mace

n. ['staff used as a symbol of authority'] a ceremonial ~

machete

n. to brandish, wield a ~

machine

n. 1. to operate, run, work a ~

2. to shut down a ~

3. an adding; answering; calculating; composing, linotype,

typesetting; copy, copying, duplicating; earth-moving; heart-

lung; milking; milling; money access (AE); sanding; sewing;

threshing; video-game; voting; washing; x-ray ~

4. a mincing ~ (BE; AE has meat grinder)

5. a fruit (BE), pinball, slot (AE) ~ (to play a pinball ~) (BE

also has pintable)

6. a slot (BE), vending ~

7. a party; political ~

8. a ~ functions, runs; breaks down

machine gun

n. 1. to fire, operate a ~

2. a heavy; light; medium ~

3. an air-cooled; water-cooled ~

4. a ~ jams

machine-gun nest

n. to clean out, wipe out a ~

machinery

n. ['machines'] 1. to operate, run ~

2. to maintain ~ ['apparatus']

3. administrative; law-enforcement; propaganda ~

4. ~ for (~ for negotiations)

mad

adj. ['infatuated'] (colloq.) 1. (cannot stand alone) ~ about

(they are ~ about each other) ['angry'] (colloq.) (esp. AE)

2. hopping ~

3. to get ~

4. ~ at (she's ~ at him; to get ~ at smb.) ['insane']

5. stark raving ~

6. to go ~

7. to drive smb. ~

8. ~ with (~ with pain)

9. ~ to + int. (he was ~ to try it)

maddening

adj. 1. ~ to + inf. (it's ~ to have to wait here)

2. ~ that + clause (it's ~ that they never answer the

telephone)

made

adj. (cannot stand alone) ~ from, of, out of; with USAGE NOTE:

Compare these examples, which illustrate general tendencies-- 1.

a stew can be made with vegetables (vegetables are not the only

ingredient).

2. a stew can be made of I out of vegetables; a chair can be

made of/out of wood; shoes are usually made of lout of leather

(only one maj or substance or ingredient is used).

3. synthetic rubber can be made from petroleum; paper can be

made from wood (the basic substance has been greatly changed),

(see make II)

made-to-order

adj. ~ for

madness

n. 1. sheer, utter ~

2. ~ to + inf. (it was sheer ~ to do it)

magazine

n. ['supply depot'] 1. a powder ~ ['journal']

2. an alumni (AE); fashion; glossy; illustrated; popular ~

maggots

n. crawling with ~

magic

n. 1. to perform ~

2. black ~

3. by ~ (the medicine worked as if by ~)

magistrate

n. a police ~ (esp. AE)

magnanimity

n. 1. to display, show ~ towards

2. great ~

magnanimous

adj. 1. ~ towards

2. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ of you to make the offer)

magnate

n. a coal; steel; tobacco ~

magnetism

n. animal; personal; physical ~

magnitude

n. 1. considerable, great ~

2. of a certain ~ (of considerable ~)

magpie

n. ~s chatter

maid

n. ['female servant'] a chambermaid; kitchen; lady's ~;

parlormaid

mail

I n. (esp. AE; BE usu. has post for 1-5,8) ['letters']

['postal system'] 1. to address; send out (the) ~

2. to deliver the ~

3. to forward; sort (the) ~

4. incoming; outgoing; return ~

5. airmail; certified; domestic; electronic; express; first-

class; foreign; franked; registered; second-class; special-

delivery; surface; third-class ~

6. fan; hate; junk ~

7. (esp. AE) a piece of ~

8. by return ~ (BE has by return of post)

II v. (esp. AE; BE has post) (A) she ~ed the package to me; or:

she ~ed me the package

2. (D; tr.) to ~ from; to (the letter was ~ed from Oregon to

Pennsylvania) (for BE see post II)

III n. ['armor'] chain ~

main

n. ['main pipe, duct'] 1. an electric; gas; sewer; water ~

2. the water ~ burst

mainland

n. 1. from; to the ~

2. on the ~

mainstream

n. in the ~ of politics

maintain

v. (L) she ~s that the accusation is groundless

maintenance

n. 1. preventive; routine ~

2. building; health ~

majesty

n. ['sovereign'] 1. Her; His; Your ~ ['grandeur']

2. in all its ~

major

I n. ['academic specialization'] (AE) 1. to give, offer a ~

(our department gives a literature ~)

2. a ~ in (our department offers a ~ in literature) ['student

who is specializing'] (AE)

3. a ~ in (she is a ~ in English; or: she is an English ~)

['officer']

4. a ~ commands a battalion

II v. (AE) (d;intr.) ('to specialize') to ~ in (to ~ in Russian)

majority

n. ['number greater than half] (AE); ['greater number'] (BE)

1. to get, receive a ~

2. to have, hold a ~ (the Democrats have a slim ~ in the House)

3. a bare, narrow, slim, small; clear; large; overwhelming,

vast ~

4. an absolute ~ (BE; AE has majority)

5. a relative ~ (BE; AE has plurality)

6. a simple; two-thirds; working ~

7. the silent ~ (i.e., those who have moderate or conservative

views but do not voice them)

8. by a ~ (to win by an overwhelming ~)

9. in a ~ (in the ~ of cases) ['full legal age']

10. to attain, reach one's ~ USAGE NOTE: Compare the verbs in

the following constructions--the majority of the (two hundred)

votes were for peace; a majority of two hundred votes was enough

to win.

make

I n. (colloq.) ['search for gain or sexual favors'] on the ~

(he's always on the ~)

II v. 1. (A) ('to propose') she made an offer to us; or: she

made us an offer

2. (C) ('to prepare') ~ an omelet for me; or: ~ me an omelet

3. (d; intr.) to ~ for ('to head for') (she made for the exit;

the ship made for the open sea)

4. (d; intr.) to ~ for ('to lead to') (willingness to

compromise ~s for success in negotiations)

5. (D; tr.) ('to provide') to ~ for (to ~ room for smb.)

6. (D; tr.) ('to create') to ~ from, of, out of (to ~ butter

from cream; she made a table out of wood; tires can be made

from/of/out of synthetic rubber)

7. (d; tr.) ('to transform') to ~ into (to ~ a novel into a

film; the experience made her into a skeptic)

8. (slang) (AE) (d; intr.) to ~ like ('to imitate') (to ~ like

a clown)

9. (d; tr.) to ~ of ('to interpret') (what do you ~ of their

offer?)

10. (d; tr.) ('to create') to ~ of, out of (to ~ a fool of

smb.; the army made a man out of him)

11. (D; tr.) ('to create') to ~ with (you ~ a stew with meat

and vegetables)

12. (I) ('to cause'); ('to force') she made the children clean

their room; we made them wait; the police could not ~ him talk

13. (N; used with an adjective, noun, past participle) ('to

cause to become') the news made us happy; the rough sea made

them seasick; we made our position clear; he made me his deputy;

she could not ~ herself understood

14. (S; used with nouns) ('to prove to be') she made a good

deputy

15. (misc.) (AE; colloq.) he finally made colonel ('he was

finally promoted to the rank of colonel') USAGE NOTE: When

pattern I is put into the passive, to is inserted--they were

made to wait. (see the Usage Note for made)

make away

see make off

make do

v. (D; intr.) to ~ with ('to manage with') (we'll have to ~ with

this stove)

make off

v. (d; intr.) to ~ with ('to steal and take away') (the thieves

made off with the silverware)

make out

v. (colloq.) ('to have success') (D; intr.) to ~ with (how did

you ~ with the new boss?)

