistreated; neglected ~

20. a ~ develops, grows (into adulthood)

21. (misc.) to be with ~ (old-fashioned) ('to be pregnant')

childbirth

n. 1. natural; prepared ~

2. in ~ (she died in ~)

childhood

n. 1. to spend one's ~ (somewhere)

2. one's second ~

3. in one's ~

4. since ~

childish

adj. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ of him to do that)

child's play

n. (colloq.) ['easy task'] 1. ~ to (that's ~ to him)

2. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ to solve that riddle)

chill

I n. 1. (fig.) to cast a ~ on, over

2. to catch a ~

3. to take the ~ off (take the ~ off the milk)

II v. 1.(C)~ a glass for me; or (rare): ~ me a glass

2. (misc.) ~ed to the bone chills n. to send ~ up one's spine

('to frighten smb.')

chime

v. (d; intr.) to ~ into ('to join in') (she always ~s into a

conversation)

chime in

v. (D; intr.) to ~ with (to ~ with one's opinion)

chimes

n. 1. to sound ~

2. organ ~

3. ~ sound

chimney

n. 1. smoke goes up a ~

2. smoke comes out of a ~

chin

n. 1. a double; smooth ~

2. a glass ('weak') ~ (of a boxer)

3. (misc.) to keep one's ~ up ('not to become discouraged'); to

take it on the ~ ('to suffer a misfortune courageously')

china

n. ['porcelain'] 1. fine ~

2. a set of ~

chink

n. a ~ in one's armor ('a weak point')

chip

n. ['thin slice'] (AE) 1. a potato ~ (BE has crisp)

['semiconductor body']

2. an integrated-circuit; silicon ~ ['misc.']

3. a bargaining ~ ('smt. that can be used to win concessions');

a ~ off the old block ('a child who resembles its parent'); to

have a ~ on one's shoulder ('to harbor resentment')

chip away

v. (d; intr.) to ~ at (to ~ at a rock; the police kept ~ping away

at their alibi)

chip in

v. l.(D;intr.) to ~ for (they all ~ped in for a present)

2. (D; intr.) to ~ with (we all ~ped in with our suggestions)

chips

n. ['gambling tokens'] to cash in one's ~ (also fig.) ('to

die')

chisel

v. 1. (D; tr.) ('to shape with a chisel') to ~ from, out of (to ~

smt. from wood)

2. (colloq.) (D; tr.) to ~ out of ('to cheat out of) (he ~ed me

out of my money)

chiseled

adj. ['shaped'] finely ~

chloroform

n. to administer, give ~ to

chock-full

adj. (colloq.) ~ of

chocolate

n. ['candy, sweet'] 1. dark; milk ~

2. a bar of ~ ['beverage']

3. hot ~

4. a cup of ~

choice

n. 1. to exercise, make a ~

2. a bad, sorry, wrong; careful; difficult; first; good, happy,

intelligent, judicious, wise; random; second; wide (she made the

wrong ~)

3. (a) free; individual; limited ~ (to exercise individual ~)

4. a ~ among, between; of (a ~ between two jobs; a ~ of colors)

5. (misc.) we have a difficult ~ to make; take your ~; freedom

of ~; Hobson's ('no') ~

choir

n. 1. to form; lead a ~

2. to sing in a ~

choke

I n. (on a car) 1. to pull out; push in the ~

2. an automatic; manual ~

II v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ on (to ~ on a bone)

2. (d; intr.) to ~ with (to ~ with emotion)

3. (misc.) to ~ to death

choked

adj. ['blocked'] ~ with (~ with weeds)

choked up

adj. (all) ~ with (~ with emotion)

cholera

n. 1. to come down with, contract ~

2. (misc.) a ~ epidemic

cholesterol

n. 1. to cut down on ~

2. high; low in ~

choose

v. 1. to ~ carefully, judiciously; to ~ at random

2. (D; intr.) to ~ among, between, from (to ~ between two

offers)

3. (D; tr.) to ~ as (they chose her as their spokesperson)

4. (D; intr., tr.) to ~ by (to ~ by lot; to ~ by tossing a coin)

5. (D; tr.) to ~ for (~ a book for me)

6. (D; tr.) to ~ from (they chose us from a large number of

candidates)

7. (E) she chose to remain at home

8. (H) they chose me to serve as their representative

choosey

adj. (colloq.; esp. AE) ~ about

choosing

n. of one's own ~

chop

I n. ['cut of meat'] 1. a chump (BE); lamb; mutton; pork; veal

~ ['blow']

2. a karate ~

II v. (C) ~ some wood for me; or: ~ me some wood

chopper

n. a food; meat ~

chopsticks

n. to use ~

chop up

v. 1. (C) ~ some wood for me; or (colloq.): ~ me up some wood

2. (D; tr.) to ~ into (he ~ped the log up into firewood)

chord

I n. ['combination of three or more musical notes'] 1. to play

~s

2. a dominant; major; minor

II n. ['feeling, emotion'] 1. to strike, touch a ~

2. a popular; responsive, sensitive, sympathetic ~ (to strike a

responsive ~)

chores

n. 1. to do one's ~

2. daily; routine ~

chortle

v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ about, over

2. (D; intr.) to ~ with (to ~ with glee)

chorus

n. ['group of singers'] 1. a female; male; mixed ~

['simultaneous utterance']

2. to join in, swell the ~

chowder

n. (AE) clam; corn; fish ~

christen

v. (N; used with a noun) they ~ed the child Joseph

christening

n. to perform a ~

Christian

n. a believing (esp. BE); born-again; evangelical;

fundamentalist; good; practicing ~ Christmas n. 1. to celebrate

~

2. a white ~

3. on ~

4. on ~ day; on ~ eve; Merry ~

Christmas tree

n. to decorate, trim a ~

chronicle

n. 1. to keep a ~

2. a daily; monthly; weekly ~

3. (misc.) a ~ of events

chuck

v. (colloq.) (usu. B) ~ the ball to me

chuckle

I n. 1. to have; let out a ~ (we had a good ~)

2. a hearty ~

3. a ~ about, over

II v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ about, over

2. (D; intr.) to ~ to (to ~ to oneself)

3. (D; intr.) to ~ with (to ~ with glee)

chum

n. (colloq.) a childhood; old; school ~

chummy

adj. (colloq.) ['friendly'] ~ with

chum up

v. (D; intr.) to ~ with

church

n. 1. to consecrate, dedicate a ~

2. to attend, go to ~

3. the Catholic; Christian; (Eastern) Orthodox; Protestant;

Uniate ~

4. the Anglican; Baptist; Christian Science; Congregational;

Episcopal; Lutheran; Mennonite; Methodist; Mormon; Presbyterian;

Seventh Day Adventist; Unitarian ~

5. an evangelical; fundamentalist ~

6. (esp. GB) an established ('official'); free ('Nonconformist')

~

7. (esp. GB) The Church of England; Ireland; Scotland

8. at, in ~

churlish

adj. ~ to + int. (it would be ~ to offer such petty criticism)

cider

n. hard (AE); sweet ~

cigar

n. 1. to light (up); puff on; smoke a ~

2. a Havana ~

cigarette

n. 1. to light (up); puff on, smoke a ~

2. to roll a ~ (he used to roll his own ~s)

3. to extinguish, put out, stub out a ~

4. a live ~

5. a filter-tip; king-size; low-tar; mentholated ~

6. a carton; pack (AE), packet (BE) of ~s

cinch

n. (colloq.) ['certainty'] 1.~ to + int. (he's a ~ to be

elected)

2. ~ that + clause (it's a ~ that he'll win)

cinders

n. to spread ~ (on a snow-covered road)

cinema

n. (BE) at, in the ~

cipher

n. ['code'] 1. to break, solve a ~

2. in ~

circle

n. ['circular geometric figure'] 1. to describe, draw a ~

2. to square a ~ (to square a ~ is impossible)

3. the Antarctic; Arctic; polar ~ (at the Arctic ~)

4. the great ~ (on the earth's surface)

5. a traffic ~ (AE; BE has roundabout)

6. (sports) the center ~; the winner's ~ (at a

racecourse/racetrack)

7. the area; circumference; diameter; radius of a ~ ['group

resembling the figure of a circle']

8. to form a ~

9. to join a ~ (she joined the ~ of dancers) ['group']

10. academic; artistic; business, financial; court; diplomatic;

exclusive, select; high; informed, well-informed; literary;

official; political; professional; ruling ~s (to move in the

highest ~s)

11. a charmed ('exclusive'); close, closed, inner, intimate,

narrow; wide ~ (a close ~ of friends)

12. a linguistic; quilting; sewing ~

13. a family ~

14. in a ~ (in our ~ of friends; in informed ~s) ['cycle']

15. to come full ~ ['misc.']

16. a vicious ~ ('an insoluble, never-ending problem'); to go

around in ~s ('to behave in a confused manner')

circuit

n. ['path of an electric current'] 1. to break; close a ~

2. a closed; integrated; printed; short ~ ['route traveled by a

judge on tour']

3. to make a ~ (the judge makes a ~ every year)

4. on ~ (the judge was on ~) ['series of similar events']

5. the lecture; rodeo; talk-show ~

circuit breaker

n. to trip a ~

circular

n. 1. to send out a ~

2. to distribute ~s

circulate

v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ among (the host ~d among the guests)

2. (D; intr.) to ~ through (blood ~s through the body)

circulation

n. ['distribution'] 1. to put into ~ (to put more money into ~)

2. to withdraw from ~ (to withdraw old banknotes from ~)

3. enormous, large, wide; general; limited, small; national,

nationwide ~ (this magazine has attained a wide ~)

4. in ~ (this money is no longer in ~) ['movement']

5. blood ~; or: ~ of the blood

6. good, healthy; poor ~

circumcision

n. to do, perform a ~ (on)

circumference

n. in ~ (ten feet in ~)

circumstances

n. 1. adverse, difficult, trying ~

2. reduced, straitened ~

3. aggravating; extenuating, mitigating ~

4. attendant; compelling; exceptional, special; favorable;

suspicious; tragic; unavoidable; unforeseen ~

5. a combination of ~

6. due to ~ (our absence was due to ~ beyond our control)

7. in, under ~ (in certain ~, I would agree; she will not go

under any ~; they lived in difficult ~)

circus

n. 1. to present, put on a ~

2. to go to the ~

3. a three-ring; traveling ~

4. at a ~

5. (misc.) a three-ring ~ ('hectic activity')

citation

n. ['reference'] 1. the earliest ~ (of the use of a word)

2. a ~ from ['summons']

3. to issue a ~ for

4. a ~ to + int. (she received a ~ to appear in court)

['mention of meritorious performance'] (AE) (mil.)

5. to write smb. up for a ~

6. to receive a ~ (for bravery)

7. a unit ~

cite

v. 1. (B) she ~d an interesting passage to us

2. (D; tr.) to ~ as (to ~ smt. as an example)

3. (AE) (mil.) (D; tr.) to ~ for (to ~ smb. for bravery)

citizen

n. 1. a law-abiding; eminent, leading, prominent; respectable,

solid ~

2. a senior ~

3. a private; second-class ~

4. a native-born (esp. AE); naturalized, new ~

citizenry

n. an informed ~

citizenship

n. 1. to grant ~

2. to acquire, receive ~

3. to revoke smb.'s ~

4. to give up, renounce one's ~

5.dual ~

city

n. 1. to govern, manage (AE), run a ~

2. a capital; cosmopolitan; densely populated; free; garden

(BE), planned; port; provincial; satellite ~; twin ~ties

3. (the) central; inner ~

4. a beleaguered; open ~ (during wartime)

5. in a ~ (to live in the ~) (see the Usage Note for town)

civil

adj. 1. ~ to (he wasn't even ~ to his guests)

2. (formal) ~ to + inf. (it was ~ of them to offer their help)

civil action

n. (legal) to bring a ~

civilization

n. 1. to introduce; spread ~

2. to create a ~

3. to destroy, stamp out ~

4. an ancient; modern ~

clad

adj. 1. fully; lightly, scantily; partially ~

2. smartly ~

claim

I n. 1. to enter, file, lodge, make, put forward, put in, submit;

establish; press; substantiate a ~ (she filed a ~ for

compensation)

2. to lay ~ to; to stake, stake out a ~ to

3. (esp. AE) to jump ('steal') smb.'s ~

4. to contest; disallow, dismiss, reject; dispute a ~

5. to forfeit; give up, renounce, waive, withdraw a ~

6. to settle a ~ (they settled their ~ out of court)

7. an excessive, extravagant, unreasonable; fraudulent; legal;

moral; outstanding; prior; specious; undisputed;

unsubstantiated, unsupported ~; competing, conflicting, rival ~s

8. a disability; insurance ~

9. a ~ against; for; on; to (she submitted a ~ for damages

against the other driver; there are many ~s on my time; he has

no ~ to the estate; a ~ to fame)

10. a ~ that + clause (the ~ that he could reduce taxes proved

to be false)

II v. 1. (E) she ~s to own this property

2. (L) he ~s that he was cheated

claimant

n. a ~ to (a ~ to the estate)

clam

n. baked ~s

clamber

v. (P; intr.) to ~ into/onto a bus

clamor, clamour

I n. 1. an insistent; loud; public ~

2. a ~ against; for (a ~ against new taxes)

II v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ for (to ~ for justice)

2. (E) they were ~ing to see the senator

clamp

v. (d; tr.) to ~ on, upon (to ~ controls on interest rates)

clampdown

n. a ~ on

clamp down

v. (D; intr.) to ~ on (to ~ on pickpockets)

clan

n. a ~ gathers

clang

n. a metallic ~

clanger

n. (colloq.) (BE) ('blunder') to drop a ~

clank

v. to ~ shut

clap

v. ('to put') 1. (d; tr.) to ~ into (to ~ smb. into jail)

2. (d; tr.) to ~ on (to ~ a muzzle on a dog)

3. (d; tr.) to ~ to (he ~ped his hand to his mouth)

clarification

n. to provide; seek ~

clash

I n. 1. a bitter; bloody; violent ~

2. a ~ between (there was a violent ~ between the two rivals)

3. a ~ with (a ~ with the police)

II v. 1. (D; intr.) ('to argue') to ~ over

2. (D; intr.) ('to struggle') to ~ with (the demonstrators ~ed

with the police)

3. (D; intr.) ('not to match') to ~ with (red ~es with green)

clasp

I n. a tie ~

II v. (d; tr.) to ~ to (she ~ed the baby to her bosom)

class

I n. ['lesson'] 1. to conduct, hold (a) ~; to give, meet one's

~; to schedule; reschedule a ~

2. to attend, go to ~; to sit in on a ~ (esp. AE)

3. to cut (esp. AE); miss a ~

4. to call off, cancel; dismiss a ~

5. an advanced; beginners'; intermediate ~ (to sit in on an

advanced English ~) ['group']

6. to form a ~

7. the educated; leisure; lower; middle; privileged; ruling;

social; underprivileged; upper; working ~

8. (misc.) out of one's ~ ('outclassed'); in a ~ of one's own

('unsurpassed'); ~ conflict/struggle ['division of travelers']

9. cabin; economy; first; second; third; tourist ~ (to travel

first-class) ['group of pupils, students graduating together']

(AE)

10. the freshman-Junior; senior; sophomore ~

II see classify 1-4

classification

n. to make a ~

classify

v. 1. (D; tr.) to ~ according to (the children were ~fied

according to age)

2. (D; tr.) to ~ among, with

3. (D; tr.) to ~ as (she was ~fied as fit for service)

4. (D; tr.) to ~ by (to ~ books by subject)

5. (N; used with an adjective) to ~ information confidential

clatter

v. (P; intr.) the cart ~ed over the cobble-stones

clause

n. ['group of words with a subject and predicate'] 1. a

conditional; dependent, subordinate; independent, main;

nonrestrictive; relative; restrictive; verbless ~

['provision'] [article~]

2. (esp. AE) a grandfather ~ ('a clause that exempts those

already engaged in an activity prohibited by new legislation')

3. an escalator; penalty ~

4. a most-favored-nation ~

claw

I n. 1. to retract one's ~s (cats retract their ~s)

2. sharp ~s

3. nonretractile; retractile ~s

II v. (d; tr.) to ~ to (to ~ one's way to the top)

clay

n. 1. to model, shape, work ~

2. to bake; temper ~

3. modeling; potter's ~

clean

I adj., adv. 1. immaculately, spotlessly ~

2. (misc.) to come ~ ('to confess'); we're ~ out of food ('we're

completely out of food')

II v. (D;tr.) to ~ out of (the store was ~ed out of cigarettes)

cleaner

n. ['device'] 1. a pipe; vacuum ~ ['person']

2. a street ~

cleaning

n. 1. dry ~

2. a spring; thorough ~

cleanliness

n. personal ~

cleanse

v. (formal) (D; tr.) to ~ of (to ~ one's thoughts of sin)

clean up

v. (colloq.) (AE) (D; intr.) ('to make a profit') to ~ on (to ~

on a deal)

clear

I adj. 1. crystal, perfectly; painfully ~

2. (cannot stand alone) ~ about (are you ~ about the situation?)