make over

v. (esp. BE) (B) ('to transfer legally') she made the bonds over

to me

maker

n. 1. an auto ~; policymaker

2. (misc.) to meet one's ~ ('to die and go to heaven')

makeup

n. ['cosmetics'] 1. to apply, put on ~

2. to remove ~

v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ for ('to recoup') (to ~ for lost time)

2. (colloq.) (d; intr.) to ~ to ('to gain favor with') (you

should try to ~ to your boss)

3. (D; intr.) ('to become reconciled') to ~ with (she made up

with her sister)

making

n. ['evolution'] 1. in the ~ (a revolution in the ~)

['creation']

2. not of one's own ~

maladjustment

n. an emotional ~

malady

n. (lit.) a fatal; serious; strange ~

malaria

n. 1. to come down with, develop ~

2. to eradicate, stamp out ~

malarkey

n. (slang) ['nonsense'] (just) plain; pure, sheer ~

malevolence

n. pure ~

malformation

n. a congenital ~

malice

n. 1. to bear ~ towards

2. (legal) with ~ aforethought

malicious

adj. ~ towards

mall

n. 1. a pedestrian; shopping ~

2. at a ~ (she works at a shopping ~)

malpractice

n. legal; medical; professional ~

mammals

n. the higher; lower ~

man

n. 1. an average; fat; grown; handsome; middle-aged; old; short:

tall; thin; ugly; wise; young ~

2. Cro-Magnon; Heidelberg; Java; Neanderthal; Paleolithic;

Peking; Piltdown ~

3. a divorced; family; married; single ~

4. a con, confidence; fancy (esp. BE); hatchet; hit (esp. AE);

idea; ladies'; marked; organization; party (pol.); professional;

Renaissance; right-hand; self-made; straight; straw ~; yes-man

5. an anchorman; businessman; leading ~; liftman (BE);

maintenance ~; newspaperman; rewrite; stunt ~; weatherman

6. a moving (AE), removal (BE) ~

7. a second-story ~ (AE; CE has cat burglar)

8. (pol.) (AE) an advance ~

9. enlisted men (AE; BE has other ranks)

10. a university ~ (BE; AE has college graduate)

11. a lollipop ~ (BE; AE has crossing guard)

12. a best ~ (at a wedding)

13. the common ~, the ~ in the street

14. a ~ on horseback ('a potential dictator')

15. to a ~ ('everyone')

16. (misc.) he's a ~ of his word; ~ is mortal; (esp. BE) every

~ jack ('every man'); a dirty old ~ (pejor.) ('an immoral man');

a medicine ~; the ~ of the year; a ~ of letters; a ~ of action;

a ~ of the world

manage

v. 1. (colloq.) (D; intr.) ('to cope') to ~ with (we cannot ~

with the children)

2. (D; intr.) ('to cope') to ~ without (we cannot ~ without a

car)

3. (E) ('to succeed') she somehow ~d to see him

management

n. 1. efficient ~

2. middle ~

3. under ~ (under new ~)

manager

n. 1. an assistant; branch; business; campaign; city; credit;

general; hotel; office; sales; service; stage ~

2. a baseball ~ USAGE NOTE: For other sports coach is used.

mandate

I n. ['order'] 1. to carry out a ~

2. a clear ~

3. a ~ to + inf. (we had a ~ to eliminate illiteracy)

4. under a ~ (to do smt.) ['assignment to administer an

area']

5. a ~ over

6. under (a) ~

II v. (formal) (L;subj.) the constitution ~s that the president

carry out the laws

mane

n. a horse's; lion's ~

maneuver

I manoeuvre n. 1. to carry out, conduct, execute a ~

2. (mil.) to conduct, hold ~s

3. a clever; military; political; tactical ~

II v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ for (to ~ for position)

2. (d; tr.) to ~ into (we ~ed them into a compromise)

3. (d; tr.) to ~ out of (the player was ~ed out of position)

mangle

v. to ~ beyond recognition

manhole

n. an open ~

manhood

n. to grow to, reach ~

manhunt

n. 1. to carry out, conduct; launch, organize a ~

2. a ~ for

mania

n. a ~ for

maniac

n. a homicidal; sex ~

manicure

n. 1. to give smb. a ~

2. to get a ~

manifest

n. 1. a plane's; ship's ~

2. on a ~

manifesto

n. 1. to issue a ~

2. a political ~

manner

n. 1. an arrogant, cavalier, imperious, overbearing; awkward;

boorish; businesslike; casual, hit-or-miss, offhand, relaxed;

charming; cloying; coarse, crude, rude, uncouth; courteous,

polite; cursory; debonair; flippant; forthcoming; friendly;

gentle, mild; gracious; grand; ingratiating; intriguing; lively;

matter-of-fact; obnoxious; polished; pretentious; prim;

professional; servile; sheepish; slipshod, sloppy;

statesmanlike; stern; suave; sullen, surly; unctuous ~

2. bad; good ~s

3. (a doctor's) bedside ~

4. in a certain ~ (they behaved in a statesmanlike ~; she was

businesslike in her ~; in the grand ~; in an awkward ~;

everything was done in a well organized ~)

5. (misc.) to the ~ born ('born to an elevated social

position'); in a ~ of speaking ('as it were'); to mind one's ~s

('to behave properly')

manoeuvre

(BE) see maneuver

mansion

n. (US) a governor's ~

manslaughter

n. 1. to commit ~

2. involuntary; voluntary ~

mantle

n. ['symbol of authority'] to assume; inherit; wear the ~ (of

power)

manual

n. an instruction; laboratory; owner's; teacher's ~

manufacturer

n. an aircraft; automobile (AE), motorcar (BE); clothing;

computer; drug; furniture; radio; shoe; television ~

manure

n. to spread ~

manuscript

n. 1. to edit; proofread; revise a ~

2. to submit a ~ (for publication)

3. to accept; reject a ~

4. an authentic; unpublished ~

many

determiner, pronoun ~ of (~ of them) USAGE NOTE: The use of the

preposition of is necessary when a pronoun follows. When a noun

follows, the use of of the limits the meaning--we saw many

students; we saw many of the students whom we had met earlier.

map

n. 1. to draw; trace a ~

2. to consult; read a ~

3. a large-scale; small-scale ~

4. a contour; dialect; military; Ordnance-Survey (GB); relief;

road; strip; weather ~

5. on a ~ (to find a village on a ~)

6. (misc.) to put a place on the ~ ('to make a place well-

known'); to wipe smt. off the ~ ('to destroy smt.')

marathon

n. 1. to organize, stage a ~

2. to run a ~

3. a dance ~

marauder

n. a band of ~s

marble

n. a slab of ~

marbles

n. 1. to play ~

2. a game of ~

3. (misc.) (colloq.) to lose one's ~ ('to lose one's mind')

march

I n. ['procession'] 1. a death; forced; hunger; peace ~

2. a ~ from; into, to

3. on the ~ (science is on the ~) ['music that accompanies

marching']

4. to compose; play; strike up a ~

5. a funeral; military; wedding ~ ['misc.']

6. to steal a ~ on smb. ('to outwit smb.')

II v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ against (to ~ against the enemy)

2. (D; intr., tr.) to ~ from; to (the battalion ~ed from the

barracks to the parade ground)

3. (d; intr., tr.) to ~ into (the troops ~ed into town)

4. (d; intr.) to ~ on, to, towards (to ~ on the next town)

marching orders

n. ['notice of dismissal'] (colloq.) (BE) to give smb. her/his

~ (AE has walking papers)

march off

v. (D; intr., tr.) to ~ to (they were ~ed off to prison)

mare

n. a brood, stock ~

margin

n. 1. to adjust; set a ~ (when typing)

2. to justify a ~ (in setting type, in word processing)

3. a comfortable, handsome, large, wide; narrow, slender, slim,

small; safe ~

4. by a ~ (they won by a slim ~)

5. in, on a ~ (to make notes in the ~s)

6. (misc.) a ~ of error; a ~ of safety

marina

n. a municipal, public ~

marine

n. a mercantile (BE), merchant (AE) ~

marionette

n. to manipulate a ~

mark

I n. ['sign, symbol'] 1. to make one's ~ ('to make a cross in

place of a signature')

2. an accent, stress; diacritical; exclamation (BE; AE has

exclamation point); punctuation; question; quotation ~

3. (mil.) a hash ~

4. a laundry ~ ['impression. imprint']

5. to leave, make one's ~ (they will leave their ~ on history)

6. a distinguishing; indelible ~ ['target']

7. to find, hit the ~ (the bullet found its ~)

8. to miss; overshoot the ~

9. to fall short of the ~

10. off the ~; wide of the ~ ['skin blemish']

11. a strawberry ~ (esp. BE; CE has birthmark) ['victim']

12. an easy ~ ['starting line of a race']

13. on your ~s! ['misc.']

14. to toe the ~ ('to adhere to the rules'); to bear the ~ of

Cain (see also grade 1-4)

II v. 1. (D; tr.) to ~ as (these items were ~ed as acceptable)

2. (d; tr.) to ~ for (~ed for death)

3. (K) this birthday ~s his coming of age

4. (N; used with an adjective) she ~ed the documents secret

market

n. ['store, shop'] 1. a fish; food ~; hypermarket (BE); meat;

open-air ~; supermarket

2. at a ~ (to shop at the ~) ['place where trade is

conducted']

3. a stock ~

4. a flea; open; overseas; spot ~

5. on a ~ (to buy oil on the spot ~; to put a new product on

the ~; a new computer has just come out on the ~) ['stock

market']

6. to play the ~('to speculate')

7. to depress the ~

8. a bear ('falling');

bull ('rising') ~

9. the ~ is active; depressed; falling; firm, steady; rising;

sluggish

10. the ~ closes strong; weak

11. the ~ opens strong; weak ['supply of goods, services']

12. to capture, corner, monopolize a ~

13. to flood, glut a ~f4. the housing; labor ~

15. a buyer's; seller's ~ ['demand']

16. to create a ~

17. to study the ~

18. to depress a ~

19. a ~ for (there is no ~ for large cars)

20. in the ~ for (we're in the ~ for a new house)

21. a drug on the ~ ('smt. for which there is little demand')

['trade']

22. the bond; commodities; securities; stock; used-car; wheat ~

marketplace

n. in the ~

marksman, markswoman

n. a crack, skilled ~

marmalade

n. orange ~

marriage

n. 1. to enter into a ~

2. to announce a ~

3. to consummate a ~

4. to arrange a ~

5. to propose ~

6. to annul a ~

7. to break up, dissolve a ~

8. a bad, unhappy; broken; good; happy ~

9. an arranged; civil; common-law; communal; group; morganatic;

open; proxy; secret; trial ~

10. an interfaith; interracial; mixed ~

11. a ~ of convenience

12. a ~ into (a family)

13. a ~ to (smb.)

14. (misc.) to give (one's child) in ~

marriage ceremony

n. to perform a ~

married

adj. ~ to

marrow

n. 1. bone ~

2. vegetable ~ (BE; AE has squash)

marry

v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ into (to ~ into a good family)

2. see marry off

marry off

v. (D; tr.) to ~ to

marshal

n. a field ~

marshmallow

n. to roast, toast ~s

martial law

n. 1. to impose, invoke ~

2. to rescind; suspend ~

martini

n. 1. to fix, make, mix a ~

2. a dry ~

martyr

n. 1. to make a ~ (of smb.)

2. a ~ to (a ~ to tyranny)

3. (misc.) to burn a ~ at the stake; to play the ~

martyrdom

n. to suffer ~

marvel

I n. 1. to do ~s

2. a ~ to

3. a ~ that + clause (it's a ~ to me that he received the

award)

II v. (d; intr.) to ~ at (to ~ at smb.'s skill)

marvelous, marvellous

adj. 1. ~ to + int. (it's ~ to have a day off = it's ~ having a

day off)

2. ~ that + clause (it's ~ that we could see each other again)

mascara

n. 1. to apply, put on ~

2. to remove, wipe off ~

mask

n. a death; gas; oxygen; ski; stocking; surgical ~

masquerade

v. (D; intr.) to ~ as (to ~ as a policeman)

mass

I n. ['body of matter'] 1. a plastic; shapeless; sticky ~

2. a land ~

3. critical ~

4. atomic ~

5. a dense ~ (of smoke)

6. (med.) a fixed; hard; irregular; movable; nodular; palpable

~

II n. ['celebration of the Eucharist'] 1. to celebrate, offer,

say (a, the) ~

2. to attend, hear ~

3. high; low; pontifical; requiem; solemn; votive ~

4. a ~ for

massacre

n. to carry out, perpetrate a ~

massage

n. 1. to give (smb.) a ~

2. to get a ~

3. a back; body; facial; therapeutic ~

mast

n. 1. at half ~

2. (misc.) (lit.) before the ~ ('at sea as a sailor')

master

I n. 1. to find one's ~ ('to find one who is superior')

2. a question ~ (BE; AE has quizmaster)

3. (chess) a grand ~

4. a past ~

5. a ~ at, of (a ~ of deceit)

II v. to ~ completely, thoroughly

masterpiece

n. 1. to create a ~

2. an enduring ~

mastery

n. 1. to demonstrate, display ~

2. to acquire ~

3. (a) complete; thorough ~

4. ~ of; over (~ of one's subject; ~ over other people)

mat

n. 1. to weave a ~

2. an exercise; place; welcome ~

match

I n. ['slender piece of wood that catches fire when struck']

1. to light, strike a ~

2. to light, put, set a ~ to

3. a safety ~

4. a book; box of ~es

II n. ['marriage'] ['marriage partner'] 1. to make a ~

2. a good ~

3. a ~ for ['contest']

4. to promote, stage a ~

5. a championship; crucial; play-off; return; test (BE)

('international') ~

6. a football ~ (esp. BE; AE has football game)

7. a boxing; cricket; fencing; golf; hockey; polo; tennis;

wrestling ~

8. a ~ between; with (a wrestling ~ between two strong

competitors) ['equal competitor']

9. to meet one's ~

10. no ~ for (she proved to be no ~ for me; I was no ~ for him)

11. a ~fn (she was more than my ~ in ability) ['pair']

12. a good; perfect ~

13. a ~ for USAGE NOTE: When two teams compete before

spectators, BE usu. has match (a football match); AE usu. has

game (a football game). However, when the team game is of

American origin, BE often uses game too (a basketball game). A

chess match is CE.