3. ~ from (the answer is ~ from these facts)

4. ~ of (the roads were ~ of snow; to keep ~ of trouble)

5. ~ to (the situation is ~ to everyone)

6. ~ that + clause (it was ~ that they would not come; the

teacher made it ~ that discipline would be maintained)

II n. [encoded language'] in the ~ (to send a message in the ~)

III v. 1. (D; tr.) ('to authorize'); ('to prepare') to ~ for (to

~ an article for export; our plane was ~ed for takeoff; to ~ a

deck for action)

2. (D; tr.) ('to remove') to ~ from (to ~ the snow from the

driveway)

3. (D; tr.) ('to free') to ~ of (to ~ a harbor of mines; to ~

smb. of guilt; to ~ land of trees)

4. (colloq.) (d; intr.) to ~ out of ('to leave') (to ~ out of

town)

5. (d; tr.) ('to remove') to ~ out of (to ~ things out of a

cupboard)

6. (D; tr.) ('to complete formalities for') to ~ with (to ~ a

shipment with the authorities)

7. (H) ('to authorize') we were ~ed to land

clearance

n. ['act of clearing away'] 1. slum ~ ['authorization']

2. to give; receive ~ for

3. customs ~

4. ~ to + int. (the control tower gave the pilot ~ to land)

['space between parts']

5. valve ~ ['certification of eligibility for access to

classified material']

6. to give; receive ~

7. (a) security ~

clearinghouse

n. a ~ for (a ~ for information)

clear off

v. (D; intr.) ('to leave') to ~ of (~ of my property!)

cleavage

n. ['division'] a sharp ~ between (a sharp ~ developed between

the two factions)

cleave

v. (formal) (d; intr.) ('to cling') to ~ to (to ~ to old customs)

cleaver

n. a butcher's; meat ~

clemency

n. 1. to show ~

2. to beg for, seek ~

3. to deny ~

clerk

I n. 1. a booking ~ (BE; AE has ticket agent)

2. a desk (AE), reception (BE), room (AE) ~ (in a hotel)

3. a bank (BE); city (AE), town; cipher, code; court; filing;

mail, postal ~; salesclerk (AE; BE has shop assistant);

shipping; stockroom ~

II v. (D; intr.) (legal) to ~ for (the budding lawyer was ~ing

for a prominent judge)

clever

adj. 1. ~ at, in (she is ~ at arranging furniture)

2. ~ with (he is ~ with his hands)

3. ~ to + int. (it was ~ of her to think of that)

clew

see clue

click

v. (colloq.) (D; intr.) ('to be successful') to ~ with (the new

show ~ed with the public)

client

n. to serve a ~

clientele

n. an exclusive ~

cliff

n. 1. to climb, scale a ~

2. a rugged; sheer, steep ~

climate

n. 1. a friendly; hospitable; inhospitable; invigorating ~

2. an arctic, frigid; continental; damp; dry; hot; humid;

maritime; Mediterranean; mild, moderate, temperate; severe;

subtropical; tropical; warm; wet ~

climax

n. 1. to come to, reach a ~

2. to bring smt. to a ~; to work up to a ~

3. to mark a ~

4. a dramatic, thrilling ~

5. a sexual ~

6. a ~ to (the ~ to our efforts)

climb

I n. a difficult, hard; easy; gradual; rough, rugged; steep;

tortuous ~

II v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ aboard (to ~ aboard a raft)

2. (d; intr.) to ~ down (to ~ down a hill)

3. (d; intr.) to ~ onto, upon (the child ~ed onto her mother's

lap)

4. (d; intr.) to ~ out of (to ~ out of a pit)

5. (D; intr.) to ~ to (to ~ to the top)

6. (D; intr.) to ~ up (to ~ up a hill)

climb-down

n. (BE) ['retreat] a ~ from (a ~ from an untenable position)

climb down

v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ from (to ~ from a tree)

2. (BE) (D; intr.) ('to retreat') to ~ from (to ~ from an

untenable position)

climber

n. 1. a mountain ~

2. a social ~ clinch n. in a ~

cling

v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ to (to ~ to one's possessions; to ~ to old

customs; they clung to the floating wreckage; he clung to my

arm)

2. (misc.) to ~ together

clinic

n. 1. to hold a ~

2. an abortion; animal; dental; diagnostic; family-planning;

mental health; outpatient; special; speech; well-child (AE) ~

3. at, in a ~ (she works at the ~)

clip

I n. ['device to hold cartridges'] 1. to insert a ~

2. a cartridge ~ ['device that fastens']

3. a paper; tie ~

II n. (colloq.) (esp. AE) ['speed'] at a ~ (to move at a fast

~)

III v. 1. (esp. AE) (D; tr.) to ~ from (to ~ articles from a

newspaper)

2. (d; tr.) to ~ to (to ~ one page to another)

3. (N; used with an adjective) she ~ped his hair short

clipper

n. 1. a nail ~

2. a barber's ~s

3. a coupon ~ ('one whose income is derived from stocks and

bonds')

clipping

n. 1. a newspaper, press ~ (AE; BE has press cutting)

2. fingernail; toenail ~s

clique

n. a court; military ~

cloak

I n. ['shield') under a ~ (under the ~ of anonymity)

II v. (d; tr.) to ~ in (~ed in secrecy)

cloakroom

see the Usage Note for room

clock

I n. 1. to regulate, set; wind a ~

2. to advance a ~; or: to set, turn a ~ ahead (by one hour)

3. to set, turn a ~ back (by ten minutes)

4. an alarm; cuckoo; electric; grandfather; wall ~

5. a biological ~

6. a ~ is fast; right; slow

7. a ~ gains time; goes; keeps time; loses time; runs down;

stops

8. a ~ strikes the hour

9. (misc.) to watch the ~ ('to wait impatiently for the end of

the working day'); to work around the ~ ('to work without

rest'); the ~ ran out ('the allotted time expired'); to stop the

~ ('to suspend play in a game so that the clock stops running')

II v. (D; tr.) ('to time') to ~ at (he was ~ed at a record speed)

clockwork

n. (misc.) to work like ~ ('to work perfectly'); as regular as ~

('completely regular')

close

I adj., adv. /klous/ ['near'] 1. ~ to (~ to tears; we live ~ to

town; ~ to the truth) ['stingy'] (colloq.)

2. ~ with (~ with one's money) ['secretive']

3. ~ about (~ about one's past) ['on intimate terms']

4. ~ to, with (~ with one's parents) ['misc.']

5. to see smt. ~ to (BE), up

II n. /klouz/ ['finish'] 1. to bring to a ~

2. to come to, draw to a ~ ['end of a letter']

3. the complimentary ~ (to a letter)

III v. /klouz/ 1. (d; intr.) to ~ about, around, round ('to

encircle') (night ~d around us)

2. (D; tr.) to ~ for (to ~ a store for renovations)

3. (d; intr.) to ~ on ('to get near to') (the police were ~ing

on the fugitive)

4.(D; tr.) ('to shut') to ~ on (she ~d the door on him)

5. (D; tr.) ('to shut') to ~ to (they ~d their eyes to the

truth)

6. (d; intr.) to ~ with ('to engage') (to ~ with the enemy)

7. (d; intr., tr.) ('to finish') to ~ with (they ~d the concert

with a march)

8. (N; used with an adjective) ('to shut') she ~d the door tight

9. (s) stocks ~d strong; weak

closed

adj. 1. ~ for (~ for repairs)

2. ~ to (the road was ~ to traffic; ~ to the public)

close in

v. /klouz/ 1. (D; intr.) to ~ for ('to approach and prepare for')

(to ~ for the kill)

2. (D; intr.) to ~ on ('to bring to bay') (the police ~d in on

the fugitives)

closemouthed

adj. ~ about

closeness

n. ~ to

closet

n. ['cupboard'] 1. a china; clothes; linen; walk in ~

['toilet'] (esp. BE)

2. a water ~ ['misc.']

3. to come out of the ~ ('to come out into the open about smt.')

closeted

adj. ~ with (he was ~ with the mayor for an hour)

clot

n. 1. to form a ~

2. to dissolve a ~

3. a blood ~

4. a ~ forms

cloth

n. 1. to weave ~

2. homespun ~

3. a drop ~

4. a loin ~

5. a bolt; strip of ~

clothe

v. l.(D;tr.) to ~ in (~d in wool)

2.(misc.) fully; partially ~d

clothes

n. 1. to change; put on; take off; wear ~

2. to launder, wash ~

3. night; summer; swaddling; winter ~

4. new; old ~

5. civilian ~

6. in ~ (the soldier was in civilian ~)

clothesline

n. to put up, string; take down a ~

clothing

n. 1. to put on; wear ~

2. to take off one's ~

3. heavy; light; outer; protective; warm ~

4. summer; winter ~

5. custom-made, tailor-made; ready-to-wear; secondhand, used;

shabby; trendy ~

6. an article of ~

7. (misc.) to model ~

cloture

n. to apply, impose, invoke ~

cloud

n. 1. to disperse ~s (the strong wind dispersed the ~s)

2. dark; heavy, thick; high; scattered; threatening ~s

3. rain, storm ~s; thunderclouds

4. a mushroom; radioactive ~

5. ~s form; gather

6. ~s scud across the sky

7. (misc.) under a ~ (of suspicion); the gathering ~s of war; in

the ~s ('absorbed in one's fantasies'); to seed ~s (to produce

rain)

cloudburst

n. a sudden ~

cloudy

adj. partly ~ (in weather forecasts)

clout

n. (colloq.) (AE) ['influence'] ['power'] 1. to have, wield ~

2. political ~ (he has a great deal of political ~)

clover

n. ['plant'] 1. a four-leaf ~ ['prosperity']

2. to roll in ~ ('to live in luxury)

clown

I n. 1. to act, play the ~

2. a circus ~

II v. (D; intr.) to ~ with

club

n. ['association']!, to form, organize a ~

2. to join a ~

3. to break up, disband a ~

4. an exclusive; private ~

5. an athletic; book; country; fan; glee; jockey; tennis;

yachting ~

6. a ~ breaks up, disbands

7. a Christmas ~ (esp. AE) ('type of savings account to provide

money for the purchase of Christmas presents'); a savings ~

['piece of wood']

8. a golf; Indian ~ ['misc.']

9. (colloq.) join the ~! ('we are in the same situation!') (see

the Usage Note for team)

clue

n. 1. to discover, find, uncover a ~

2. to furnish, provide, supply a ~

3. an important, key, vital ~

4. a ~ to (the police had no ~ to her identity)

clue in

v. (colloq.) (D; tr.) to ~ on ('to inform about')

clumsy

adj. 1. ~ at (he's ~ at sports)

2. ~ of (that was ~ of her)

3. ~ with (to be ~ with one's hands)

4. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ of you to make a mistake like that)

cluster

I n. a consonant ~

II v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ around (the crowd ~ed around the

entrance)

2. (P; intr.) they ~ed in small groups

clutch

I n. ['device for engaging and disengaging a transmission'] 1.

to engage, throw in the ~ ('to release the clutch pedal')

2. to work the ~

3. to disengage the ~ ('to depress the clutch pedal')

4. to ride the ~ ('to keep the clutch pedal partially

depressed') ['crisis']

5. in a ~ (to count on smb. in a ~) ['misc.']

6. a ~ hitter ('smb. who is called on to help in a crisis')

II v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ at (to ~ at a branch)

2. (d; tr.) to ~ to (she ~ed her children to her breast)

3. (misc.) to ~ at a straw ('to consider any possibility')

clutches

n. ['power'] in smb.'s ~ (in the ~ of the enemy)

coach

I n. ['trainer of an athlete or team'] 1. a basketball; crew;

fencing; football; soccer; swimming; tennis; track-and-field;

volleyball ~ ['trainer of a performer or troupe']

2. a drama; voice ~ ['long-distance bus'] (esp. BE)

3. to go, travel by ~ ['airplane']

4. an air ~

II v. l. (D;tr.) to ~ for (to ~ a team for a championship match)

2. (D; tr.) to ~ in

coal

n. 1. to mine, produce ~

2. to burn, use ~

3. to shovel ~ (into a furnace)

4. anthracite, hard; bituminous, soft; brown ~

5. hot, live ~s (to cook meat over hot ~s)

6. a bed of ~s

coalesce

v. (D; intr.) to ~ into

coalition

n. (pol.) 1. to form a ~

2. to break up, dissolve a ~

3. a ~ breaks up, falls apart

4. a political ~

5. (AE) a rainbow ~ ('a political coalition consisting of

representatives of various ethnic groups')

6. a broadly based, umbrella ~ ('a group consisting of many

diverse elements')

7. a ~ among, between, of

coast

n. 1. a forbidding, inhospitable; rugged ~

2. off a ~ (a ship sank right off the ~)

3. along, on the ~ (there are many fishing towns on the ~)

4. (AE) on the Coast ('on the Pacific Coast of the US')) (he's

out on the Coast)

5. (misc.) the ~ is clear ('there is no danger in sight')

coastline

n. a broken Jagged ~

coat

n. ['sleeved outer garment'] 1. to have a ~ on, wear a ~

2. to take off one's ~

3. an all-weather; fur; fur-lined; mink ~; overcoat; raincoat;

sheepskin; spring; trench; winter; zip-lined ~ ['layer of

paint']

4. to apply, put on a ~ (we had to put on a second ~)

coating

n. an outer; protective ~

coat of arms

n. a family ~

coax

v. 1. (D; tr.) to ~ into; out of (she ~ed me into going)

2. (H) he ~ed me to do it

cobweb

n. ['spider's network'] to spin a ~ (spiders spin ~s)

cobwebs

n. (colloq.) ['confusion'] to clear, sweep the ~ from one's

brain

cocaine

n. to freebase; snort; shoot ~

cock

n. ['rooster'] (esp. BE) 1.~s cock-a-doodle-doo, crow ['water

tap']

2. a ball ~ ['opening of a water tap']

3. full ~ (a water tap turned on full ~)

cocktail

n. 1. to make, mix, prepare a ~

2. fruit ~; a prawn (BE), shrimp (AE) ~

3. a champagne ~

cocoon

n. to spin a ~

code

n. ['cryptographic system'] 1. to design, make up a ~

2. to break, crack, decipher a ~

3. a binary ~

4. the Morse ~

5. in ~ (to send a message in ~) ['body of laws, principles']

6. to establish, formulate, lay down a ~

7. a building; civil; criminal, penal; ethical, moral; sanitary;

uniform; unwritten ~; a ~ of ethics ['system of symbols']

8. an area (AE), dialling (BE) ~

9. the genetic ~

10. a postal (BE), zip (AE) ~

codicil

n. (legal) 1. to draw up a ~

2. a ~ to (a will)

coerce

v. 1. (D; tr.) to ~ into (to ~ smb. into doing smt.)

2. (H) (rare) he was ~d to sign

coercion

n. under ~ (to do smt. under ~)

coeval

adj. (formal) ['contemporary'] ~ with

coexist

v. 1. to ~ peacefully

2. (D; intr.) to ~ with

coexistence

n. 1. peaceful ~

2. ~ with

coffee

n. 1. to brew; grind; make; percolate; strain ~

2. to stir ~ (with a spoon)

3. to grow ~

4. strong; weak ~

5. black; white (BE) ~, ~ with cream

6. decaffeinated; ersatz; fresh; instant; Irish; Turkish ~

7. a cup of ~; one ~; or: one cup of ~; two ~s; or: two cups of

~ (bring us two cups of ~)

coffin

n. to lower a ~ into a grave

cogitate

v. (formal) (D; intr.) to ~ on

cognate

adj. ~ to, with (Dutch is ~ to English and German)

cognizance

n. (formal) ['notice'] to take ~ of

cognizant

adj. (formal) (cannot stand alone) ~ of (~ of the danger)

cohabit

v. (D; intr.) to ~ with

coherence

n. to lack ~

cohesion

n. ~ among, between

coil

I n. an induction; primary ~

II v. 1. (d; intr., refl.) to ~ around/round (the snake ~ed

around its victim)

2. (d; intr., refl.) to ~ into (to ~ into a ball)

coin

n. 1. to mint, strike ~s

2. to drop a ~ (into a slot)

3. to spin a ~; or: to flip, throw, toss a ~ (in order to decide

an issue) (they tossed a ~ to decide who would go first)

4. to collect ~s

5. antique; counterfeit; gold; metal; rare; silver; valuable ~s

6. (misc.) common ~ ('smt. that is widely known'); to pay back

in the same ~ ('to treat smb. as he or she has treated others')

coincide

v. (D; intr.) to ~ with

coincidence

n. 1. mere, pure, sheer ~

2. a happy; interesting; odd, strange; remarkable ~

3. a ~ that + clause (it was pure ~ that we were seated

together)

4. by ~ (we ended up in the same town by sheer ~)

coincidental

adj. ~ with

cold

I adj. ['of a low temperature'] 1. biting, bitter, bitterly ~

(it was bitter ~)

2. ~ to (~ to the touch) ['unfriendly']

3. ~ towards

II n. ['low temperature'] 1. biting, bitter, extreme, intense,

severe ~

2. the ~ has let up ['illness']

3. to catch, come down with, contract a ~

4. to have; nurse a ~; to suffer from a ~

5. to fight off, shake off, throw off a ~

6. a bad, severe; lingering; slight ~

7. the common ~; a chest; head ~

cold cream

n. to apply ~

cold feet

n. (colloq.) ['reluctance'] at the last minute he got ~ and

withdrew from the deal

cold light

n. ['clear view'] in the ~ of reality

cold shoulder

n. (colloq.) ['snub'] to give smb. the

cold turkey

n. (colloq.) ['abrupt cessation of the use of drugs and other

harmful substances'] to go

collaborate

v. (D; intr.) to ~ in, on; with (to ~ on a project with smb.)

collaboration

n. 1. international ~

2. in ~ with collaborator n. (historical and pejorative) a

wartime ~

collapse

I n. 1. (an) economic ~

2. an emotional, mental ~

3. a total ~ (he was in a state of total ~)

II v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ from, with (to ~ from exhaustion)

2. (d; intr.) to ~ under (the weight of smt.)

collar

n. 1. a button-down; stand-up; starched; stiff; turndown ~

2. (misc.) hot under the ~ ('very angry')

collate

v. (D; tr.) to ~ with (to ~ one edition with another edition)

collateral

n. to put up ~ for

collect

v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ around (a crowd ~ed around them)

2. (D; tr.) to ~ from (to ~ money from one's colleagues)

3.(D; intr.) to ~ on (to ~ on one's insurance)

collection

n. 1. to take up a ~ (of money)

2. to break up a ~

3. an art; coin; private; stamp ~

collective

n. a workers' ~

collector

n. 1. an art; coin; rare-book; stamp ~

2. a tax; ticket; toll ~

3. (AE) a garbage, trash ~ (BE has dustman)

4. an ardent, avid, serious ~

college

n. 1. to go to ~

2. to apply for admission to (a) ~; to enroll, matriculate at

(a) ~; to enter (a) ~

3. to finish, graduate from ~

4. to put smb. through ~ ('to pay for smb.'s college education')

5. to drop out of; fail out of (AE), flunk out of (AE; slang) ~

6. a business (AE); community (AE); junior (AE); technical (BE);

village (BE); war ~; a College of Further Education (BE)

7. (US) the Electoral College

8. at, in ~ (she's away at ~; he made many friends when he was

in ~) USAGE NOTE: One says to go to college, but to go to a good

college, (see the Usage Note for university)

collide

v. 1. to ~ head-on

2. (D; intr.) to ~ with (they ~d with another ship)

collision

n. 1. to cause a ~

2. a head-on; midair ~

3. a near ~

4. a ~ between; with (the ~ between the ships was caused by fog)

collocate

v. (D; intr.) to ~ with (some verbs ~ with certain nouns)

collocation

n. a grammatical; lexical ~

colloquy

n. (formal) a ~ between

collude

v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ with

2. (E) to ~ with smb. to do smt.

collusion

n. 1. ~ between

2. in ~ with

colon

n. (med.) the ascending; descending; transverse ~

colonel

n. 1. a chicken (AE; slang), full; lieutenant ~

2. a ~ commands a regiment

colony

n. 1. to establish a ~

2. to disband a ~

3. a crown ~

4. an artists'; leper; nudist; penal ~

5. an ant ~

color, colour

I n. ['hue'] 1. bright, brilliant; dark; dull; garish, gaudy,

loud; harsh; natural; rich; soft; subdued; vivid; warm ~s

2. (usu. fig.) glowing ~s (to picture smt. in glowing ~s)

3. complementary; primary; secondary ~s

4. ~s clash; fade; match

5. in ~ (in natural ~)

6. a combination of ~s; a riot of ~ ['features']

7. local ~ ['paint']

8. oil; water ~s (to paint with oil ~s) ['vividness'j

9. to add, lend ~ (to a story) ['complexion']

10. to change ~ ('to become pale; to blush')

11. (misc.) the fresh air brought the ~ back to his cheeks

II v. (N; used with an adjective) she ~ed her hair red

coloring, colouring

n. artificial; natural; protective ~

color line, colour line

n. ['social boundary between races of different color'] to

cross the ~

colors, colours

n. ['banner, flag'] 1. to display, show the ~

2. to salute; troop the ~

3. to dip; haul down, strike the ~

4. college; regimental; school ~ ['armed forces']

5. to be called to the ~ ['character']

6. to show one's ~

7. one's true ~ ['misc.']

8. to come through with flying ~ ('to score an impressive

success'); under false ~ ('passing oneself off as another'); to

ride under the ~ of a certain stable

column

n. ['series of articles'] 1. a syndicated ~ (in a newspaper)

['vertical division of a page']

2. advertising (esp. BE) ~s; correspondence (esp. BE) ~s; a

personal; society; sports ~ ['list of numbers']

3. to add up a ~ ['shaft']

4. a steering ~ (on a car)

5. (med.) the spinal, vertebral ~ ['row']

6. a tank ~ ['misc.']

7. a fifth ~ ('enemy supporters behind one's own lines')

columnist

n. 1. a syndicated ~

2. a fifth ~ ('an enemy agent operating behind one's own lines')

coma

n. 1. to fall, lapse, slip into a ~

2. to come out of a ~

3. a deep; irreversible ~

comb

n. a fine-tooth ~ (usu. fig.) (we went through the documents with

a fine-tooth ~)

combat

n. 1. to engage in, go into ~

2. to break off ~

3. close, hand-to-hand; deadly, fierce, mortal ~

4. ~ between

combination

n. 1. a rare; strange ~

2. (ling.) a fixed, recurrent; free ~

combine

v. 1. (D; intr., tr.) to ~ against (to ~ forces against a common

enemy)

2. (D; intr., tr.) to ~ with (hydrogen ~s with oxygen; to ~

initiative with caution; to ~ business with pleasure)

combo

n. (colloq.) a jazz ~

combustion

n. 1. to produce ~

2. internal; spontaneous ~

come

v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ across ('to meet by chance') (to ~ across

an old friend)

2. (d; intr.) to ~ at ('to attack') (he came at me with a knife)

3. (d; intr.) to ~ between ('to alienate'); ('to separate') (to

~ between two friends)

4. (d; intr.) ('to originate') to ~ from (she ~s from a

different country; milk ~s from cows)

5. (d; intr.) ('to enter') to ~ into (to ~ into being; to ~ into

use; to ~ into focus; to ~ into the open; to ~ into view)

6. (d; intr.) to ~ on, upon ('to meet') (to ~ upon a stranger;

to ~ upon a shocking scene)

7. (d; intr.) to ~ on ('to begin'); ('to enter') (to ~ on duty;

to ~ on the scene)

8. (d; intr.) to ~ out of ('to leave') (he came out of the room)

9. (d; intr.) to ~ over ('to affect') (what has come over you?)

10. (d; intr.) ('to amount') to ~ to (the bill came to twenty

dollars)

11. (d; intr.) to ~ to ('to arrive at'); ('to reach') (the

incident came to their attention; to ~ to grief; success came to

her early; he came to his senses; it came to our knowledge

that...; to ~ to terms; when it ~s to politics; to ~ to the

point)

12. (D; intr.) ('to be due') to ~ to (he got what was ~ing to

him)

13. (d; intr.) ('to happen') to ~ to (no harm came to them)

14. (d; intr.) to ~ to ('to be remembered by') (her name finally

came to me)

15. (d; intr.) ('to fall') to ~ under (to ~ under the

jurisdiction of a court; to ~ under suspicion; to ~ under smb.'s

influence; to ~ under fire)

16. (E) ('to occur') if it came to be known that...; to ~ to

pass ('to happen')

17. (E) ('to begin') they finally came to consider me a friend

18. (G) ('to approach') the children came running

19. (P; intr.) ('to occur in a certain order') Tuesday ~s after

Monday

20. (s) to ~ true; the dressing came undone

21. (misc.) what will ~ ('become') of him? the years to ~; to ~

on strong ('to try to make a very strong impression'); to ~ into

a fortune ('to inherit or acquire a fortune'); the case never

did ~ before the court; he had it ~ing ('he deserved his

punishment')

come across

v. (d; intr.) to ~ as ('to appear') (he ~s across as being very

intelligent)

come around

v. (D; intr.) ('to change') to ~ to (she finally came around to

our viewpoint)

come away

v. (d; intr.) ('to leave') to ~ with (he came away with a

favorable impression)

comeback

n. ['recovery'] 1. to attempt, try; make a ~

2. a successful; unsuccessful ~ ['retort']

3. a snappy ~

come back

v. (D; intr.) to ~ to ('to return') (they came back to their

hometown; the details are ~ing back to me)

comedian

n. an alternative (BE) ('anti-establishment'); nightclub; radio;

stand-up; TV ~

come down

v. 1. (BE) (D; intr.) to ~ from ('to leave') (to ~ from Oxford)

2. (d; intr.) to ~ from ('to originate from') (this statue has

come down to us from the fifteenth century)

3. (d; intr.) to ~ on ('to treat') (the teacher came down hard

on him for missing class)

4. (d; intr.) to ~ to ('to amount to') (it ~s down to the same

old thing)

5. (d; intr.) to ~ with ('to catch, develop') (to ~ with a cold)

comedy n. black; light; musical; situation; slapstick ~

come forward

v. (D; intr.) to ~ with ('to present') (to ~ with new evidence)

come in

v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ for ('to be subjected to') (to ~ for

criticism)

2. (D; intr.) to ~ on ('to join') (to ~ on a project)

come out

v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ against ('to oppose') (to ~ against a

proposal)

2. (d; intr.) to ~ for ('to support') (to ~ for a bill)

3. (d; intr.) to ~ for ('to try out for') (are you ~ing out for

the team?)

4. (d; intr.) to ~ with ('to publish') (to ~ with a new book)

5. (P; intr.) ('to end up'); ('to result') to ~ on top ('to be

victorious')

6. (s) the pictures came out fine

7. (misc.) to ~ in spots ('to be covered with spots as a result

of illness'); they came out from behind the bushes

come over

v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ to ('to approach') (she came over to our

table)

2. (D; intr.) ('to come') to ~ with (their ancestors came over

with the Pilgrims)

3. (BE) (s) ('to begin to feel') to ~ faint; nervous

come round

see come around

come through

v. (D; intr.) to ~ with ('to pro vide') (he finally came through

with the money)

come up

v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ against ('to meet') (to ~ against

opposition)

2. (D; intr.) to ~ for ('to be brought up for') (the question

finally came up for discussion)

3. (d; intr.) to ~ to ('to reach') (the water came up to our

knees)

4. (d; intr.) to ~ to ('to approach') ('he came up to me and

introduced himself)

5. (d; intr.) to ~ with ('to produce') (she came up with a good

idea)

6. (misc.) to ~ to expectations

comeuppance

n. (colloq.) ['well-deserved misfortune'] to get one's ~

comfort

n. 1. to bring, give, provide ~

2. to derive ~ from; to find, take; seek ~ in (she finds ~ in

helping others)

3. to enjoy the ~s (of life)

4. cold, little ~

5. creature ~s; spiritual ~

6. a ~ to (he was a great ~ to his parents)

7. a ~ to + int. (it was a ~ to know that they were safe)

8. in ~ (to live in ~)

comfortable

adj. (colloq.) ~ with (are you ~ with this decision?)

comforter

n. (AE) a down ~

comforting

adj. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ to be sure of their support)

coming

n. the Second Coming

comma

n. 1. to place, put in a ~

2. inverted ~s (BE; CE has quotation marks)

command

I n. ['authority'] ['control'] 1. to assume, take (over) ~

2. to exercise ~

3. to give up, relinquish; lose one's ~

4. firm ~

5. ~ of, over (he assumed ~ of the regiment)

6. in ~ of (he was put in ~ of the task force; who will be

placed in ~ of the division?)

7. under smb.'s ~ (we were under her ~)

8. the chain of ~ ['headquarters']

9. the high, supreme ~

10. a unified ~ ['order']

11. to carry out, execute; give, issue a ~

12. a ~ that + clause; subj. (we obeyed their ~ that prisoners

be/ should be treated properly)

13. at smb.'s ~ (at his ~ we opened fire) ['military unit']

14. a combat; military ~ ['mastery']

15. fluent, perfect ~ (fluent ~ of a language)

II v. l. (H) he ~ed his men to fire

2. (L; subj.) the captain ~ed that the company fall in/ should

fall in

commandant

n. (AE) (mil.) the ~ of the Marine Corps; the ~ of a service

school

commander

n. 1. a lieutenant; naval ~

2. a battalion; camp; company; division; regimental; supreme ~

3. a ~ commands a unit

commandment

n. (rel.) 1. to keep the ~s

2. to violate a ~

3. the Ten Commandments

commence

v. (formal) 1. (D; intr.) to ~ with (we'll ~ with a reading of

the minutes of the last meeting)

2. (rare) (G) (mil.) ~ firing!

commencement exercises

n. (AE) to attend; hold ~

commend

v. 1. to ~ highly

2. (formal) (B) lean ~ him to you

3. (D; tr.) to ~ for (she was ~ed for bravery)

commendable

adj. ~ to + inf. (it is ~ to help others)

commendation

n. a ~ for (a ~ for bravery)

commensurable

adj. ~ to, with

commensurate

adj. ~ to, with (a reward ~ with the results achieved)

comment

I n. ['observation'] ['remark'] 1. to make a ~

2. (an) appropriate, fitting; caustic, critical, scathing,

unfavorable; cryptic; favorable; inappropriate; ironic, wry;

nasty, vicious; off-the-record; passing; perceptive, shrewd;

sarcastic ~

3. (a) ~ about, on (there was no ~ about the incident in the

press)

4. (a) ~ from (there was no ~ from the other party)

5. a ~ that + clause (her ~ that she would retire soon was

greeted with dismay)

6. without further ~ ['gossip'] ['talk']

7. to arouse, cause, evoke ~

8. considerable; critical, scathing; favorable; unfavorable ~

(the incident evoked considerable ~ in the capitals of western

Europe)

II v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ about, on

2. (L) she ~ed that she was very happy to be a guest in their

country

commentary

n. 1. to give a ~

2. a play-by-play, running ~

3. (misc.) a sad ~ (on the world situation)

commentator

n. a news; radio; TV ~

commerce

n. 1. to carry on, engage in ~

2. to develop, expand ~

3. interstate; overseas ~

4. ~ between; with (to carry on ~ with the countries of Central

America)

commercial

n. ['paid spoken advertisement'] 1. to sponsor a ~

2. a radio; TV ~

commiserate

v. (d; intr.) to ~ on; with (I ~ with you on your misfortune)

commission

I n. ['committee'] ['council'] 1. to appoint, establish a ~

2. to disband a ~

3. a fact-finding; investigating; joint; planning; roving ~

4. a ~ on (a ~ on the problems of alcoholism) ['certificate

conferring rank'] (usu. mil.)

5. to award, confer a ~

6. to earn, win a (battlefield) ~

7. to resign one's ~

8. a battlefield ~ ['fee']

9. to charge; pay a ~

10. to deduct; divide a ~

11. a ~ for, on

12. on ~ (to work on ~) ['operating condition']

13. to put out of ~ (the storm put all power lines out of ~)

['task'] (formal)

14. to execute a ~

15. a ~ to + inf. (a ~ to serve)

II v. 1. (H) she ~ed an artist to paint her portrait

2. (N; used with a noun) she was ~ed a second lieutenant

commissioner

n. 1. a high ~ for (the high ~ for occupied territories)

2. a fire; health; police; water ~

3. (GB) the Canadian High Commissioner in London

commit

v. 1. (d; refl.) ('to devote') to ~ to (to ~ oneself to a cause)

2. (D; tr.) ('to assign') to ~ to (to ~ funds to a project)

3. (D; tr.) ('to confine') to ~ to (to ~ smb. to a mental

hospital; ~ted to prison)

4. (d; tr.) ('to place') (to ~ a child to a relative's care; to

~ a poem to memory; to ~ one's thoughts to paper)

5. (H; usu. refl.; no passive) ('to promise') he ~ted himself to

support her parents

commitment

n. ['promise'] 1. to make a ~

2. to meet a ~

3. a firm ~

4. a ~ to + inf. (he made a ~ to pay off his debts)

5. a ~ that + clause (they reaffirmed their ~ that they would

help) ['devotion']

6. to demonstrate, display, show ~

7. an all-out, total ~

8. (a) ~ to (~ to a cause)

committed

adj. 1. ~ to (~ to his principles)

2. ~ to + inf. (they are ~ to help us; or, more usu.: they are ~

to helping us)

committee

n. 1. to appoint, establish, form, organize, set up a ~

2. to disband a ~

3. an ad-hoc; advisory; budget; credentials; executive;

grievance; nominating; planning; program; select; special;

standing; steering; strike; watchdog; ways-and-means ~: a ~ of

the whole

4. a ~ on (a ~ on problems of the elderly)

5. on a ~ (who is serving on the ~?)