III v. 1. (D; tr.) to ~ against, with ('to pit against') (he was

~ed against a formidable opponent)

2. (D; tr.) ('to equal') to ~ in (no one can ~ him in speed and

agility)

3. (D; tr.) to ~ with ('to find the equivalent of) (she wants

to ~ this candlestick with a similar one)

matchmaker

n. a professional ~

match up

v. (D; intr.) to ~ to, with (he doesn't ~ to his opponent)

mate

I n. ['petty officer'] (naval) 1. a boatswain's; machinist's ~

['junior partner']

2. (BE) a plumber's ~

3. (US; pol.) smb.'s running ~

II v. (D; intr., tr.) to ~ with (zebras don't ~ with donkeys; to

~ a donkey with a mare)

material

I adj. ~ to (this evidence is ~ to our case)

II n. ['data'] 1. to collect, gather ~

2. source ~

3. about, on (to gather ~ about the case)

4. ~ for (to gather ~ for a dictionary) ['matter']

5. radioactive; raw ~

6. promotional; reading ~; writing ~s

7. packing ~ ['cloth']

8. a swatch of ~

materialism

n. dialectal; historical ~

mathematics

n. elementary; higher ~

matrimony

n. the state of ~

matron

n. 1. a dignified ~

2. a ~ of honor (at a wedding)

matter

I n. ['affair'] 1. to pursue, take up a ~

2. to arrange; clear up, settle, straighten out; complicate;

simplify ~s

3. to give a ~ (attention, thought) (we have given this ~

considerable thought)

4. to not mince ~s (she never minces ~s) ('she always speaks

candidly')

5. an important, pressing, serious; petty, trifling ~

6. no easy; laughing ~ (it's no easy ~ to find a house in this

city = it's no easy ~ finding a house in this city; being

accused of assault is no laughing ~)

7. ~s came to a head

8. a ~ of (a ~ of grave importance)

9. in ~s of (in ~s of finance)

10. (misc.) as a ~ of fact ('really'); to take ~s into one's

own hands; the fact of the ~ is that...; no ~ ('it's not

important'); a ~ of record (legal); for that ~ ('concerning

that'); a ~ of a few minutes; a ~ of personal opinion; a ~ of

some urgency; a ~ of life and death; the crux/heart of the ~

['material'] ['substance']

11. printed; reading; subject ~

12. gaseous; liquid; organic; solid; vegetable ~

13. gray ~ ('brains')

14. the front ~ (of a book) ['misc.']

15. what's the ~ with you?

II v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ to (her financial status doesn't ~ to

us)

2. (L; to) it doesn't ~ (to us) that we are not rich

mattress

n. 1. a firm; soft ~

2. a double, full; king-size; queen-size; single, twin ~

maturity

n. to reach ~

maxim

n. a ~ that + clause (it is a valid ~ that competition increases

productivity)

maximum

n. 1. to seta ~

2. at a ~ (excitement was at its ~)

may

v. (F) she ~ still show up

mayhem

n. to commit ~

meadow

n. in a ~

meal

I n. ['repast'] 1. to cook, fix (esp. AE; colloq.), prepare a

~

2. to eat, have; enjoy a ~

3. to make a ~ of (to make a ~ of soup)

4. to order; serve a ~

5. a big, heavy; decent, hearty, solid, square; sumptuous ~ (to

have a square ~)

6. a light, small; simple; skimpy ~

7. a main ~ (the main ~ of the day) ['misc.']

8. (BE; colloq.) to make a ~ of smt. ('to behave as if smt.

easy were difficult')

II n. ['ground seeds'] Indian ~ (BE; AE has cornmeal)

mean

I adj. 1. ~ about (he was very ~ about the loan)

2. ~ to (he's ~ to everyone)

3. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ of her to say that)

II n. ['mathematical value'] 1. to find a ~

2. an arithmetic; harmonic ~ ['middle point']

3. a golden ~

III v. 1. (A; usu. used without to) she meant them no harm

2. (d; tr.) to ~ as (it was meant as a favor)

3. (d; tr.) to ~ for (his remark was meant for you)

4. (D; tr.) to ~ to (her words meant nothing to me)

5. (E) I meant to write

6. (L) she really meant that she wanted us to leave

7. (misc.) they never knew what it meant to be hungry

meander

v. (P; intr.) the brook ~s through the valley

meaning

n. 1. to misconstrue a ~

2. an accepted; basic; clear; connotative; double, equivocal;

figurative; literal; obscure ~

3. grammatical; lexical; referential ~

4. in a ~ (in the accepted ~ of the word)

meanness

n. 1. ~ to

2. out of ~ (he did it out of ~)

means

n. ['method'] 1. fair; foul ~

2. an effective ~

3. by any ~

4. (misc.) the end does not justify the ~; a ~ to an end

['resources'] ['wealth']

5. independent; moderate ~

6. the ~ to + inf. (do they have the ~ to buy such a large

house?)

7. according to, within one's ~ (to live within one's ~)

8. beyond one's ~ (to live beyond one's ~)

9. of ~ (a person of moderate ~) ['misc.']

10. by all ~ ('without fail'); by no ~ ('in no way')

meant

adj. (cannot stand alone) ['destined'] 1. ~ for (they were ~

for each other) ['intended']

2. ~ to + inf. (her remark was ~ to be a compliment)

['supposed'] (colloq.) (BE)

3. ~ to + inf. (Brighton is ~ to be lovely in summer)

meantime, meanwhile

n. in the ~

measles

n. 1. to catch, come down with (the) ~

2. an epidemic; outbreak of ~

measure

I n. 1. a cubic; dry; liquid; metric ~

2. a tape ~

3. in a certain ~ (in large ~)

4. (misc.) for good ~ ('as smt. extra'); made to ~ ('custom-

made'); to take smb.'s ~ ('to evaluate smb.') (see also

measures)

II v. 1. (d; tr.) to ~ against (to ~ one's accomplishments

against smb. else's)

2. (P; intr.) the room ~s twenty feet by ten

measurement

n. 1. to take a ~; to take smb.'s ~s

2. exact ~s

3. a metric ~

4. a scientific ~

5. chest; waist ~s

measures

n. 1. to carry out, take ~

2. coercive; compulsory; draconian; drastic, harsh, stern,

stringent; emergency; extreme, radical; preventive,

prophylactic; safety, security; stopgap, temporary ~

3. ~ to + inf. (we took ~ to insure their safety)

4. ~ against (to take ~ against smuggling)

measure up

v. (D; intr.) to ~ to (he didn't ~ to his opponent)

meat

n. 1. to broil (AE), grill; cook; cure; fry; roast ~

2. to carve, cut; slice ~

3. dark; fatty; fresh; halal; kosher; lean; raw; tender; tough;

white ~

4. chopped (AE), ground (AE), minced (BE); soup ~

5. ~ goes bad, spoils

mechanic

n. an automobile (AE), motorcar (BE); master ~

mechanics

n. celestial; fluid; quantum ~

mechanism

n. 1. to trigger a ~

2. a defense; escape

medal

n. 1. to award, give a ~

2. to earn a ~

3. to strike ('make') a ~

4. a bronze; gold; silver ~ (as a prize)

5. a ~ for (to earn a ~ for bravery)

meddle

v. (D; intr.) to ~ in; with (don't ~ in their affairs)

media

n. the mass; news ~

mediate

v. (D; intr.) to ~ between (to ~ between the warring parties)

mediation

n. 1. to offer ~

2. to go to ~

3. ~ between

mediator

n. 1. to appoint a ~

2. a government ~

3. a ~ between

medication

n. 1. to take (a) ~

2. to administer, dispense, give (a) ~

3. to order; prescribe (a) ~

4. to put smb. on ~

5. to discontinue (a) ~

6. to take smb. off ~

7. (an) effective; mild; potent, strong ~

8. (an) intramuscular; intravenous; oral; parenteral; topical ~

medicine

n. ['method, science of treating disease'] 1. to practice ~

2. to study ~

3. aerospace, space; allopathic; alternative (BE),

complementary (BE), fringe (BE); aviation; ayurvedic; clinical;

community, social; defensive; family; folk; forensic, legal;

group; homeopathic; industrial, occupational; internal;

military; molecular; nuclear; osteopathic; physical; preventive;

socialized; sports; traditional; tropical; veterinary ~

['remedy']

4. to take (a) ~ (to take ~ for a cold)

5. to prescribe (a) ~

6. a cough; nonprescription. over-the-counter; patent;

proprietary ~

7. strong ~ (also fig.)

8. ~ for ['punishment'] (colloq.)