6. (misc.) to report a bill out of ~

commodity

n. 1. to trade in ~ties

2. a farm; marketable; staple ~

common

I adj. 1. quite ~

2. (cannot stand alone after a noun) ~ to (a heritage ~ to both

our peoples)

II n. in ~ with

commonplace

I adj. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ for them to travel abroad)

II n. 1. to state a ~

2. a ~ to + inf. (it's a ~ to say that people should work hard)

common sense

n. 1. to apply, exercise, show, use ~

2. the ~ to + inf. (he had the ~ to remain silent)

3. (misc.) good; plain ~ (just plain, good, old ~)

common touch

n. to have; lose the ~

commotion

n. 1. cause, create, raise a ~

2. a ~ subsides

3. in a state of ~

commune

v. (d; intr.) to ~ with (to ~ with nature)

communicate

v. 1. to ~ officially; unofficially

2. (B) she tried to ~ her thoughts to her children

3. (D; intr.) to ~ with (to ~ with one's parents)

communication

n. ['message'] 1. to address, direct, send (all) ~s (to a

certain place)

2. a direct; official; personal; privileged ('confidential') ~

3. a ~ from; to ['act, means of communicating']

4. to establish ~

5. to cut off ~s

6. mass ~s

7. radio; two-way ~

8. ~ with (to establish ~ with the rescue team; to cut off all

~s with the mainland)

9. in ~ with (she has been in ~ with her family)

communication cord

n. (BE) to pull a ~ (AE has emergency cord)

communion

n. ['sharing'] 1. ~ with ['a Christian sacrament, the

Eucharist']

2. to administer, give ~

3. to take ~

4. Holy Communion

communique

n. 1. to issue a ~

2. a joint ~

3. an official ~

4. a ~ about, on (they issued a ~ on the results of the

conference)

community

n. ['group of persons with common interests'] 1. an (the)

academic, college, university; business; gay; intelligence;

religious; scientific; speech ~ ['group of persons who live

together']

2. a close-knit ~

3. a life-care (AE); retirement ~

commute

v. 1. (D; intr.) ('to travel regularly') to ~ between; from; to

(to ~ between two cities; to ~ from the suburbs to the city)

2. (D; tr.) ('to change') to ~ to (the Governor ~d his death

sentence to life imprisonment)

commuter

n. 1. a suburban ~

2. a ~ between; from; to

compact

n. (formal) ['agreement'] 1. to make a ~ with

2. a ~ between; with

companion

n. 1. a boon, close, inseparable ~

2. a life; traveling ~

3. a ~ for, to (she worked as a ~ to an elderly woman)

company

n. ['military unit consisting of several platoons'] 1. to

command a ~ (a captain commands a ~)

2. to deploy; form a ~

3. a cannon; headquarters; infantry ~ ['companionship']

4. to keep (smb.) ~; to seek smb.'s ~

5. to part ~ with

6. (good) ~ for (the children were good ~ for us) ['guests']

7. to have; invite ~ (we enjoy having ~) ['associates']

['association'] ['gathering of persons']

8. to keep ~ with

9. mixed ~ (don't use that word in mixed ~)

10. (colloq.) bad, fast ~ ('reckless, wild associates') (he runs

around in/with fast ~)

11. present ~ ('those present') (present ~ excepted)

12. in ~ (to behave appropriately in ~; in ~ with smb.)

['firm']

13. to manage, operate, run a ~

14. to establish, form a ~

15. a finance; holding; insurance; investment; joint-stock;

shipping; transport (esp. BE), transportation ~

16. an opera; repertory (esp. BE), stock (AE); theatrical ~

17. (BE) a (public) limited ~ (AE prefers corporation)

18. a ~ fails, goes bankrupt ['fire-fighting unit']

19. an engine, hose; ladder ~

comparable

adj. ~ to, with

compare

I n. beyond ~

II v. 1. to ~ advantageously, favorably; unfavorably

2. (d; intr.) to ~ to, with (these roads cannot ~ with ours)

3. (d; tr.) to ~ to, with (how would you ~ this wine with a good

French wine?) USAGE NOTE: The construction to compare x to y

usually means 'to claim a similarity between x and y' (to

compare New York to a beehive). The construction to compare x

with/and y usually means 'to discuss similarities and

differences between x and y' (to compare New York with/arid

London).

comparison

n. 1. to draw, make a ~

2. to hold up under ~

3. to defy ~

4. a favorable; unfavorable ~

5. a ~ between; to, with (there is no ~ between them; she made a

~ of our literature to theirs; I would like to draw a ~ of

recent events with those of the 1930s)

6. beyond ~

7. by ~ (her works suffer by ~)

8. in ~ with USAGE NOTE: Note that there can be a difference in

meaning between a comparison of New York to a beehive and a

comparison of New York with/and London. See the Usage Note for

compare II. The preposition between can be used in both meanings

a comparison between New York and a beehive and a comparison

between New York and London.

compartment

n. 1. a glove ~

2. a first-class; second-class ~

3. a watertight ~

compartmentalize

v. (D; tr.) to ~ into

compass

n. 1. to box the ~

2. to read a ~

3. a magnetic; mariner's ~

compassion

n. 1. to arouse ~

2. to demonstrate, display, show; feel, have ~

3. deep, profound, strong ~

4. ~ for

5. out of ~ (to act out of ~)

compatibility

n. ~ between, with

compatible

adj. ~ with

compel

v. (H) to ~ smb. to do smt.

compensate

v. 1. (d; intr.) ('to make up for') to ~ for (I cannot ~ for my

inferiority complex)

2. (D; tr.) ('to reimburse') to ~ for (to ~ smb. for damages)

compensation

n. 1. to make, pay; offer ~

2. to deny, refuse ~

3. adequate, appropriate ~

4. unemployment; workmen's (AE) ~

5. ~ for (~ for the damage suffered)

compete

v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ against, with (that store ~s with us)

2. (D; intr.) to ~ for (to ~ for first prize)

3. (D; intr.) to ~ in (to ~ in a contest)

competence

n. ['ability'] 1. to acquire, gain ~

2. ~ for (does she have the necessary ~ for the position?)

3. ~ in (~ in English)

4. the ~ to + inf. (do they have the ~ to cope with the job?)

['jurisdiction'] (legal)

5. beyond; within the ~ (the matter lay within the ~ of the

court)

competent

adj. 1. highly ~

2. ~ as (he is ~ as a teacher)

3. ~ at, in (she is ~ in her field)

4. ~ to + inf. (she is ~ to teach history; ~ to stand trial)

competition

n. ['rivalry'] ['opposition'] 1. to offer, provide ~

2. to undercut, undersell the ~

3. bitter, fierce, formidable, keen, stiff, strong; cutthroat,

unfair, unscrupulous; fair; free, unfettered; healthy ~

4. ~ among, between; with (stiff ~ among several firms)

5. ~ for (~ for control of the market)

6. in ~ with ['contest'] ['match']

7. to hold, stage a ~

8. a gymnastics; high-diving; speed-skating ~

9. (an) open ~

10. a ~ for (a ~ for the championship)

competitive

adj. 1. fiercely, keenly ~

2. ~ with (to be ~ with the best)

competitor

n. a formidable, keen, strong; unscrupulous ~

compilation

n. 1. to do, make a ~

2. a ~ from (various sources)

compile

v. (D; tr.) to ~ from (to ~ a dictionary from various sources)

complacency

n. ~ about; towards

complacent

adj. ~ about

complain

v. 1. to ~ bitterly, loudly, vociferously; constantly

2. (D; intr.) to ~ about, of; to (I ~ed to the manager about the

service; she ~ed of indigestion)

3. (L; to) she ~ed (to the manager) that there was no hot water

complainer

n. a chronic ~

complaint

n. 1. to bring, file, lodge, make, register a ~

2. to express, voice a ~

3. to act on, respond to a ~

4. to disregard, ignore; reject a ~

5. a bitter, loud, vociferous; justified; legitimate;

unjustified ~

6. a ~ about; with (she filed a ~ about the service with the

manager)

7. a ~ against (they lodged a ~ against me)

8. a ~ to (our ~ to the dean was ignored)

9. a ~ that + clause (they rejected his ~ that proper procedures

had not been followed)

10. (misc.) grounds for/a cause for ~

complement

n. 1. a full ~

2. (naval) a ship's ~ ('crew')

3. (grammar) a predicate ~

4. a ~ to

complementary

adj. ~ to

complete

adj. ~ with (a turkey dinner ~ with all the trimmings)

completion

n. 1. to near ~

2. on ~ of (on ~ of this dictionary we will need a rest)

complex

n. 1. an Electra; inferiority; Oedipus; persecution; superiority

~

2. the military-industrial ~

complexion

n. a clear; dark; fair; florid, ruddy; pasty; sallow ~

compliance

n. 1. ~ with (~ with the law)

2. in ~ with (in ~ with regulations)

complication

n. 1. to cause ~s

2. to avoid ~s

3. ~s arise, set in

complicity

n. 1. ~ between

2. ~ in (a crime)

compliment

I n. ['praise'] 1. to pay smb. a ~

2.to lavish, shower ~s on

3. to return a ~

4. to angle for, fish for ~s

5. to bandy ~s

6. a backhanded, dubious, left-handed; nice, pretty; sincere ~

7. a ~ on (she paid him a nice ~ on his success)

II v. (D; tr.) to ~ on (I ~ed him on his performance)

compliments

n. ['greetings'] 1. to convey, present, send one's ~

2. (misc.) with the author's ~; with the ~ of the management

comply

v. (D; intr.) to ~ with (to ~ with the law; to ~ with smb.'s

request)

component

n. an essential ~

comport

v. (formal) (P; refl.) to ~ oneself with dignity; to ~ oneself

well

compose

v. (B) to ~ an ode to an emperor

composed

adj. (cannot stand alone'] ['consisting'] ~ of (the team was ~

of seasoned players) (see the Usage Note for comprised)

composer

n. a major; minor; popular ~

composition

n. ['essay'] 1. to do, write a ~ ['typesetting']

2. to do ~ ['piece of music']

3. to perform, play a ~

composure

n. 1. to keep, retain; regain one's ~

2. to lose one's ~

compound

I n. ['result of mixing'] a chemical; organic ~

II n. ['enclosure'] a prison ~

comprehensible

adj. ~ to

comprehension

n. 1. to defy, elude ~

2. beyond ~

comprehensives

n. (AE) ['comprehensive examination'] to take one's ~

compress I n. 1. to apply a ~ to

2. a cold; dry; hot; wet ~

II v. (D; tr.) to ~ into (to ~ a whole paragraph into two

sentences)

comprised

adj. (cannot stand alone) ['consisting'] ~ of USAGE NOTE: Some

purists prefer composed of to comprised of.

compromise

I n. 1. to agree on, come to, reach, work out a ~

2. to reject a ~

3. an acceptable, reasonable ~

4. a ~ between; with

II v. (D; intr.) to ~ on, over; with (they ~d on certain items

with us)

comptroller

n. (AE) the Comptroller General

compulsion

n. 1. to feel a ~

2. (a) moral ~

3. a ~ to + inf. (he felt no ~ to do it)

4. under ~ (to give in under ~)

compulsory

n. ~ for

compunction

n. 1. to feel, have; show ~

2. ~ about (she felt no ~ about making us wait)

3. without ~ (he violated the law without the slightest ~)

computer

n. 1. to operate, use a ~; to turn on; turn off a ~

2. to program a ~

3. an analog; digital; electronic; general-purpose; home;

mainframe ~; microcomputer; minicomputer; parallel; personal;

serial ~

4. the ~ is down ('the computer is not functioning')

5. the ~ is up ('the computer is functioning')

6. a ~ bombs (AE), crashes

7. on a ~ (to run a program on a ~)

comrade

n. 1. one's fallen ~s

2. a ~ in arms

3. an old ~

con

v. (colloq.) ('to trick') 1. (D; tr.) to ~ into (to trick smb.

into doing smt.)

2. (D; tr.) to ~ out of (he ~ned me out of my money)

conceal

v. (D; tr.) to ~ from

concede

v. 1. (B) he finally ~d the election to his opponent

2. (L; to ) she ~d (to us) that she had been mistaken

conceded

adj. (cannot stand alone) ~ to + inf. (this painting is ~ to be

her best work)

conceit

n. insufferable, overwhelming ~

conceivable

adj. ~ that + clause (it is ~ that they knew about it beforehand)

conceive

v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ of (can you ~ of such cruelty?)

2. (L) I could not ~ that he would do such a thing

concentrate

v. (D;intr.,tr.) to ~ on (to ~ all our efforts on solving the

problem)

concentration

n. 1. to disrupt, disturb one's ~

2. deep ~

3. ~ on

4. in ~ (in deep ~)

concept

n. 1. to formulate, frame a ~

2. to grasp a ~

3. the ~ that + clause (the ~ that trade lessens international

tensions is valid)

conception

n. ['concept'] 1. a clear; vague ~

2. the ~ that + clause (the ~ that the superpowers must fight is

dangerous) ['becoming pregnant or being conceived']

3. at ~

concern

I n. ['interest'] ['apprehension'] 1. to arouse, cause, give

~

2. to express, voice; feel; show ~

3. considerable, deep, grave, serious; growing; national;

overriding; particular; primary; public ~

4. an object of ~

5. ~ about, for, over, with (~ about debts; ~ for the children;

~ over the future)

6. (esp. BE) ~ to + inf. (~ to know the truth)

7. ~ that + clause (to express ~ that they might fail)

8. of ~ to (the matter was of deep ~ to us)

9. out of ~ (she did it out of ~ for her family) ['firm']

10. to manage a ~

11. (misc.) a going ('successful') ~

II v. 1. (d; refl.) to ~ oneself about, over, with (she ~ed

herself with the problem of illiteracy)

2. (misc.) to whom it may ~

concerned

adj. 1. deeply, greatly ~

2. ~ about, for, over; with (~ about safety)

3. (esp. BE) ~ to + inf. (~ to know your decision)

4. ~ that + clause (we are ~ that they might have missed the

train)

5. (misc.) as far as I'm ~ USAGE NOTE: The phrases concerned

about, concerned over and less frequently, concerned for, mean

'worried about' (concerned about your safety). The phrase

concerned with means 'interested in' (concerned with

establishing the truth).

concert

n. ['musical program'] 1. to give, hold, stage a ~

2. to cancel a ~

3. a band; orchestral; pop, promenade (BE); rock; subscription ~

4. at a ~ (we met at the ~) ['harmony, agreement ~ ']

5. in ~ ('together') (to work in ~; voices raised in ~)

concerto

n. 1. to compose a ~

2. to perform, play a ~

3. a piano; violin ~

concession

n. ['yielding'] 1. to grant, make a ~

2. a ~ to ['right to conduct business']

3. to grant; receive a ~

4. a parking; refreshment ~

5. a ~ to + inf. (their firm received a ~ to prospect for oil)

conclave

n. ['meeting'] a party ~

conclude

v. (L) we ~d that he would not come

conclusion

n. 1. to arrive at, come to, draw. reach a ~; to jump to a ~

2. to bring to a ~

3. a correct; erroneous, invalid, wrong; foregone; hasty;

inescapable, inevitable; reasonable, tenable, valid ~

4. a ~ that + clause (their ~ that war is inevitable is

disturbing)

5. at the ~ (at the ~ of the concert)

concoction

n. (colloq.) to whip up a ~

concomitant

adj. (formal) ~ with

concord

n. (formal) in ~ with

concordance

n. ['list of words'] 1. to compile a ~ ['harmony']

2. in ~ with

concordat

n. (rel.) 1. to conclude, draw up a ~

2. a ~ between; with

concrete

n. 1. to pour ~

2. prestressed; ready-mix; reinforced ~

3. a slab of ~

concubine

n. 1. to have, keep a ~

2. by one's ~ (he had many children by his ~s)

concur

v. (formal) ('to agree') 1. to ~ completely, fully

2. (D; intr.) to ~ in (to ~ in supporting a cause)

3. (D; intr.) to ~ with (to ~ with an opinion; to ~ with smb.)