9. to take one's ~ ('to accept one's punishment')

meditate

v. 1. to ~ deeply

2. (D; intr.) to ~ on, upon

meditation

n. 1. to go in for, practice ~

2. transcendental ~

3. deep, profound ~

4. (deep) in ~

medium

n. ['middle degree'] 1. a happy ~ ['system']

2. a ~ of instruction

meet

I n. (esp. AE) (sports) 1. to hold, organize a ~

2. a dual; swim, swimming; track, track-and-field ~

II v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ with ('to encounter') (to ~ with

approval; they met with an accident)

2. (esp. AE) (d; intr.) to ~ with ('to have a meeting with')

(our negotiators will ~ with them tomorrow)

3. (misc.) to ~ smb. halfway ('to compromise with smb.') to ~

face to face; to ~ head-on

meeting

n. 1. to call, convene a ~

2. to arrange, hold, organize a ~

3. to chair, conduct, preside over a ~

4. to adjourn; break up a ~

5. to call off, cancel a ~

6. a chance; clandestine, secret; closed; mass; open; private;

protest; public ~

7. a board; business; cabinet; committee; departmental;

faculty; prayer; staff; town ~

8. an athletics ~ (BE;AEhas trackmeet)

9. a race ~ (BE; AE has racing card)

10. a ~ between, of

11. at a ~ (I saw her at the ~)

12. (misc.) to call a ~ to order

meet up

v. (AE) (D; intr.) to ~ with

megaphone

n. (to speak) through a ~

melody

n. 1. to hum; play; sing a ~

2. a haunting ~

melon

n. a juicy; ripe; tasty ~

melt

v. (d; intr.) to ~ into (to ~ into the crowd)

member

n. 1. an active; associate; card-carrying; charter (AE), founder

(BE); honorary; life; ranking; sustaining ~

2. a corresponding ~ (of the Academy of Sciences)

3. (misc.) to admit new ~s into an organization

membership

n. 1. to apply for ~

2. to grant ~

3. to drop, resign one's ~

4. closed; open ~

5. (an) agency, institutional; associate; full; honorary;

individual; life ~

6. ~ in (AE), of (BE) (~ in/of an organization)

membrane

n. 1. mucous ~

2. ~s rupture

memo

n. 1. an interoffice; office ~

2. a ~ from; to (see also memorandum)

memoirs

n. to publish; write one's ~

memorandum

n. 1. to draw up, prepare a ~

2. to send around a ~ (in an office)

3. to initial a ~

4. a confidential, secret; diplomatic; interoffice; official;

private ~

5. a ~ about, on

6. a ~ from; to

memorial

n. 1. to build, erect, put up a ~

2. to unveil a ~

3. a war ~

4. a ~ to

memory

n. ['power of recalling'] 1. to jog smb.'s ~

2. to commit smt. to ~

3. to slip smb.'s ~ (the date has slipped my ~)

4. to lose one's ~

5. an infallible; photographic; powerful; retentive; short ~

6. (med.) long-term; short-term; visual ~

7. a ~ for (a good ~ for names)

8. (to speak) from ~

9. (misc.) a lapse of ~ ['something recalled, recollection']

10. to evoke, stir up a ~

11. to blot out a ~

12. bitter; dim, vague; enduring; fond; haunting, poignant;

pleasant; unpleasant ~ries ['collective remembrance']

13. to honor, venerate smb.'s ~

14. a blessed, sacred ~

15. in ~ of (to erect a memorial in smb.'s ~)

16. in living ~

17. of blessed, sacred ~

18. (misc.) dedicated to smb.'s ~ ['capacity for storing

information in a computer']

19. (a) random-access; read-only ~

menace

n. 1. to constitute a ~

2. a ~ to

mend

n. on the ~ ('improving')

mending

n. invisible ~

menopause

n. to go through ~

mention

I n. 1. to make ~ of

2. to deserve ~

3. honorable ~ (conferred in a contest for an accomplishment of

merit that does not win a prize)

4. at the ~ (at the very ~ of his name I shuddered)

II v. 1. (B) she ~ed the book to me

2. (K) he failed to ~ my being late twice last week

3. (L; to) they ~ed (to her) that they would bring a guest

4. (Q) she forgot to ~ where we should meet

5. (misc.) to ~ smb. by name

menu

n. ['bill of fare'] 1. to bring a ~ (the waiter brought the ~)

2. on a ~ (what's on the ~?) ['list of commands for a computer

program']

3. an edit; main; print ~

mercenary

n. a foreign ~

merchandise

n. 1. to buy, purchase; order ~

2. to hawk, sell ~

3. to ship ~

4. to carry (a line of) ~

5. assorted; first-class, high-quality; general ~

merciful

adj. 1. ~ to

2. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ of her to offer help)

merciless

adj. ~ to; towards

mercy

n. 1. to have ~ on

2. to show ~ to, towards

3. to beg for ~

4. to throw oneself at smb.'s ~

5. divine; infinite ~; smb.'s tender ~cies (ironic)

6. at smb.'s ~

7. (misc.) we turned him over to the tender ~cies of the

student court

merge

v. 1. to ~ gradually; imperceptibly

2. (D; intr., tr.) to ~ into (to ~ several small companies into

one large one)

3. (D; intr.) to ~ with (our bank ~d with theirs)

merger

n. 1. to carry out, effect a ~

2. a ~ between, of; with

merit

n. 1. intrinsic ~

2. relative ~s

3. according to, on (the basis of) ~ (to decide a case on its

~s)

merry-go-round

n. to ride (on) a ~

mesh

v. (D; intr.) to ~ with (the gears ~ with each other)

mess

I n. ['untidy condition'] 1. to make a ~

2. to leave a ~

3. to clean away, clean up, clear up, sweep up a ~

4. in a ~ (to leave things in a real ~) ['dining hall']

(mil.)

5. an enlisted (AE); officers' ~

6. at, in a ~ (they ate at the company ~)

II v. (colloq.) to ~ with (don't ~ with him)

mess about

(BE) see mess around

message

n. 1. to convey; relay; send, transmit a ~

2. to deliver a ~

3. to get, receive a ~

4. to garble; scramble; unscramble a ~

5. a clear; coded; garbled ~

6. a ~ from; to

7. a ~ that + clause (we received a ~ that we were to return at

once)

8. in a ~

9. (misc.) to get the ~ ('to grasp the situation'); a divine ~

(from God)

messaround

v. (colloq.) (AE)(D; intr.) to ~ with

messenger

n. to dispatch a ~

Messiah

n. to await the ~

metabolism

n. 1. to disturb, upset smb.'s ~

2. basal ~

metal

n. 1. scrap ~ (to recycle scrap ~)

2. abase; ferrous; nonferrous; precious ~; sheet ~

3. ~ corrodes, rusts

metamorphose

v. (D; tr.) to ~ into

metamorphosis

n. 1. to undergo ~

2. a ~ into

metaphor

n. a mixed ~

mete out

v. (B) to ~ justice to everyone

meter I metre

n. ['verse rhythm'] ['arrangement of syllables'] 1.

anapaestic, anapestic; dactylic; heroic; iambic; trochaic ~

['unit of length']

2. a cubic; square ~

II n. ['instrument for measuring'] 1. to read a ~ (she came to

read the gas ~)

2. an electric; exposure; gas; parking; postage; water ~

method

n. 1. to apply, employ, use a ~

2. to adopt a ~

3. to give up, scrap a ~

4. an antiquated, obsolete; crude; infallible, sure; modern, up-

to-date; refined, sophisticated; sound; unorthodox ~

5. the case; deductive; inductive; scientific; Socratic ~

6. Madison Avenue ('high-pressure') ~s

7. the audiovisual; direct, oral; grammar-translation ~ (of

foreign language instruction); the tutorial ~ (of instruction)

8. teaching ~s

9. the rhythm ~ (of contraception)

10. a ~ for; in, to (a ~ for learning languages; there is a

definite ~ in her manner of interrogation)

methodical

adj. ~ in (~ in one's work)

meticulous

adj. ~ about, in (she is ~ in her dress)

mettle

n. 1. to prove, show one's ~

2. to put smb. on one's ~

mezzanine

n. (AE) ['first rows of a balcony in a theater'] in the ~

mickey, Mickey Finn

n. (slang) ['a drink to which a strong drug or narcotic has been

added'] to slip smb. a ~

microcosm

n. in ~ (the whole nation in ~)

microphone

n. 1. to hook up, set up a ~

2. to speak into, through a ~

3. a concealed; throat ~

microscope

n. 1. a compound; electron; optical ~

2. under a ~

middle

n. at, in the ~ (at the ~ of the last century; in the ~ of the

room)

middle ground

n. the ~ between

midmorning

n. at ~

midnight

n. at ~

midnight oil

n. (colloq.) to burn the ~ ('to work or study late at night')

midpoint

n. 1. to reach a ~

2. at (the) ~

midriff

n. 1. to expose one's ~

2. a bare ~

midsemester

n. (AE) at ~

midst

n. in the ~ of

midstream

n. 1. to reach ~

2. in ~ (also fig.)

midway

adj., adv. ~ between

midyear

n. at ~

mien

n. (lit.) an impassive; proud ~

might

I n. 1. armed ~

2. with all one's ~

II v. (F) I ~ do that

migraine

n. 1. a severe ~

2. an attack of ~

migrate

v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ between

2. (D; intr.) to ~ from; to

migration

n. 1. internal; mass ~

2. annual ~ (the annual ~ of birds)

3. ~ from; to

mildew

n. ~ forms

mile

n. 1. a land, statute; nautical, sea ~

2. (misc.) to miss by a ~ ('to miss by a great deal')

mileage

n. to get ~ (I get good ~ with this small car; to get good ~ out

of tires)

milestone

n. to reach a ~ (usu. fig.)

military

n. to call in the ~

military service

n. universal ~

militate

v. (d; intr.) to ~ against (see the Usage Note for mitigate)

militia

n. to call out, mobilize the ~

milk

I n. 1. to boil; express ~

2. curdled, sour; fresh ~

3. attested (BE), certified; chocolate; condensed; evaporated;

fermented; fortified; fresh; homogenized; long-life (BE); low-

fat; non-fat; pasteurized; powdered; raw; reconstituted; skim

(AE), skimmed; whole ~

4. cow's; goat's ~

II v. (N; used with an adjective) to ~ smt. dry

mill

I n. ['machine for grinding'] 1. a coffee; pepper ~

['factory']

2. a flour; lumber; paper; rolling; steel; textile ~ ['place

wiiere results are achieved in a quick, routine way']

3. a diploma; divorce; marriage; propaganda ~ ['misc.']

4. to go through the ~ ('to acquire experience under difficult

conditions')

II v. (d; intr.) to ~ about, around (to ~ around the entrance)

millstone

n. ['heavy burden'] to have a ~ around one's neck

mincemeat

n. to make ~ of ('to defeat decisively')

mind

I n. 1. to make up one's ~

2. to make up one's ~ to do smt.

3. to cultivate, develop one's ~

4. to speak one's ~

5. to change one's ~

6. to bear, keep smt. in ~

7. to bring, call smt. to ~

8. to keep one's ~ on smt.

9. to put, set one's ~ to smt.

10. to set one's ~ at ease

11. to take one's ~ off smt.

12. to cross one's ~ (it crossed my ~ that the store would be

closed at five o'clock)

13. to know one's own ~

14. to lose one's ~

15. a clear; closed; disciplined; inquiring, inquisitive; keen,

sharp; narrow; nimble, quick; one-track; open; scientific;

uncluttered ~

16. a deranged, twisted, unbalanced, unsound; sound ~

17. in one's ~ (in one's right ~; in one's subconscious ~)

18. on one's ~ (what's on your ~?)

19. out of one's ~ (to go out of one's ~)

20. (misc.) I have half a ~ to vote for smb. else ('I may well

vote for smb. else'); to give smb. a piece of one's ~ ('to state

one's views to smb. very bluntly'); a meeting of the ~s; we were

all of the same ~ ('we all had the same opinion'); a state of ~

II v. 1. (G) I don't ~ waiting; would you ~ opening the window?

2. (K) he didn't ~ her smoking; would you ~ my opening the

window?

3. (Q) (esp. BE) ~ how you go!

4. (misc.) never ~ about that

mindful

adj. (cannot stand alone) ~ of (~ of one's responsibilities)

mind's eye

n. in one's ~

mine

n. ['excavation from which minerals are taken'] 1. to open

(up); operate, run, work a ~

2. to close down a ~

3. a coal; copper; diamond; gold; iron; lead; salt; silver; tin;

zinc ~

4. an abandoned; strip ~ ['explosive charge']

5. to arm; lay a ~

6. to hit, strike a ~

7. to detonate, set off a ~

8. to clear, remove, sweep ~s

9. to detect; disarm a ~

10. a ~ blows up, explodes

11. an antipersonnel; antitank; contact; drifting, floating;

land; magnetic; pressure; submarine ~

minerals

n. metallic; nonmetallic; rock ~

mingle

v. (D; intr.) to ~ with

miniature

n. in ~

minimal pair

n. (ling.) to produce; represent a ~

mining

n. open-cast (BE), open-pit (AE), strip (AE); shaft ~

minister

I n. 1. to accredit a ~

2. a ~ plenipotentiary; a ~ without portfolio

3. a cabinet; foreign; prime ~

4. a ~ from; to

II v. (d; intr.) to ~ to (to ~ to smb.'s needs)

ministry

n. (rel.) a lay ~

minor

I n. to serve ~s (this bar does not serve ~s)

II v. (AE) (d; intr.) to ~ in (to ~ in French) ('to have French

as a secondary subject')

minority

n. in a ~ (we were in the ~; in a ~ of cases)

minstrel

n. a wandering ~

minuet

n. to dance; play a ~

minus

see plus

minute

n. ['sixtieth part of an hour'] 1. in a ~ (she'll be here in a

~) ['instant']

2. the last ~ (at the last ~) ['present time']

3. this ~

4. up to the ~

minutes

n. ['official record'] 1. to keep, take ~

2. to accept; read the ~

3. to reject the ~

miracle

n. 1. to accomplish, perform, work a ~

2. a ~ that + clause (it's a ~ that she was not killed)

3. by a ~ (we survived by a ~)

4. (misc.) a ~ worker

miraculous

adj. ~ that + clause (it's ~ that they were rescued)

mirage

n. 1. to see a ~

2. a ~ disappears

mire

n. (to be stuck) in the ~

mired

adj. to get ~ (in the mud)

mired down

(esp. AE) see mired

mirror

n. 1. to hang a ~

2. a full-length; hand; pocket; rear-view ~

mirth

n. 1. to provoke ~

2. general ~

misapprehension

n. 1. (to labor) under a ~

2. a ~ that + clause (we labored under the ~ that we would

receive help)

miscalculate

v. to ~ badly

miscalculation

n. 1. to make a ~

2. to correct a ~

3. a bad, glaring, serious ~

4. a ~ about

miscarriage

n. ['abortion'] 1. to have a ~ ['failure']

2. a gross ~ (of justice)

mischief

n. 1. to cause, do, make ~

2. to be up to, get into ~

3. malicious ~

4. out of ~ (to stay out of ~; to keep children out of ~)