4. (L) we ~ that the practice should be halted

concurrence

n. 1. complete, full ~

2. ~ in

3. in ~ with

4. with the ~ of

concussion

n. 1. to receive a ~

2. a severe; slight ~

3. a brain ~

condemn

v. 1. to ~ bitterly, harshly, strongly; unfairly, unjustly

2. (D; tr.) to ~ as (they were ~ed as traitors)

3. (D; tr.) to ~ for (he was ~ed for stealing a horse)

4. (D; tr.) to ~ to (to ~ smb. to death; ~ed to hard labor)

5. (H) he was ~ed to spend the rest of his life in prison

condemnation

n. 1. to issue a ~

2. a bitter, harsh, scathing, strong; sweeping ~

condense

v. (D; tr.) to ~ into (you must ~ your paper into a few

paragraphs)

condescend

v. (formal) 1. (d; intr.) to ~ to (to ~ to cheating)

2. (E) to ~ to mingle with the workers

condition

I n. ['requirement'] 1. to impose, set; state, stipulate a ~

2. to accept a ~

3. to fulfill, meet, satisfy a ~

4. an essential ~

5. on ~ that + clause; subj. (she will join us on ~ that you

also be there) ['state of repair']

6. bad, poor, terrible; excellent, good ~

7. operating, running ~

8. in ~ (our house is in good ~; his car is in running ~; the

roads are in terrible ~) ['good health'] ['fitness']

9. to get into ~

10. in ~; out of ~ (he never exercises and is out of ~) ['state

of health']

11. critical, poor; fair, satisfactory; good; serious; stable;

weakened ~

12. in ~ (the patient was in critical ~) ['ailment']

13. a heart; lung ~

14. an untreatable ~

II v. 1. (D; refl.) to ~ for

2. (formal) (D; tr.) to ~ on

3. (D; tr.) to ~ to (~ed to life in the jungle)

4. (H) to ~ smb. to do smt.

conditional

adj. ~ on

conditioned

adj. ~ to + int. (the dog was ~ to attack at a certain signal)

conditioner

n. a hair; skin ~

conditions

n. ['circumstances'] 1. favorable; unfavorable ~

2. difficult; normal; pitiful, squalid; repressive ~

3. living; weather; working ~ (if weather ~ permit)

4. in ~ (they live in squalid ~)

5. under ~ (to work under difficult ~)

condolences

n. 1. to convey, express, offer ~

2. heartfelt, sincere ~

3. ~ on (I conveyed our sincere ~ to them on the death of their

mother)

condole with

v. (esp. BE) (D; tr.) to ~ on (to ~ smb. on the death of a

parent)

condone

v. (K) I don't ~ his coming late to work

conducive

adj. (cannot stand alone) ~ to (exercise is ~ to good health)

conduct

I n. 1. appropriate; chivalrous; ethical; irreproachable; proper

~

2. disorderly; improper; inappropriate, unbecoming; unethical ~

3. (mil.) dishonorable (AE); good ~; ~ unbecoming an officer

II v. 1. (d; refl.) to ~ like (he ~ed himself like a good

soldier)

2. (P; refl.) to ~ oneself with dignity

3. (formal) (P; tr.) she was ~ed into the conference room; they

~ed us through the museum

conductor

n. ['substance that conducts'] 1. a lightning ~ ['person who

collects fares'] (BE)

2. a bus ~ ['director']

3. a guest; orchestra ~

cone

n. 1. an ice-cream ~

2. a pine ~

confederacy

n. 1. to form a ~

2. a ~ among, between; with

confederate

v. (D; intr.) to ~ with

confederation

n. 1. to form a ~

2. a ~ among, between; with

3. a loose, weak ~

confer

v. 1. (D; intr.) ('to converse') to ~ about; with (we will ~ with

them about this matter)

2. (D; tr.) ('to award') to ~ on (to ~ an award on smb.)

conference

n. 1. to convene; hold a ~

2. a news, press; peace; staff; summit ~

3. a ~ between

4. a ~ on (to hold a ~ on disarmament)

5. at a ~ (you'll see her at the press ~)

6. in ~ (he is in ~ and cannot come to the telephone)

confess

v. 1. to ~ frankly, honestly; willingly

2. (B) he ~ed his crime to the police

3. (D; intr.) to ~ to (to ~ to a crime; to ~ to the police; he

~ed to cheating on the exam)

4. (L; to) he ~ed (to us) that he had lied

confession

n. 1. to make a ~

2. to extort, force a ~ from; to beat a ~ out of (the police

beat a ~ out of him)

3. to repudiate, retract, take back, withdraw a ~

4. a deathbed; forced; full; public; voluntary ~

5. (rel.) to hear smb.'s ~

6. (rel.) to go to ~

7. a ~ that + clause (he made a public ~ that he had accepted

bribes)

confetti

n. to sprinkle, throw ~

confide

v. 1. (B) he ~d his secret to us

2. (d; intr.) to ~ in (she ~s in her sister)

confidence

n. ['trust'] ['reliance'] 1. to enjoy, have; gain, win smb.'s

~

2. to inspire, instill ~ in smb.

3. to have; place one's ~ in smb.

4. to misplace one's ~

5. to take smb. into one's ~

6. to shake smb.'s ~

7. to betray smb.'s ~

8. absolute, every, perfect ~ (I have absolute ~ in her ability)

9. ~ in (my ~ in him was shaken) ['secrecy'] ['secret']

10. to exchange ~s

11. to violate a ~

12. strict ~

13. in ~ (she told it to me in strictest ~) ['belief in one's

own ability'] ['firm belief]

14. to express; gain ~

15. to exude, ooze ~ (he just oozes ~)

16. to shake smb.'s ~

17. buoyant, unbounded ~

18. the ~ to + inf. (he doesn't have enough ~ to proceed on his

own)

19. ~ that + clause (nothing could shake her ~ that she would

succeed)

confident

adj. 1. ~ of (~ of success)

2. ~ that + clause (she was ~ that she would succeed)

confidential

adj. strictly ~

confidentiality

n. 1. to maintain ~

2. to violate ~

3. strict ~

confine

v. (D; refl., tr.) to ~ to(~d to bed; ~d to quarters; the

lecturer ~d herself to one topic; ~ yourself to the facts)

confinement

n. ['imprisonment'] ['being confined'] 1. solitary ~ (they

put him into solitary ~)

2. ~ to (~ to quarters)

3. in ~ (in solitary ~) ['lying-in'] (obsol.)

4. in ~ (before the birth of a child)

confirm

v. (L) the president ~ed that a summit conference would take

place

confirmation

n. 1. official; unofficial ~

2. ~ that + clause (we have received ~ that she will attend)

confiscate

v. (D; tr.) to ~ from

conflagration

n. a major ~

conflict

I n. 1. to provoke a ~

2. to come into ~ with

3. to resolve a ~

4. armed; direct ~

5. (a) ~ about, over; among, between; with (a ~ between

neighboring countries over their common border; a ~ with one's

relatives about the terms of a will)

6. in (a) ~ with (their stories are in ~ with each other)

II v. (D; intr.) to ~ with (your version ~s with mine)

confluence

n. at a ~ (the city lies at the ~ of three rivers)

conform

v. (D; intr.) to ~ to, with (to ~ to specifications)

conformance

n. in ~ with

conformity

n. 1. strict ~

2. ~ to

3. in ~ with

confront

v. (D; tr.) to ~ with (to ~ a prisoner with a witness)

confrontation

n. 1. to provoke a ~

2. a direct ~

3. a ~ with

confuse

v. (d; tr.) to ~ with (I always ~ him with his brother)

confused

adj. ~ to + inf. (I was ~ to learn of his latest decision)

confusing

adj. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ to listen to the testimony)

confusion

n. 1. to cause, create ~

2. to clear up ~

3. ~ arises; reigns

4. to throw into ~ (their unexpected arrival threw our plans

into ~)

5. complete, general, utter ~

6. a scene; state of ~ (it was a scene of utter ~)

7. ~ between

congestion

n. 1. traffic ~

2. nasal; lung, pulmonary ~

congratulate

v. 1. to ~ heartily, sincerely, warmly

2. (D; refl. tr.) to ~ on, upon (to ~ smb. on her/his promotion)

congratulations

n. 1. to extend, offer ~ on

2. deepest, heartiest, hearty, sincere, warm, warmest ~

3. ~ on, upon (my warmest ~ on your promotion!)

congress

n. 1. to convene, hold a ~

2. an annual; biennial; party ~

congruence

n. (formal or technical) ~ with

congruent

adj. (formal or technical) ~ to, with

congruity

n. (formal) ~ with

congruous

adj. (formal) ~ to, with

conjecture

I n. (formal) ['guess'] 1. to make a ~

2. a ~ that + clause (her ~ that the election would be a

landslide proved to be true)

II v. (formal) (L) ('to guess') the press ~d that a summit

conference would take place

conjugation

n. ['verb forms'] an irregular; regular

conjunction

n. ['connecting word'] 1. a coordinating; subordinating ~

['cooperation'] ['coincidence']

2. in ~ with

connect

v. 1. to ~ closely, intimately; loosely

2. (d; intr.) to ~ to, with (this bus is supposed to ~ with a

train)

3. (D; tr.) to ~ to, with (are you ~ed with this firm? to ~ a TV

set to an antenna)

connection, connexion

n. ['association'] 1. to establish, make a ~

2. to break, sever a ~

3. a close, intimate; foreign; international; loose, tenuous ~

4. a ~ between; to; with (there was no ~ between the two

phenomena; to have a ~ with smb.)

5. in a certain ~ (in this ~; in ~ with the other matter)

['acquaintance'] ['tie']

6. business;

professional; social ~s ['transfer during a trip']

7. to make; miss a ~ ['linking of two telephones']

8. to get a ~ ['misc.']

9. to have ~s ('to have influential supporters')

connect up

v. (D; tr.) to ~ to, with (to ~ a telephone up to the exchange)

connexion

(BE) see connection

connive

v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ at; with

2. (E) they ~d (with each other) to cheat her

conquest

n. 1. to make a ~

2. to consolidate; extend one's ~s

3. world ~

conscience

n. 1. to appeal to; arouse smb.'s ~

2. to have smt. on one's ~

3. to ease one's ~

4. a clear; guilty ~ (to have a guilty ~)

5. a matter of ~

6. in ~ (in all good ~)

conscientious

adj. ~ about (she is ~ about her work)

conscious

adj. 1. fully ~

2. (cannot stand alone) ~ of (~ of danger)

3. ~ that + clause (she became ~ that everyone was staring at

her)

consciousness

n. ['conscious state'] 1. to lose; recover, regain ~

['awareness']

2. to raise smb.'s ~

3. class; political; social ~ ['misc.']

4. stream of

conscript

v. (D;tr.) to ~ into (to ~ youths into the armed forces)

conscription

n. 1. to introduce ~

2. military; universal ~

consecrate

v. 1. (d;tr.) to ~ to (she ~d her life to helping the poor)

2. (N; used with a noun) he was ~d archbishop

consecration

n. ~ to

consensus

n. 1. to reach a ~

2. a ~ that + clause (there is a ~ that we should abstain)

consent

I n. 1. to give one's ~ to

2. to refuse, withhold one's ~

3. common; general; informed; mutual; parental; tacit; unanimous

~

4. by ~ (by mutual ~)

5. (misc.) the age of ~

II v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ to (to ~ to a proposal)

2. (E) she ~ed to help

consequence

n. ['importance'] 1. of ~ (a matter of some ~) ['result']

2. in ~ of

consequences

n. ['results'] 1. to have ~ for

2. to accept, bear, face, suffer, take the ~

3. far-reaching, fateful; grave, serious; inevitable;

unforeseeable; unforeseen ~

conservation

n. 1. forest; soil; water; wild-life ~

2. (the) ~ of natural resources

conservative

I n. a dyed-in-the-wool; political ~

II adj. ~ in (~ in one's views)

conservatory

n. a music ~

consider

v. 1. ('to regard') to ~ favorably

2. (D; tr.) ('to regard'); ('to examine') to ~ as (we ~ed him as

a possible candidate)

3. (D; tr.) ('to regard as a candidate') to ~ for (he cannot be

~ed for the job)

4. (G) ('to contemplate') she ~ed resigning

5. (M) ('to believe') we ~ her to be our friend

6. (N; used with an adjective, noun, past participle) ('to

believe') we ~ her qualified; we ~ her a genius

7. (Q) ('to contemplate') they ~ed where to hide the money USAGE

NOTE: Note the contrasts between consider as and consider in the

following text -- In her book she considers ('examines')

Shakespeare as a playwright and as a poet. She considers

('believes') Shakespeare (to be) both a great playwright and a

great poet. However, she considers ('believes') Shakespeare (to

be) even greater as a playwright than as a poet.

considerate

adj. 1. ~ of (he was ~ of everyone)

2. ~ towards

3. ~ to + int. (it was ~ of her to do that)

consideration

n. ['thought'] ['concern'] 1. to give ~ to (to give some ~ to

a matter)

2. to show ~ for

3. to take smt. into ~

4. to deserve; require ~ (the matter requires careful ~)

5. careful; due; serious ~

6. an overriding ~

7. financial; humanitarian; personal ~s

8. for smb.'s ~ (I submit the enclosed proposal for your ~)

9. in ~ of (in ~ of past services)

10. on careful ~ of

11. out of ~ for smb.

12. under ~ (the matter is under ~)

13. with ~ for (with due ~ for your feelings, we must reject

your request) ['fee']

14. for a ~ (for a modest ~, he'll do anything)

consign

v. 1. (B) they ~ed the shipment to us

2. (d; tr.) to ~ to (the paintings were ~ed to our care)

consignment

n. ['a sale allowing the dealer to return unsold merchandise']

to sell; ship on ~

consist

v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ of ('to be composed of) (our state ~s of

thirty counties)

2. (formal) (d; intr.) to ~ in ('to be equivalent to') (freedom

~s in the absence of oppressive laws)

consistent

adj. ~ with (~ with our principles)

consistory

n. (usu. rel.) to convoke, hold a ~

consolation

n. 1. to afford, offer ~

2. ~ to

3. a ~ to + inf. (it's a ~ to know that they are safe = it's a ~

knowing that they are safe)

4. a ~ that + clause (our only ~ was that no one was hurt

seriously)

console

v. 1. (D; tr.) to ~ on (to ~ smb. on the loss of a loved one)

2. (d; refl.) to ~ with (I ~d myself with the thought that the

situation could be worse)

consomme

n. 1. clear ~

2. a bowl; cup of ~

consonant

I adj. (formal) ~ to, with

II n. 1. to articulate, pronounce a ~2. a dental; double,

geminate; final; guttural; hard;

labial; liquid; soft; unvoiced; velar; voiced ~

3. (misc.) a ~ cluster

consort

v. (formal) (d; intr.) to ~ with

consortium

n. to form, organize a ~

conspicuous

adj. ~ for, in

conspiracy

n. 1. to hatch, organize a ~

2. to crush; foil a ~

3. (a) criminal ~

4. a ~ against; with

5. a ~ to + inf. (a ~ to overthrow the government)

conspire

v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ against; with

2. (E) they ~d to overthrow the government

constable

n. (BE) ['police officer'] a chief ~

consternation

n. 1. to cause ~

2. to express; feel ~

3. in ~

4. to smb.'s ~ (to our ~, the current was turned off)

constituent

n. (ling.) an immediate; ultimate ~

constitute

v. (formal and rare) (N; used with a noun) they ~d her chief

justice

constitution

n. ['basic law'] 1. to adopt, establish; ratify a ~

2. to draw up, frame, write a ~

3. to preserve, safeguard a ~

4. to abrogate; amend a ~

5. to violate a ~

6. a written; unwritten ~ ['physical makeup']

7. a feeble, frail; iron, rugged, strong ~

constitutional

adj. ~ to + inf. (it is not ~ to censor the press)

constitutionality

n. to challenge, question; establish the ~ (of a law)

constrain

v. (formal) 1. (D; tr.) to ~ from

2. (H) to ~ smb. to do smt.

constrained

adj. (formal) (cannot stand alone) ~ to + inf. (we were ~ to act)

constraint

n. ['restriction'] 1. to impose, place, put a ~ on, upon

2. legal ~s ['control']

3. to show ~ ['compulsion']

4. under ~ (to act under ~)

construction

n. ['building industry'] 1. in ~ (he is in ~) ['act of

building']

2. shoddy ~

3. commercial; modular; residential ~

4. under ~ (the new skyscraper is under ~) ['interpretation']

5. to put a ~ on (he put the wrong ~ on my statement)

['syntactic phrase']

6. an absolute; idiomatic ~

construe

v. 1. (d; tr.) to ~ as (he ~d the statement as a threat)

2. (M) I ~d his speech to be a warning

consul

n. a ~ general

consulate

n. a ~ general

consult

v. 1.(D; intr.) to ~ about; with (to ~ with smb. about a problem)

2. (D; tr.) to ~ about (to ~ smb. about smt.)

consultant

n. 1. a business; legal; medical; nursing; political ~

2. a ~ for, on; to (a ~ to the president on foreign policy)

3. (med.) a ~ in

consultation

n. 1. to hold ~s

2. ~s about, on; with

3. in ~ (she is in ~ and cannot come to the phone)

consumption

n. conspicuous; mass ~

contact

n. ['being together'] ['connection'] 1. to come in, into ~;

to establish, make ~

2. to maintain, stay in ~

3. to bring into ~

4. to break off; lose ~

5. (electrical) to break ~

6. close, intimate; direct; eye; face-to-face; indirect ~

7. cultural; personal; radar; radio ~ (the control tower was in

radar ~ with the plane)

8. ~ with (to establish ~ with one's relatives; to stay in ~

with friends)

9. in ~ (have they been in ~?)