5. full of ~

6. up to ~

misconception

n. a popular ~

misconduct

n. gross; professional ~

miscount

n. to make a ~

misdeed

n. 1. to commit a ~

2. to rectify a ~

3. a glaring ~

misdemeanor, misdemeanour

n. to commit a ~

miserable

adj. ~ to + inf. (it is ~ to work there = it is ~ working there)

misery

n. 1. to cause ~

2. to alleviate, relieve ~

3. abject, deep; sheer, untold ~

4. ~ to + inf. (it was sheer ~ to live there = it was sheer ~

living there)

5. in ~ (to live in ~)

misfortune

n. 1. to have, suffer (a) ~

2. the ~ to + inf. (she had the ~ to get there at the wrong

moment)

misgivings

n. 1. to have ~ about

2. to express one's ~

3. ~ that + clause (we had ~ that he would back out of the

agreement)

mishap

n. (formal) 1. to have a ~

2. a ~ befell us

misinformation

n. 1. to give, peddle, plant, spread ~

2. to correct ~

3. ~ about

misinformed

adj. 1. grossly ~

2. ~ about

misjudge

v. to ~ badly, completely

mislead

v. (D; tr.) to ~ about (we were misled about this matter)

misleading

adj. 1. grossly ~

2. ~ to + inf. (it is ~ to cite only certain sources)

mismanagement

n. gross ~

misnomer

n. a ~ to + inf. (it's a ~ to call this village a city)

mispronounced

adj. commonly, frequently ~

misrepresentation

n. gross ~

miss

I n. a clean; near ~

II v. 1. to ~ terribly, very much

2. (G) I ~ walking in the park

missed

adj. sorely ~

missile

n. 1. to fire, launch; guide a ~

2. to intercept a ~

3. an air-to-air; air-to-ground, air-to-surface; antiaircraft,

ground-to-air, surface-to-air; antimissile; ballistic; cruise;

ground-to-ground, surface-to-surface; guided; intercontinental

ballistic; intermediate-range, medium-range; long-range,

strategic; nuclear; short-range, tactical; submarine-launched ~

missing

adj. 1. ~ from (~ from a group)

2. (misc.) ~ in action (mil.); to turn up ~

missing link

n. a ~ between

mission

n. ['task'] 1. to accomplish, carry out, perform; undertake a ~

2. (mil.) to fly a ~

3. (usu. mil.) to cancel, scratch, scrub a ~

4. a dangerous; pioneering; suicide ~

5. a combat; diplomatic; goodwill; rescue; search-and-destroy;

training ~

6. on a ~ (they went on a goodwill ~ to Asia)

7. a ~ to + inf. (our ~ was to work out a trade agreement)

8. (misc.) ~ impossible (often humorous) ['group sent to

perform a task']

9. a diplomatic; military; trade ~

10. a ~ from; to (a trade ~ to Africa)

missionary

n. 1. a foreign; medical ~

2. a ~ from; to

miss out

v. (D; intr.) to ~ on (to ~ on a profitable deal)

misstatement

n. to make a ~

mistake

I n. 1. to make a ~

2. to correct, rectify a ~

3. to excuse, forgive a ~

4. a bad, costly, glaring, serious; fatal; foolish; minor,

slight ~

5. ~s abound (on every page)

6. a ~ about; in (we made a ~ about that; she made a ~ in

counting on their help)

7. a ~ to + inf. (it was a ~ to appoint her = it was a ~

appointing her)

8. by ~ (to do smt. by

II v. (d; tr.) to ~ for (he mistook me for my brother)

mistaken

adj. 1. ~ about; in

2. ~ for (she was ~ for her sister)

mistletoe

n. ['Christmas decoration'] to stand under the ~ ('to indicate

one's willingness to be kissed, during the Christmas season')

mistrial

n. (legal) to declare a ~

mistrust

n. 1. to arouse ~

2. deep, profound ~

3. ~ towards

mistrustful

adj. ~ of

misunderstanding

n. 1. to cause, lead to a ~

2. to clear up a ~

3. a ~ about, over; between

mitigate

v. (pompous) (d; intr.) to ~ against ('to make difficult') USAGE

NOTE: Many consider the use of mitigate in place of militate to

be substandard.

mitt

n. ['glove'] 1. an oven ~

2. (baseball) a catcher's; first baseman's ~

mix

I n. ['mixture'] a cake; cement; pancake; soup ~

II v. 1. (B) ~ a nice drink for me; or: ~ me a nice drink

2. (D; intr., tr.) to ~ with (he doesn't ~ with people like

that; she ~ed the brandy with wine)

mixed up

adj. 1. ~ in (~ in a scandal)

2. ~ with (she got herself ~ with criminals)

mixer

n. ['informal dance, party'] 1. to give, hold a ~ ['device

for mixing']

2. a cement, concrete; electric ~

mix-up

n. 1. to cause a ~

2. a ~ about, in, over

mix up

v. (D;tr.) to ~ with (he always ~es me up with my brother)

moan

I n. 1. to emit a ~

2. a barely audible, feeble, weak; loud ~

II v. 1. to ~ feebly; loudly

2. (D: intr.) to ~ about, over (to ~ over new taxes)

3. (D; intr.) to ~ with (to moan ~ pain)

mob

n. 1. to inflame, stir up a ~

2. to control, subdue a ~

3. to disperse a ~

4. an angry; undisciplined, unruly, wild ~

5. a ~ disperses; gathers; runs amok, runs wild

mobile

adj. upwardly ~

mobility

n. upward ~

mobilization

n. 1. to order (a) ~

2. to carry out ~

3. full, general; partial ~

mockery

n. 1. to make a ~ of

2. a mere ~

mock-up

n. ['model'] to do, prepare a ~

mode

n. an access; insert ~ (on a computer)

model

I n. 1. to take as a ~

2. to pose; serve as a ~

3. a role ~

4. an artist's; photographer's ~

5. a ~ for

II v. 1. (d; refl., tr.) to ~ after, on (the academy was ~ed

after a British public school)

2. (d; intr., tr.) to ~ in (to ~ in clay)

moderate

adj. ~ in (they were ~ in their demands)

moderation

n. 1. to display, show ~

2. ~ in (~ in the consumption of alcohol)

3. in ~ (to drink in ~)

modest

ady. 1. ~ about (she was ~ about her achievements)

2. ~ in

modesty

n. 1. to affect; display ~

2. false ~ (without false ~)

3. ~ about

modification

n. 1. to make a ~ in

2. behavior ~

modifier

n. a dangling (esp. AE); noun ~

modulation

n. frequency ~

module

n. a command; lunar; service ~

modus operandi

n. to establish, work out a ~

modus vivendi

n. to establish, work out a ~

mogul

n. a movie (AE) ~

molar

n. 1. to cut a ~

2. an impacted ~

3. a first; second; third ~

mold I mould

n. ['furry growth'] to gather ~

II n. 1. a jello (AE), jelly (BE); plaster ~

2. in a ~ (to be cast in a ~)

III v. (D; tr.) to ~ from, in, out of (to ~ a figure in/out of

clay)

mole

n. ['burrowing insectivore'] 1. ~s burrow ['spy']

2. to plant a ~

molestation

n. child; sexual ~

moment

n. 1. to savor the ~

2. a crucial; opportune, propitious; unpropitious ~

3. a rash ~ (in a rash ~)

4. the psychological ~ ('the most favorable time')

5. at a ~ (at that ~) ('then'); (at the/this ~) ('now')

6. for the ~ (for the ~ let us drop this subject)