10. on ~ (the bomb exploded on ~ with the ground)

11. a point of ~ ['acquaintance'] ['tie']

12. business; professional; international; social ~s

contagious

adj. extremely, highly ~

contaminate

v. (D; tr.) to ~ by, with (to ~ smb. with smt; a wound ~d by

bacteria)

contemplate

v. (G) he ~d resigning

contemplation

n. 1. quiet ~

2. lost in ~

contemporaneous

adj. (formal) ~ with

contemporary

adj. ~ with

contempt

n. ['scorn'] 1. to demonstrate, display, show ~ for

2. bitter, deep, profound, total, unmitigated, utter ~

3. ~ for

4. beneath ~ ['disrespect'] (legal)

5. to hold in ~ (to hold smb. in ~ of court) ('to accuse smb. of

disrespect for a court')

6. civil; criminal ~

contemptible

adj. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ of him to behave like that)

contemptuous

adj. ~ of (he was ~ of all authority)

contend

v. (formal) 1. (D; intr.) ('to compete') to ~ for; with (to ~ for

a position)

2. (L) ('to claim') he ~ed that he had been cheated

contender

n. 1. a leading; likely; presidential ~

2. a ~ for (the leading ~ for the heavyweight crown)

content

I adj. 1. ~ with (they were ~ with their lot)

2. ~ to + inf. (she was not ~ to remain at home)

II n. to smb.'s heart's ~ ('to one's complete satisfaction')

III v. (formal) (d; refl.) to ~ with (to ~ oneself with a simple

life)

contention

n. ['argument'] 1. to rebut, refute a ~

2. a bone of ~ ('something contentious')

3. a ~ that + inf. (it is his ~ that taxes are too low)

['competition']

4. in ~ with

contents

n. 1. to divulge the ~ (of a letter)

2. a table of ~

contest

n. 1. to hold, stage a ~

2. to judge a ~

3. to enter a ~

4. a bitter, hard-fought; close; onesided ~

5. a baby; beauty; oratorical ~

6. a ~ among, between; for

contestant

n. a ~ for

contested

adj. bitterly, hotly, vigorously ~

context

n. 1. an historical ~

2. in; out of ~; within a ~ (to cite a passage out of ~)

contiguous

adj. ~ to, with

continent

n. on a ~

contingency

n. 1. to provide for every ~

2. a ~ arises

3. an unforeseen ~

contingent

adj. (pompous) (cannot stand alone) ~ on, upon (the time of his

arrival is ~ on the weather)

continuance

n. ['adjournment'] (legal) (AE) to grant a ~

continue

v. 1. to ~ unabated

2. (D; intr.) to ~ by (she ~d by citing more facts)

3. (D; intr.) to ~ with (she ~d with her work)

4. (E) they ~d to write

5. (G) they ~d writing

continuity

n. to break the ~

continuum

n. 1. the health-illness ~

2. along a ~

contraband

n. 1. to smuggle ~

2. to seize ~

3. ~ of war

contraception

n. to practice, use ~

contraceptive

n. a chemical; oral; vaginal ~

contract

I n. 1. to conclude, sign; negotiate; ratify a ~

2. to carry out, execute a ~

3. to draw up, write a ~

4. to assign (after bidding), let; award a ~

5. to abrogate, cancel, repudiate a ~

6. to breach, break, violate a ~

7. a legal, valid; void ~

8. (colloq.) (AE) a sweetheart ~ ('an agreement favorable to the

employer that was reached without the participation of the union

members')

8. (AE) a yellow-dog ~ ('a contract that obligates the workers

not to join a union')

9. a marriage ~

10. a ~ for; with

11. under ~ with (that player is under ~ with our team)

II v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ for; with (the city ~ed for a new

library with their firm)

2. (E) the firm ~ed to construct the bridge

contractions

n. to time (labor) ~

contractor

n. a building; defense; electrical; general; plumbing ~; a sub-

contractor

contradiction

n. 1. an apparent; basic; glaring; inherent ~

2. a ~ between; to

3. in ~ with

4. (misc.) a ~ in terms

contradictory

adj. ~ to

contradistinction

n. (formal) in ~ to

contraption

n. (colloq.) to build, put together, slap together a ~

contrary

I adj. (cannot stand alone) ~ to (his actions are ~ to the rules)

II n. 1. on, to the ~ (does your back feel any better? on the ~,

it feels much worse)

2. to the ~ (I will come next month unless you write to the ~)

contrast

I n. 1. to present a ~

2. a harsh, sharp, startling, striking ~

3. a ~ between, to, with

4. by ~ with

5. in ~ to (in ~ to their neighbors, they live modestly)

II v. 1. to ~ sharply

2. (D; intr., tr.) to ~ with (their deeds ~ with their promises)

contravention

n. (formal) in ~ of (to act in ~ of international law)

contribute

v. 1. (D; tr.) to ~ for (we ~d clothing for the flood victims)

2. (D; intr., tr.) to ~ to, towards (to ~ to charity; she ~d a

week's salary to the relief fund)

contribution

n. 1. to make a ~

2. to send in a ~

3. a charitable; generous; monetary; token; voluntary ~ (to make

a generous ~ to charity)

4. a brilliant, notable, outstanding, remarkable; key; major;

valuable ~ (she made an outstanding ~ to science)

5. a ~ to, towards

contributor

n. ['one who gives money'] 1. a generous; regular ~

2. a ~ to (a generous ~ to charity) ['one who contributes

scholarly works']

3. a prolific; regular ~

4. a ~ to (a regular ~ to a journal)

contrition

n. 1. to show ~

2. to express; feel ~

3. an act of ~

4. ~ for

contrive

v. (E) she somehow ~d to arrange a meeting

control

n. 1. to establish; exercise, exert ~ over

2. to assume, take ~ of

3. to bring smt. under ~ (the fire was finally brought under ~)

4. to wrest ~ from

5. to lose ~ of (she lost ~ of the car)

6. absolute; close, strict; full; government; lax, loose;

parental; remote ~ (to exert strict ~ over smt.)

7. birth; communicable-disease; cost; damage; emissions; fire;

flight; flood; gun; mission; pest; quality; stress; thought ~

8. price; rent; wage ~(s)

9. ~ of, over (to establish ~ over prices)

10. in ~ of (she was in full ~ of the situation)

11. beyond, out of ~ (the car went out of ~; the fire got out of

~)

12. under ~ (the fire was finally brought under ~; the area was

placed under the ~ of the military)

controller

n. an air-traffic, flight ~

controls

n. ['restrictions'] 1. to impose, introduce; tighten ~ on

2. to lift, remove ~ from

3. price; rent; wage ~ ['regulating instruments']

4. to take over the ~ (the copilot took over the ~)

controversial

adj. bitterly, highly ~

controversy

n. 1. to arouse, cause, fuel, stir up (a) ~

2. to settle a ~

3. a bitter, furious, heated, lively ~

4. a ~ about, over

5. a ~ between, with

convalesce

v. (D; intr.) to ~ from

convenience

n. ['comfort'] 1. a ~ to + int. (it's a great ~ to live in town

= it's a great ~ living in town)

2. at one's ~ (answer at your ~) ['device that adds to

comfort']

3. modern ~s

4. (BE) a public ~ ('a public toilet')

convenient

adj. 1. ~ for (will Tuesday be ~ for you?)

2. ~ to + inf. (it is very ~ to have the bus stop so close = it

is very ~ having the bus stop so close)

3. ~ that + clause (it's very ~ that he can drive you to work)

convention

n. ['assembly'] ['conference'] 1. to hold a ~

2. an annual; national; party; political ~ ['agreement']

3. a copyright ~

converge

v. (d; intr.) to ~ on, upon; towards (to ~

on the speaker's platform)

conversant

adj. (cannot stand alone) ['familiar'] 1. thoroughly ~

2. ~ in

3. ~ with (~ with procedures)

conversation

n. ['talk'] 1. to begin, strike up; carry on, have a ~

2. to make ~ (we had little in common, and it was difficult to

make ~)

3. to bug, monitor, tap a ~

4. to monopolize; stimulate a ~

5. to break off, terminate; interrupt a ~

6. (an) animated, lively; intimate; light; serious ~

7. (a) private; telephone ~

8. fragments, scraps of a ~ (we overheard scraps of their ~)

9. (a) ~ about; with

10. in ~ (she was in ~ with a friend) ['sexual intercourse']

(legal)

11. criminal ~ ('adultery')

conversations

n. ['negotiations'] 1. to hold ~

2. to bug, monitor ~

3. to break off ~

4. ~ about; with

converse

v. 1. to ~ fluently (to ~ fluently in a foreign language)

2. (D; intr.) to ~ about; with

conversion

n. ['change'] 1. condo ~

2. a ~ from; to ['a score made by a kick or pass after a goal

has been scored'] (Am. football, rugby)

3. to make a ~ ['adoption of a religion']

4. to undergo ~

convert

I n. 1. to gain a ~

2. a ~ to (a ~ to Buddhism)

II v. 1. (AE) (D; intr.) ('to change one's religion') to ~ from;

to (they ~ed from Buddhism to Hinduism)

2. (D; intr., tr.) ('to change'); ('to change smb.'s religion')

to ~ from; into, to (to ~ smb. to Islam; the plant ~ed to

microchip production; they ~ed their money from marks into

pounds; to ~ a barn into a garage)

converter

n. a catalytic ~

convertible

adj. 1. freely ~

2. ~ into, to (~ into hard currency)

convey

v. 1. (B) ('to give') ~ my best wishes to them

2. (D; tr.) ('to transfer') to ~ from; to (the title to the

property was ~ed from them to you)

conveyance

n. ['vehicle'] a public ~

convict

v. (D;tr.) to ~ of (he was ~ed of murder)

conviction

n. ['strong belief] 1. to carry ~ (his story carries ~)

2. a burning, deep, firm, strong; lifelong ~

3. a ~ that + clause (she expressed her firm ~ that television

was harmful to children)

4. by ~ (a pacifist by ~) ['guilty verdict']

5. to get a ~ (the prosecutor got ten ~s last year)

6. to overturn a ~ (the appeals court overturned the ~)

7. a ~ for (a ~ for embezzlement)

convince

v. 1. (D; tr.) to ~ of (he ~d me of his sincerity)

2. (slightly colloq.) (AE) (H) we ~ed ('persuaded') her to stay

home

3. (L; must have an object) he ~d everyone that he was honest

convinced

adj. 1. absolutely, completely, firmly, thoroughly ~

2. ~ that + clause (we are ~ that our project will succeed)

convocation

n. ['assembly'] 1. to hold a ~ ['assembly of graduates of a

university'] (GB)

2. a member of ~

convoy

n. 1. to form a ~

2. in, under ~ (to travel in ~)

convulsions

n. to go into ~

cook

I n. 1. the chief, head ~

2. (AE) a short-order ~

II v. (C) ~ some vegetables for us; or ~ us some vegetables

cooker

n. a pressure ~

cookie

n. 1. (AE) a homemade; sandwich ~

2. a fortune ~

cooking

n. 1. to do the ~

2. home; home-style ~

cookout

n. to have a ~

cool

I adj. ['calm'] 1. to keep, remain, stay ~ ['indifferent']

['unfriendly']

2. ~ to, towards (she was ~ to the idea)

II n. (slang) ['composure'] to keep; lose one's ~

III v. (D; tr.) to ~ to (boil the mixture and then ~ it to room

temperature)

coolant

n. to add ~

coolness

n. ['indifference'] ~ to, towards

coop

n. 1. a chicken ~

2. (misc.) (colloq.) to fly the ~ ('to escape')

cooperate

v. (D; intr.) to ~ in, on; with (to ~ on a project with smb.)

cooperation

n. 1. close; wholehearted ~

2. ~ in; with (~ in a project with another university)

3. in ~ with (their dictionary was published in ~ with the

Ministry of Education)

4. (misc.) to enlist smb.'s ~

cooperative, co-op, coop

n. a consumers'; farmers'; producers'; workers' ~

coop up

v. (D; tr.) to ~ in; with (we were ~ed up in a small room)

coordinate

v. 1. to ~ closely

2. (D; tr.) to ~ with (we must ~ our operations with theirs)

coordination

n. 1. close ~

2. ~ among, between; with

cop

v. (colloq.) (esp. AE) (D; intr.) to ~ out of ('to renege on')

(to ~ out of a responsibility)

cope

v. (D; intr.) to ~ with (to ~ with difficulties)

cop out

v. (colloq.) (esp. AE) ('to renege') to ~ on (to ~ on a

responsibility)

copulate

v. (D; intr.) to ~ with

copy

n. ['reproduction'] 1. to make, run off a ~

2. to Xerox (T) a ~

3. to print ~pies (the publisher decided to print ten thousand

~pies of the book)

4. to inscribe a ~ (the author inscribed a ~ of her book for

him)

5. (a) clean, fair ~; hard ('readable') ~ (from a computer); a

rough; true ~

6. a backup; carbon; extra; master ~; photocopy; presentation;

top (BE) ('original'); Xerox (T) ~ ['manuscript'] ['draft of

material to be printed']

7. to edit ~ ['issue']

8. an advance; back ~ ['news']

9. to make good ~ ('to be newsworthy')

copybook

n. (BE) to blot one's ~ ('to ruin one's reputation')

copyright

n. 1. (of a copyright office) to grant, register a ~

2. (of an author, publisher) to apply for; claim; hold; secure a

~

3. to infringe a ~

4. an ad-interim; full-term; statutory ~

5. a ~ on (a book)6.under ~

cord

n. a communication (BE), emergency (AE); electric (AE; BE has

flex); extension; spinal; umbilical ~

cordial

adj. ~ to, towards

cordon

n. ['protective ring of police, soldiers'] 1. to form a ~

2. to throw a ~ around, (an area)

cords

n. the vocal ~

core

n. 1. the hard ~

2. at the ~ (at the ~ of the problem)

3. to the ~ (rotten to the ~)

cork

n. to pop, remove a ~

corn

n. ['maize'] 1. to grow, raise; husk ~

2. hybrid; Indian; sweet; young ~

3. an ear of ~

4. (misc.) ~ on the cob

corner

n. 1. to round, turn a ~

2. a blind ~

3. (also fig.) around the ~ (they live around the ~; to go

around the ~; prosperity is just around the ~)

4. at, on a ~ (of a street)

5. in the ~ (of a room)

6. (misc.) the four ~s of the globe; I could see her out of the

~ of my eye; (boxing) a neutral ~

cornerstone

n. to lay a ~

corollary

n. a ~ to

coronation

n. to hold a ~

corporal

n. a lance ~

corporation

n. 1. to establish, form, set up a ~

2. to manage, run a ~

3. to dissolve a ~

4. (BE) a public ~

5. a multinational ~

corps

n. 1. the diplomatic; press ~

2. an air; army; marine ~

corpse

n. 1. to bury; lay out a ~

2. to dig up, exhume a ~

3. a ~ decays, decomposes, rots

corpus

n. (ling.) to collect, gather a ~

corpuscle

n. a red; white ~

correct

adj. ['true'] 1. ~ in (you are ~ in thinking that he is

foolish)

2. ~ to + inf. (it would be ~ to say that we have committed a

blunder)

3. ~ that + clause (is it ~ that he has resigned?)

correction

n. 1. to make a ~

2. to mark ~s (in a text)

correlate

v. (d;intr.,tr.) to ~ with (to ~ one set of data with another

set)

correlation

n. a ~ between

correspond

v. 1. (D; intr.) ('to be equal') to ~ to (what German word ~s to

hound?)

2. (BE) (D; intr.) ('to be in harmony') to ~ with (his actions

do not ~ with his words; to ~ with one's needs)

3. (D; intr.) ('to write') to ~ about; with (they have been ~ing

with each other about this matter for years)

correspondence

n. ['exchange of letters'] 1. to carry on, conduct (a) ~

2. to break off ~

3. business, commercial; personal ~

4. ~ about; between; with

5. in ~ with (to be in ~ with smb. about smt.) ['conformity']

6. close ~

7. ~ between (~ between theory and practice)

correspondent

n. a foreign; special; war ~

corresponding

adj. ~ to

corridor

n. 1. an air; long; narrow; winding ~

2. a ~ across; between; through

corruption

n. political ~

cortex

n. the cerebral ~

cosigner

n. a ~ for (a ~ for a promissory note)

cosmetics

n. to apply, put on; use ~

cost

I n. 1. to bear a ~; to pay ~s; to spare no ~

2. to cut, reduce ~s

3. to estimate; put, set a ~ at (he put the ~ at one hundred

dollars)

4. court; direct; fixed; indirect; overhead ~s (who will pay the

court ~s?)

5. a high ~ (the high ~ of energy)

6. a unit ~

7. at a certain ~ (at any ~; at all ~s; at the ~ of his health;

at a terrible ~; at no ~ to the taxpayer)

II v. 1. (0; may be used with one inanimate object) it cost us

ten dollars; it cost ten dollars

2. (P; with an animate object) his blunder cost us dearly

3. (misc.) it ~s (us) five thousand dollars a year to maintain

this house

co-star

v. (D; intr.) to ~ with

costly

adj. ~ to + inf. (it is ~ to run an air conditioner all day)

costume

n. 1. an academic; bathing (BE), swimming (BE) ~

2. (a) folk, national, native ~ (they were all in native ~)

cot

n. ['folding bed'] (AE; BE has camp bed) 1. to open up, unfold

a ~

2. a folding ~ ['child's bed'] (BE)

3. see crib

cottage

n. a summer; weekend ~

cotton

I n. 1. to gin; grow; pick; plant ~

2. (AE) absorbent ~

3. a bale of ~

II v. (colloq.) (AE) (d; intr.) ('to take a liking') to ~ to

cotton on

v. (colloq.) (BE) (D; intr.) ('to understand') to ~ to

cotton up

v. (colloq.) (esp. AE) (d; intr.) ('to try to ingratiate oneself)

to ~ to

couch

I n. a studio ~

II v. (formal) (D; tr.) to ~ in (to ~ a request in tactful

language)

cough

I n. 1. to develop a ~

2. to suppress a ~

3. a bad, heavy; croupy; dry; hacking, persistent; smoker's ~

II v. to ~ loudly

coughing

n. a fit of ~

could

v. (F) he ~ not attend the meeting

council

n. 1. to convene a ~

2. a city (AE), local (BE); executive; student; township (AE) ~

3. The Privy Council

counsel

I n. ['advice'] 1. to give, offer, provide ~

2. sage, wise ~

3. ~ about, concerning ['lawyer']

4. a legal ~

5. ~ for (~ for the defense; ~ for the prosecution)

II v. 1. (D; tr.) to ~ about, in

2. (D; tr.) to ~ against (I ~ed him against going)

3. (H) he ~ed us to wait

counseling

n. family; guidance; marriage; pastoral; vocational ~

counselor, counsellor

n. ['adviser'] 1. a guidance ~2.a ~ to (a ~ to the ambassador)

count

I n. ['act of counting'] ['total, tally'] 1. to make, take a

~

2. to keep ~ of

3. to lose ~ of

4.(boxing) to go down for the ~ ('to be counted out'); to take a

~ of ten

5. an accurate, correct ~6. a blood; body; cell; pollen ~

7. the ~ stands at...

8. by smb.'s ~ (by my ~) ['issue']

9. on a certain ~ (on all ~s) ['charge, accusation']

10. on a certain ~ (he was guilty on all ~s)

II v. 1.(d;intr.) ('to be taken into account')to ~ against (your

previous convictions will ~ against you)

2. (d; intr., tr.) ('to be considered; to consider') to ~ as

(the draw ~s as a victory; we ~ed the draw as a victory)

3. (d; intr.) ('to be valued') (his opinion ~s for very little)

4. (d; intr.)('to rely') to ~ for; on, upon (she ~ed on us for

help; she ~ed on us to help her)

5. (D; intr.) ('to name numbers') to ~ from; to (to ~ from one

to ten)

6. (D; intr.) ('to be taken into account') to ~ towards (do

associate members ~ towards a quorum?)

7. (N; refl.; used with an adjective) ('to consider') we must ~

ourselves lucky (to have escaped)

countdown

n. 1. a final ~

2. a ~ from; to (the ~ to zero has begun)

countenance

n. (biblical) a shining ~

counter

I adj., adv. to go ~ to

II n. ['surface, table over which business is conducted'] 1. a

bargain; lunch; notions (AE) ~2. at a ~ ['misc.']

3. over the ~ ('through a broker's office'); ('without a

prescription'); under the ~ ('illicitly')

III v. 1. (D; intr., tr.) to-with (she ~ed with an even stronger

argument; they ~ed our proposal with one of their own)

2. (L) she ~ed that her advice had not been heeded

counterattack

n. 1. to launch, make a ~

2. a ~ against

counterbalance

n. a ~ to

counterblow

n. 1. to deal, deliver a ~

2. a ~ against, to

countercharge

n. 1. to bring, file, make a ~

2. a ~ against

counterclaim

n. 1. to bring, enter, make a ~

2. a ~ against

counterespionage

n. 1. to conduct ~

2. ~ against

counterfeit

n. a crude; skillful ~

counterintelligence

n. to conduct ~

countermeasures

n. 1. to take ~

2. ~ against

counteroffensive

n. 1. to launch, undertake a ~

2.to go over to the ~

3. a ~ against

counteroffer

n. to make a ~

counterpart

n. 1. to have a ~ in

2. a-of, to

counterplot

n. 1. to hatch a ~

2. a ~ against

counterpoint

n. ['accompanying melody'] 1. double; single; triple ~

2. in ~ to ['contrasting element']

3. to serve as a ~ to

counterproductive

adj. ~ to

counterproposal

n. to make, offer a ~ to

counterpunch

n. to deliver, throw a ~

counterrevolution

n. 1.to foment, stir up a ~2.tocarry out; organize a ~

3. a ~ against

countersign

n. to give the ~

countersuit

n. (legal) 1. to bring a ~

2. a ~ against

counterweight

n. a ~ to

country

n. ['nation'] 1. to govern, rule, run a ~

2.a civilized ~

3. one's mother, native ~

4. a host; neighboring ~

5. developing; third-world; under-developed ~ies ['rural

area']

6. the back ~

7.open; rough, rugged ~ (in open ~)

8. in the ~ (to live in the country) ['misc.']

9. (BE) to go to the ~('to hold a general election')

count up

v. (d; intr.) to-to (the child could-to twenty)

coup

n. ['successful action'] to score a ~ (see also coup d'etat)

coup de grace

n. ['finishing shot'] to deliver the ~

coup d'etat

n. ['sudden overthrow of a government'] 1. to carry out, stage

a ~

2. a bloodless; bloody ~

couple

I n. a married; unmarried ~

II v. (D; tr.) to ~ to, with (to ~ a dining car to a train)

couplet

n. a rhyming ~

coupon

n. 1. to detach; redeem a ~

2. to clip ~s ('to profit from stocks and bonds')

courage

n. 1. to demonstrate, display, show ~

2.to get up, muster, screw up, summon up ~

3. to take ~ to + inf. (it takes ~ to tell the truth)

4.dauntless, indomitable; grim; moral; physical ~

5.the ~ to + inf. (he lacked the ~ to do it)

6. of ~ (a person of great ~)

courageous

adj. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ of her to volunteer)

courier

n. 1. to dispatch a ~

2. a diplomatic ~

3. a ~ to

course

I n. ['organized program of study'] 1. to conduct, give, offer,

teach a ~

2. to take a ~

3. to audit, sit in on a ~

4. to enroll for, register for, sign up for a ~

5. to fail; pass a ~; to take a ~ pass-fail (AE)

6. to complete; drop; drop out of; withdraw from a ~

7. to introduce; organize, plan a ~

8. to cancel a ~

9. a demanding, difficult, rigorous; easy, gut (colloq.) ~

10. an advanced; beginning, elementary, introductory;

intermediate ~

11. (at a university) an elective; graduate, postgraduate (esp.

BE); intensive; laboratory; lecture; non-credit; required;

survey; undergraduate ~

12. a correspondence; day-release (BE); extension(AE); makeup;

refresher ~

13. a ~ covers, deals with, treats a subject (our history ~

covered the nineteenth century)

14. a ~ in, on (she took a ~ in mathematics; I offered a ~ on

lexicography) ['itinerary'] ['path']

15. to chart, map out, mark out a ~

16. to follow, pursue, take a ~ (the law must take its ~)

17. to set ~ for (we set ~ for the nearest port)

18. to change ~ (it's not good to change ~ in midstream)

19. to stay the ~ ('to persist until the end')

20. to run its ~ (the disease ran its expected ~)

21. a collision; middle; natural; zigzag ~ (events took their

natural ~)

22. a ~ of action (to pursue a ~ of action)

23. off ~; on ~(our ship was right on ~; to be on a collision ~;

the plane was off ~) ['playing area']

24. a golf ~; racecourse (esp. BE) ['training area']

25. an obstacle ~ ['period']

26. in the ~ of (in the ~ of an investigation; in the ~ of time;

in due ~) ['misc.']27. of ~ ('naturally') (see the Usage Note

for track)

II v. (d; intr.) to ~ through (the blood ~d through her veins)

court

n. ['place where justice is administered'] 1.to hold ~

2. to adjourn; dismiss (a) ~

3. to take smb. to ~

4. to clog the ~s (with frivolous litigation)

5. an appeals (esp. BE), appellate; circuit; city, municipal;

county; criminal; crown (BE); district (AE); domestic relations,

family; federal(US); high; juvenile; kangaroo ('irregular');

magistrate's; moot; night; orphans'; police; pro-bate; small-

claims; superior; supreme; traffic; trial ~

6. a ~ of appeals; a ~ of common pleas; a ~ of domestic

relations; a ~ of law; a ~ of original jurisdiction

7. in ~ (to testify in ~; in open ~)

8.out of ~ (to settle a case out of ~) ['sovereign's

residence']

9. to hold ~

10. at ~ (at the ~ of Louis XIV) ['homage']

11. to pay ~ to smb. ['sports arena']

12. a basketball; clay (for tennis); grass(for tennis); squash;

tennis; volleyball ~ ['motel'](obsol.) (AE)

13. a motor, tourist ~

courteous

adj. 1. ~ to, towards (she is ~ to everyone)

2. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ of him to do that)

courtesy

n. 1. to demonstrate, extend, show ~(they showed us every ~)

2. common; unfailing ~

3. professional; senatorial (US) ~

4. ~ to, towards(it was done as a ~ to you)

5. the ~ to + inf. (he didn't have the ~ to answer my letter)

6. (misc.)she did me the ~ of remaining silent; a basket of

fruit was delivered to our door: ~ of the management

courthouse

n. (esp. AE) a county; federal; state ~

court martial

n. 1. to hold a ~

2. a drumhead; general; special; summary ~

cousin

n. 1. a first; second ~; a first ~ once removed

2. a ~ to (she is a first ~ to the count)

3.(colloq.) kissing ('friendly') ~s

covenant

n. a ~ between

Coventry

n. (esp. BE) to send to-('to ostracize')

cover

I n. ['shelter'] ['concealment'] 1. to seek; take ~

2. to break ~

3. (colloq.) to blow one's ~('to give oneself away')

4. under ~ (under ~ of darkness) ['covering']

5. cloud ~

6. a dust; mat-tress; pillow ~ ['defense']

7. air ~ ['front']

8. a ~ for (the whole operation was a ~ for foreign agents)

['envelope']

9. under separate ~ ['binding']

10. from ~ to ~ (to read a book from ~ to ~)

II v. 1. ('to report on') to-live (the event will be ~ed live by

TV)

2. (D; refl., tr.) ('to protect') to ~ against (this policy will

~ you against flood damage)

3. (d; intr.) to ~ for ('to substitute for') (to ~ for a friend)

coverage

n. ['insurance'] 1. to provide ~ for

2.comprehensive, full ~ ['reporting']

3. to receive ~

4. complete, extensive, full, wide ~ (the story received wide ~)

5. live; television ~

cover up

v. (D; intr.) to ~ for ('to protect') (she ~ed up for me when I

made that blunder)

covetous

adj. ~ of

cow

I n. 1. to milk a ~

2. a dairy, milch ~

3. ~s calve; low, moo

4. the meat of the ~ is beef

5. a young ~ is a calf

6. (misc.) (colloq.) holy ~! (AE); silly ~! (BE)

II v. (D; tr.) to ~ into (to ~ smb. into making concessions)

coward

n. an abject, dastardly, dirty ~

cowardice

n. 1. to demonstrate, show ~

2. abject, rank; moral ~

3. (misc.) a streak of ~

cowardly

adj. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ of them to behave like that)

coy

adj. ~ about; with (don't be ~ with me about your past record)

cozen

v. (formal) 1. (d; tr.) to ~ into

2. (d; tr.) to ~ out of (to ~ smb. out of his money)

cozy up

v. (colloq.) (AE) (D; intr.) to ~ to

crab

n. ['rower's defective stroke'] to catch a ~

crack

n. ['remark'] (colloq.) 1. to make a ~

2. a dirty, nasty ~

3. a ~ that (her ~ that you are always late was unjustified)

['moment']

4. at the ~ of dawn ['attempt']

5. to have a ~ at (let's have a ~ at it)

crackdown

n. 1. to launch a ~

2. a ~ on (a ~ on drunk drivers)

crack down

v. (D; intr.) to ~ on (to ~ on drug dealers)

cracked up

adj. (colloq.) (cannot stand alone) ['reputed'] ~ to be (this

hotel is not what it's ~ to be)

cracker

n. (esp. AE) a graham; soda; unsalted ~

crackpot

n. (colloq.) a ~ to + inf. (he was a ~ to do it)

cradle

n. 1. to rock a ~

2. (misc.) from the ~ to the grave ('during one's whole life')

craft

n. ['occupation'] 1. to ply, practice a ~

2. to learn, master a ~ ['boat']

3. a landing ~

4. (in plural) small ~

craftsman

n. a master ~

cram

v. 1. (D; intr.) ('to study hastily') to ~ for (to ~ for an exam)

2. (d; tr.) ('to jam') to ~ into (to ~ one's things into a

suitcase)

cramp

n. 1. to get a ~ (esp. AE)/get ~ (BE)

2. writer's ~

3. (BE) seized with ~

cranberry

n. to pick ~ries

crane

n. to operate a ~

crank

n. ['handle'] to turn, use a ~

crap game

n. a floating ~

craps

n. to play, shoot ~

crash

I n. 1. a loud, resounding ~

2. a plane; stockmarket ~

II v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ into (the car ~ed into a pole)

2. (d; intr.) to ~ through (the car ~ed through the barrier)

3. (d; intr.) to ~ to (to ~ to the floor)

4. (misc.) the plane ~ed in flames

crass

adj. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ of him to ask how much you earn)

crave

v. 1. to ~ strongly

2. (d; intr.) to ~ for (to ~ for peace and quiet) USAGE NOTE:

The phrase to crave for smt. is less common than to crave smt.

craving

n. 1. to feel, have a ~

2. a powerful, strong ~

3. a ~ for

craw

n. ['crop of a bird or insect'] to stick in smb.'s ~ ('to be

distasteful to smb.')

crawl

I n. ['swimming stroke'] 1. to swim the ~ ['act of crawling']

(also fig.)

2. to a ~ (traffic slowed to a ~)

II v. 1.(d; intr.) to-into (to-into a hole)

2. (d; intr.) to ~ out of (to ~ out of the ruins)

3. (d; intr.) to ~ with (the city is ~ing with reporters)

crawl out

v. (D; intr.) to ~ from under (to ~ from under the ruins)

crayon

n. colored ~s

craze

n. 1. the current, latest, newest ~

2. the ~ swept the country

3. a ~ for

crazy

adj. (colloq.) ['infatuated'] 1. (cannot stand alone) ~ about

(he is ~ about her) ['foolish']

2. ~ to + int. (it was ~ of her to do that; she was ~ to drive

without headlights)

3. to drive smb. ~

cream

n. ['component of milk'] 1. to whip ~

2. clotted (BE); double (BE), whipping; ice; single (BE); sour,

soured (BE); whipped ~ ['cosmetic']

3. to apply ~

4. cold; face; hand; shaving; skin; vanishing ~

crease

n. to iron out, remove the ~s

credence

n. 1. to attach, give, lend ~ to

2. to find; gain ~

credentials

n. 1. to present one's ~

2. to evaluate; examine smb.'s ~

credibility

n. 1. to establish ~

2. to lose one's ~

3. (misc.) a ~ gap

credit

I n. ['time given for payment'] 1. to allow, give, extend,

offer ~ (this store does not give ~)

2. to deny, refuse smb. ~

3. consumer ~

4. on ~ (to buy smt. on ~) ['recognition'] ['honor']

5. to do ~ to; to reflect ~ on (her work does ~ to her teachers)

6. to get, take ~ for (he took ~ for my work)

7. to give smb. ~ for (I give her ~ for being so sensible)

8. a ~ to (she is a ~ to her parents)

9. ~ that + clause (it was to her ~ that she never gave up)

10. to smb.'s ~ (to her ~, she was never late to work; with all

due ~ to you) ['sum allowed, deducted']

11. an energy (AE); tax ~ ['recognition that a student has

completed a course or unit of study']

12. to get, receive ~ for a course

13. advanced ~

II v. 1. (D;tr.) to ~ to (to ~ an amount to smb.'s account)

2. (d; tr.) to ~ with (to ~ smb. with common sense; to ~ an

account with fifty dollars)

credit card

n. to issue a ~

creditor

n. to pay off one's ~s

credo

n. a ~ that + clause (it is our ~ that everyone is equal)

credulity

n. to strain smb.'s ~

creed

n. 1. to adhere to a ~

2. a political; religious ~

3. a ~ that + clause (it is our ~ that we must help the poor)

4. (misc.) all races and ~s

creep

v. (d; intr.) to ~ into (to ~ into a hole)

2. (d; intr.) to ~ out of (an insect crept out of the pipe)

3. (misc.) to ~ on all fours; to ~ out from under a bush

creeps

n. (colloq.) ['fear'] it gives me the ~

creep up

v. (D; intr.) to ~ on (he crept up on me in the dark)

creepy

adj. (colloq.) ['weird'] ~ about (there is smt. ~ about him)

crescendo

n. 1. to reach a ~

2. a deafening ~

crest

n. ['top'] 1. to ride the ~ (to ride the ~ of popularity)

2. at the ~ ['heraldic device']

3. a family ~

crew

n. ['group working together'] 1. a ground; gun; road; skeleton;

stage; tank; work; wrecking ~ ['ship's personnel']

2. a ship's ~

3. a ~ mutinies

4. in a ~ ['rowing team']

5. a varsity ~

6. to go out for ~ ['misc.']

7. a motley ~ ('a disparate group')

crib

I n. (AE) 1. to assemble, put up a ~

2. to dismantle a ~ (BE has cot)

II v. (colloq.) (D; intr., tr.) ('to plagiarize') to ~ from

cricket

I n. ['game'] 1. to play ~ ['fair play'] (colloq.)

2. ~ to + int. (it's not ~ to cheat at cards)

II n. ['insect'] ~s chirp

crier

n. a town ~

crime

n. 1. to commit, perpetrate a ~

2. to deter; eradicate, stamp out, wipe out; prevent ~

3. an atrocious, brutal, heinous, horrible, infamous,

outrageous, vicious ~

4. a daring; economic; major, serious; minor, petty; perfect;

political; victimless; violent; war ~; (a) white collar ~; a ~

of passion

5. organized ~

6. a ~ against (a ~ against humanity)

7. a ~ to + inf. (it was a ~ to butcher French like that)

8. a ~ that + clause (it is a ~ that so many people go to bed

hungry)

9. (misc.) to investigate a ~; to report a ~ (to the police);

it's a ~ the way he behaves

criminal

I adj. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ of him to do that)

2. ~ that + clause (it is ~ that he is allowed to remain in this

country)

II n. 1. to apprehend, arrest a ~; to bring a ~ to justice

2. to pardon; parole; release a ~

3. to rehabilitate a ~

4. a born; common; desperate; habitual, hardened, inveterate;

infamous, notorious; master; war ~

5. a band, gang of ~s

crimp

n. (colloq.) (AE) ['obstacle'] to put a ~ in

crisis

n. 1. to cause, precipitate, provoke, stir up a ~

2. to aggravate a ~

3. to avert, forestall a ~

4. to defuse, overcome, settle a ~; to ride out a ~

5. an acute, grave, serious; impending; mounting ~

6. a cabinet; economic, financial; energy; food; housing;

identity; mid-life; political ~

7. a ~ concerning, over (there was a ~ over the budget deficit)

8. a ~ in (the ~ in health care)

9. in a ~

crisp

n. burned to a ~

criterion

n. 1. to apply; establish a ~

2. to meet, satisfy criteria

3. a reliable, valid ~

critic

n. 1. a harsh, severe, unkind; impartial ~

2. an art; drama; literary; music; social ~

critical

adj. ['criticizing'] 1. ~ of (he was ~ of my work)

['crucial']

2. ~ to (~ to our work)

3. ~ that + clause; subj. (it is ~ that the work be/should be

completed on time)

criticism

n. 1. to arouse, provoke, stir up ~

2. to express, offer ~; to level ~ at

3. to take ~

4. to temper one's ~

5. to subject smb. to ~

6. adverse, biting, damaging, devastating, harsh, hostile,

scathing, severe, sharp, sweeping, unsparing, withering ~

7. constructive; fair; mild; nitpicking, petty; sober; valid ~

8. textual ~

9. (the) higher; lower ~ (of the Bible)

10. the barbs of ~

criticize

v. 1. to ~ fairly; harshly, severely, sharply

2. (D; tr.) to ~ for (to ~ smb. for sloppy work)

critique

n. to give, present a ~

crop

I n. 1. to grow; plant a ~

2. to gather, harvest, reap a ~

3. to bear, yield a ~

4. to rotate ~s

5. to dust, spray ~s

6. a bountiful, bumper, record; poor ~

7. a cash; staple ~

II v. (N; used with an adjective) they ~ped the grass short

cropper

n. ['failure'] to come a ~ ('to fail')

croquet

n. to play ~

croquettes

n. chicken; salmon ~s

cross

I adj. ['irritable'] ~ at, with (~ at smt.; ~ with smb.)

II n. ['symbol of the Christian religion'] 1. to die on the ~

(said of Jesus Christ)

2. to bear one's ~ ('to bear a heavy burden')

3. to make the sign of the ~['figure of a cross']

4. to make one's ~ (in place of a signature)

5. a Greek; Latin; Maltese ~ ['mixture']

6. a ~ between (a ~ between two breeds)

III v. 1. (D; intr., tr.) ('to go') to ~ from; to (they ~ed from

one bank of the river to the other; we ~ed the valley from one

ridge to the other)

2. (D; tr.) ('to breed') to ~ with (to ~ one breed with another)

cross-examination

n. 1. to conduct a ~

2. to subject smb. to ~

3. a rapid-fire ~

4. under ~

cross-examine

v. to ~ sharply

cross fire

n. to be caught in a ~

crossing

n. 1. to make a ~

2. a rough; smooth ~

3. a border ~

4. a grade (AE), level (BE); Panda (BE), pedestriar, pelican

(BE), zebra (BE); rail-road (AE), railway (esp. BE) ~

5. a transoceanic ~

6. at a ~ (at the border ~)

crossover

v. (D; intr.) to ~ into, to (she ~ed over to the other lane)

cross-purposes

n. at ~ (to work at ~)

cross-refer

v. (D;intr.,tr.) to ~ to

cross-reference

n. 1. to make a ~

2. a ~ to

crossroads

n. at a ~ (also fig.)

crossword

(BE) see crossword puzzle

crossword puzzle

n. (esp. AE) to do, work (out) a

crow

I n. 1. ~s caw

2. (misc.) as the ~ flies ('in a straight line'); to eat ~ ('to

be placed in a humiliating position')

II v. (colloq.) ('to exult') (d; intr.) to ~ about, over (to ~

about one's success; to ~ over an enemy's misfortune)

crowd

I n. ['throng'] 1. to attract, draw a ~

2. to disperse a ~

3. an enormous, huge, tremendous; overflow ~

4. a ~ collects, gathers; disperses; thins out

5. a ~ mills, swarms (around the entrance) ['audience']

6. a capacity ~ ['group']

7. a bad; fast, wild ~; the wrong ~ (to run around with a fast

~; she got in with the wrong ~)

II v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ around (to ~ around the entrance)

2. (d; intr.) to ~ into (to ~ into a small room)

3. (d; tr.) to ~ off, out of (they ~ed me off the road)

4. (d; intr.) to ~ through (they ~ed through the turnstiles)

5. (misc.) to ~ together

crown

I n. ['part of a tooth'] 1. to put a ~ on (a tooth)

['monarch's headdress']

2. to wear a ~ ['boxing title']

3. to win the (heavyweight) ~

II v. 1. (d; tr.) to ~ with (their efforts were ~ed with success)

2. (N; used with a noun) they ~ed him emperor

crucial

adj. 1. ~ for, to (these negotiations are ~ for/to the future of

our firm)

2. ~ that + clause; subj. (it is ~ that this matter

remain/should remain secret)

crude

adj. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ of him to say that)

cruel

adj. 1. ~ to, towards (~ to animals)

2. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ of him to say that)

cruelty

n. 1. to demonstrate, display ~

2. consummate, deliberate, wanton ~

3. mental ~

4. ~ to, towards (~ to animals)

cruise

I n. 1. to go on, take a ~

2. a shakedown; world ~

3. a ~ around (to take a ~ around the world)

II v. (D; intr.) to ~ around (to ~ around the world)

cruiser

n. a battle; heavy; light; medium ~

crumble

v. (D; intr.) to ~ into

crunch

n. (colloq.) (esp. AE) ['shortage'] 1. an energy ~

['showdown']

2. if it comes to a ~

crusade

I n. 1. to conduct; launch a ~

2. to embark on; engage in; go on; join a ~

3. a one-man, one-woman ~

4. a holy ~

5. a ~ against; for (a ~ against smoking)

II v. (D; intr.) to ~ against; for (to ~ against smoking)

crush

I n. (colloq.) ['infatuation'] 1. a schoolboy; schoolgirl;

youthful ~

2. a ~ on (to have a ~ on smb.)

II v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ against (the mob ~ed against the

barriers)

2. (misc.) to ~ smb. to death

crust

n. (colloq.) ['impudence'] the ~ to + inf. (she had the ~ to

ask for a raise)

crotch

n. 1. to walk on, with ~es

2. a pair of ~es

cry

I n. 1. to give, raise (formal), utter a ~

2. an anguished, plaintive; heart-rending; loud, lusty;

piercing; rallying ~

3. a battle, war ~

4. a ~ for (a ~ for help)

5. (misc.) a far ~ from ('very far from')

II v. 1. to ~ loudly

2. (d; intr.) ('to appeal') to ~ for (to ~ for justice)

3. (d; intr.) ('to weep') to ~ for, with (to ~ for joy; to ~

with grief)

4. (d; intr.) ('to weep') to ~ over (to ~ over one's bad luck)

5. (d; intr.) to ~ to ('to complain to') (don't come ~ing to me)

6. (misc.) to ~ wolf ('to give a false alarm'); to ~ havoc ('to

warn of disaster'); to ~ one's eyes out; to ~ over spilled/spilt

milk ('to complain in vain'); she cried herself to sleep

cry out

v. 1. (d; intr.) ('to appeal') to ~ against; for (to ~ against

injustice; to ~ for equal rights)

2. (d; intr., tr.) ('to shout') to ~ to (he cried out to us to

stop)

crystal

n. fine ~

cube

n. an ice ~

cube root

n. to find, extract the ~

cucumber

n. 1. to peel; slice a ~

2. (misc.) as cool as a ~

cuddle up

v. (D; intr.) to ~ to (the twins ~d up to each other)

cudgels

n. ['defense'] to take up the ~ for

cue

n. ['signal'] 1. to give the ~

2. to take one's ~ from smb.

3. to miss the ~

4. on ~

cuff

n. 1. a French ~

2. (misc.) (esp. AE) on the ~ ('on credit')

cull

v. (D; tr.) to ~ from

culminate

v. (d; intr.) to ~ in (to ~ in victory)

cult

n. 1. to join a ~

2. a cargo; fertility; personality ~

cultivation

n. under ~

culture

n. ['enlightenment'] ['developed intellectual faculties'] 1.

to develop a ~

2. to bring ~ to

3.to disseminate, foster, spread ~

4. ethnic; human; material ~ ['professional training']

5. beauty ~['bacteria cultured for examination or vaccine

production']

6. to do, grow a ~

cunning

I adj. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ of them to do that)

II n. to show ~

cup

n. ['prize'] 1. to lose; win a ~

2. a challenge ~['small drinking vessel']

3. to drain one's ~

4. a coffee; drinking; paper; plastic ~; teacup

5.(misc.) to be in one's cups ('to be drunk')

cupboard

n. 1. an airing (BE); built-in ~

2. (usu. fig.) a bare ~

cupid

n. to play ~

curb

n. ['restraint'] a ~ on

curd

n. soybean (AE), soya bean (B E) ~

cure

I n. 1. to effect, provide, work a ~

2. a certain, sure; complete; miraculous ~

3. a rest; water ~

4.a ~ for

II v. (D;tr.) to ~ of (to ~ smb. of a disease)

curfew

n. 1. to impose a ~

2. to lift a ~

3. a mid-night ~

curious

adj. ['eager to know'] 1. ~ about (~ about smb.'s past)

2. ~ to + inf. (I would be ~ to know what really happened)

['odd']

3. ~ that + clause(it is ~ that she didn't remember the

incident)

curiosity

n. 1. to arouse, excite, pique, whet(one's) ~

2. to satisfy one's ~

3. healthy; idle; intellectual; natural; unquenchable ~

4. ~ about

5. out of ~ (he did it out of ~)

curls

n. natural ~

curl up

v. (D; intr.) to ~ in, into (to ~ into a ball)

currency

n. ['paper money'] 1. to issue; print ~

2.to call in, withdraw ~

3. convertible, hard; foreign; non-convertible, soft, weak;

stable, strong ~ ['general use']

4. to enjoy, have ~ (to enjoy wide ~)

current

n. ['flow of electricity'] 1. alternating; direct; electric;

high-tension; low-tension; oscillating ~ ['flow']

2. an air ~

3. an underwater ~

4.against; with the ~

curriculum

n. 1. to draw up, design a ~

2. a college, university; school ~

3. a basic, core ~

4. a ~ in (the ~ in engineering)

curry

n. 1. hot, mild ~

2. fish; meat; vegetable ~

curse

I n. 1. to pronounce, put a ~ on, upon smb.2. to utter a ~

3. to lift a ~

4. under a ~

II v. (D; tr.) to ~ for (she ~d him for his clumsiness)

curtain

n. 1. to draw; lower; raise a ~

2. (in the theater) to ring down; ring up the ~

3. to hang, put up ~s

4. a drop; shower; stage, theater ~

5. (fig.)a bamboo; iron ~

6. (in the theater) the ~ goes up, rises; comes down, drops,

falls

curtain call

n. to take a ~

curtains

n. (colloq.) ['ruin'] ~ for (it will be ~ for him if he loses

his job)

curtsy

I n. to make a ~

II v. (D;intr.) to ~ to (to ~ to the Queen)

curve

I n. 1. to describe, make a ~ (the road makes a ~ to the right)

2. to plot a ~ ('to locate a curve by plotted points')

3. (teaching) to grade(AE), mark on a ~

4. a hairpin, horseshoe; sharp

II v. 1. to ~ sharply

2. (D;intr.) to ~ to (to ~ to the right)

custody

n. ['guardianship'] 1. to award, grant ~

2. to receive, take ~

3. joint ~ ['arrest']

4. to take smb. into ~

5. police; protective ~

6. in ~ ('underarrest') (held in ~)

custom

n. 1. to establish a ~

2. to cherish, observe, practice a ~

3. (a) local ~

4. an ancient, old; pagan; quaint; tribal ~

5. a ~ to + inf. (it is not our ~ to break the law)

6. a ~ that + clause (it is an old ~ that men tip their hats

when greeting smb.)

customary

adj. ~ to + inf. (it is ~ to tip the waiter)

customer

n. 1. to attract ~s

2. an irate; prospective; satisfied; steady ~

3. a cash ~

4. (misc.) an ugly ~ ('a violent person')

customs

n. 1. to clear, get through, go through, pass through ~ (we got

through ~ very quickly)

2.to clear, get smt. through ~ (we got the toys through ~

without difficulty)

3. to declare smt. at

cut

I n. ['wound made by smt. sharp'] 1. a clean; deep; superficial

~ ['reduction']

2. to take a ~

3.a budget; pay; personnel; tax ~

4. a ~ in (we had to take a ~ in pay) ['haircut']

5. a crew ~

II v. 1. ('to gash') to ~ deeply

2. (C) ('to sever') ~ a slice of cake for me; or: ~ me a slice

of cake

3. (d; intr.) ('to go') to ~ across (to ~ across a field)

4. (D; tr.) ('to sever') to ~ from (to ~ a branch from a tree;

he was cut from the team; she cut a thin slice from the loaf)

5. (d; intr.) ('to slice') to ~ into (she cut into the cake)

6. (D; tr.) ('to slice') to ~ into (he cut the meat into small

pieces)7. (D; refl.) ('to gash') to ~ on (she cut herself on a

knife)

8. (D; tr.) ('to remove') to ~ out of (she was cut out of the

will)

9. (d; intr.) ('to go') to ~ through (they cut through the

woods; let's ~ through this building)

10. (D; tr.) ('to reduce') to ~ to (they cut the budget to the

minimum)

11. (N; used with an adjective) ('to trim') she cut her hair

short

12. (misc.) to ~ smb. short ('to interrupt smb.'); to ~ smb. to

the quick ('to insult smb. deeply')

cut ahead

v. (d; intr.) to ~ of ('to cut off) (the other runner cut ahead

of her)

cutaway

v. (D; tr.) to ~ from

cutback

n. a ~ in (a ~ in production)

cut back

v. (D; intr.) to ~ on (to ~ on smoking)

cut down

v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ on (to ~ on smoking)2. (misc.) to ~ smb.

down to size ('to deflate smb.'s ego')

cut in

v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ on (he cut in on me when I was dancing)

2. (slang) (D; tr.) to ~ on (he cut me in on the deal)

cutlet

n. a veal ~

cut off

v. 1. (C) ('to slice') he cut off a slice for me; or: he cut me

off a slice

2. (D; tr.) ('to separate') to ~ from (we were cut off from

civilization)cut out adj. ['suited'] 1. ~ for (she wasn't ~

for this job

2. ~ to + inf. (I wasn't ~ to be an administrator)

cut out

v. (D; tr.) to ~ from (to ~ an article out from the newspaper)

cutter

n. a cookie (AE); paper ~

cutting

n. a press ~ (BE; AE has press clipping)

cut up

v. (D; tr.) to ~ into (to ~ smt. up into pieces)

cycle

n. 1. to complete a ~; to come full ~

2. to go through, pass through a ~

3. a business; economic; estrous (AE), oestrous (BE); life;

menstrual ~

4. (as on a washing machine) a delicate; normal; permanent-press

~

5. in ~s (some epidemics occur in ~s)

cynical

adj. ~ about (~ about smb.'s motives)

cypher

(esp. BE) see cipher

czar

n. a financial; gambling; shipbuilding ~ (BE spelling is tsar)