7. in a ~ (she'll be here in a ~; in a crucial ~ of one's life)

momentum

n. to gain, gather ~

monarch

n. an absolute; constitutional ~

monarchy

n. 1. to establish, set up a ~

2. to overthrow a ~

3. an absolute; constitutional; hereditary; limited ~

money

n. 1. to coin, make, produce; counterfeit ~

2. to circulate ~

3. to earn, make ~

4. to bank; change; deposit; put up; raise; refund, return;

save; spend; squander, throw away; tie up; withdraw ~

5. to borrow; lend ~

6. to invest ~ in; to put ~ into (they invested their ~ in

stocks and bonds; she put her ~ into municipal bonds)

7. (colloq.) to sink (a lot of) ~ into (a venture)

8. to launder (illegally acquired) ~

9. counterfeit; earnest; easy; hush; marked; paper; pin,

pocket, spending; prize; seed; tight; well-spent ~

10. blood; conscience ~

11. tax ~ (politicians should not waste tax ~)

12. mad ~ ('small amount of money carried for emergency use')

13. for ~ (to do smt. for ~)

14. out of ~ (we are out of ~)

15. (misc.) to have ~ to burn ('to have a great deal of money')

money order

n. 1. to make out a ~

2. to send a ~

3. to cash a ~

monitor

I n. 1. an electronic; heart ~

2. a video ~ (for a computer)

II v. to ~ closely

monkey

n. 1. a howler; rhesus; ring-tailed; spider ~

2. a horde, troop of ~s

3. (misc.) (colloq.) to make a ~ (out) of smb. ('to make a fool

of smb.')

monkey around

v. (colloq.) (AE) (D; intr.) to ~ with

monkey wrench

n. (colloq.) (esp. AE) ['disruption'] to throw a ~ into smt.

('to disrupt smt.')

monogamy

n. to practice ~

monologue, monolog

n. to recite a ~

mononucleosis

n. (AE) infectious ~ (CE has glandular/ever)

monopoly

n. 1. to establish, gain a ~

2. to have, hold a ~

3. to break (up) a ~

4. a government, state ~

5. a ~ of, on, over

6. (misc.) to play Monopoly (T)

monotone

n. in a ~

monotonous

adj. ~ to + int. (it is ~ to watch television every day = it is

~ watching television every day)

monotony

n. to break, relieve the ~

monoxide

n. carbon ~

monstrous

adj. 1. ~ to + int. (it is ~ to preach hatred)

2. ~ that + clause (it's ~ that innocent children throughout

the world go hungry)

month

n. 1. last; next; this ~

2. by the ~ (she is paid by the ~)

3. for a ~ (he'll be here for a ~)

4. in a ~ (they will arrive in a ~)

5. in, to (colloq.) a ~ (there are four weeks in a ~)

monument

n. 1. to build, erect a ~

2. an ancient; literary; national ~

3. a ~ to

mooch

v. (slang) (AE) 1. (D; tr.) ('to beg for') to ~ from (he ~ed a

cigarette from me)

2. (d; intr.) ('to sponge') to ~ off of, on (to ~ on one's

friends)

mood

I n. ['state of mind'] 1. an angry; bad, foul; bellicose;

bilious; festive, holiday; genial, good, happy, jovial, joyful;

melancholy; mellow; mercurial; nostalgic; pensive; resentful;

sullen; tranquil ~

2. in a ~ (in a good ~)

II n. ['verb form'] the conditional; imperative; indicative;

subjunctive ~

moon

I n. 1. a full; half; harvest; new; quarter ~

2. the ~ wanes; waxes

3. the ~ comes out

4. on the ~ (astronauts have walked on the ~)

II v. (D; intr.) to ~ over

moonlight

n. 1. by ~

2. in the ~

moonlight flit

n. (colloq.) (BE) ['moving without paying one's rent, debts']

to do a ~

moor

v. (D; tr.) to ~ to (to ~ a boat to a pier)

moose

n. 1. a band, herd of ~

2. a young ~ is a calf

3. a female ~ is a cow

4. a male ~ is a bull (see the Usage Note for elk)

mop

I n. a dry, dust, wet ~

II v. (N; used with an adjective) we ~ped the floor clean

moped

n. to ride a ~

moral

n. a ~ to (there's a ~ to the story)

morale

n. 1. to boost, lift, raise ~

2. to destroy, undermine ~

3. high; low ~

moral fiber, moral fibre

n. the ~ to + inf. (does she have the ~ to adhere to principle?)

moralize

v. (D; intr.) to ~ about, on, over, upon

morals

n. 1. to protect, safeguard (public) ~

2. to corrupt smb.'s ~

3. lax, loose; strict ~

4. public ~

morass

n. to get bogged down in a ~

moratorium

n. 1. to declare a ~

2. to lift a ~

3. a ~ on

morbid

adj. ~ about (don't be ~ about the future)

more

determiner, pronoun ~ of (~ of them) USAGE NOTE: The use of the

preposition of is necessary when a pronoun follows. When a noun

follows, the use of o/the limits the meaning--we drank more

wine; we drank more of the wine that you brought yesterday.

morgue

n. 1. a city (esp. AE); newspaper ~

2. in a ~ (to work in a ~)

morning

n. 1. early; late ~

2. in the ~; (AE) ~s (she works in the ~; or AE: she works ~s)

3. from ~ (from ~ to night)

4. on a ~ (on a cold ~ last month; on the ~ of July 20)

moron

n. (colloq.) a ~ to + inf. (I was a ~ to accept his offer)

Morse code

n. 1. to tap out, use the ~

2. to send (a message) in ~

mortality

n. infant; maternal ~

mortar

n. ['type of cannon'] 1. a trench ~ ['bowl']

2. a ~ and pestle

mortgage

n. 1. to give a ~

2. to hold; receive; take out a ~ on

3. to pay off a ~

4. to finance; foreclose; refinance a ~

5. a chattel; conventional; first; second ~

mortification

n. 1. deep ~

2. to one's ~ (to my everlasting ~)

mortified

adj. ['embarrassed'] 1. deeply ~

2. ~ to + inf. (I was ~ to learn that my account was overdrawn)

3. ~ that + clause (we were ~ that our manuscript was rejected)

mortuary

n. at, in a ~

Moses

n. holy ~! (esp. AE; colloq.; interjection)

Moslem

see Muslim

mosquito

n. 1. ~s bite; fly; hum

2. ~s carry, spread disease

most

determiner, n., pronoun 1. to get the ~ (out of life)

2. to make the ~ (of one's opportunities)

3. ~ of (~ of them)

4. at (the) ~ USAGE NOTE: The use of the preposition of is

necessary when a pronoun follows. When a noun follows, the

following constructions are used--most American wine comes from

California; most of the wines that we import come from Europe;

we like most students; we like most of the students who study in

this department.

motel

n. to check into; out of a ~

mothballs

n. ['protective storage'] 1. to put into ~ (to put ships into

~)

2. to take out of ~

mother

n. 1. an expectant; nursing; surrogate; unwed; welfare; working

~

2. a foster ~; stepmother

3. a ~ to (she was like a ~ to them)

4. (misc.) a den ~; a ~ superior

motif

n. a guiding, leading ~

motion

I n. ['proposal'] 1. to make a ~

2. to second a ~

3. to accept; defeat, vote down a ~

4. to vote on a ~

5. (AE) to table a ~ ('to postpone voting on a proposal')

6. (BE) to table a ~ ('to call for a vote on a proposal')

7. to withdraw a ~

8. the ~ carried, passed

9. a ~ to + inf. (she made a ~ to adjourn)

10. a ~ that + clause; subj. (she made a ~ that debate

be/should be stopped)

11. on a ~ (on my ~ they brought up the question of admitting

new members) ['movement']

12. to set smt. in ~

13. harmonic; perpetual ~

II v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ to (she ~ed to us)

2. (H) he ~ed (to) us to come closer

motivate

v. (H) what ~d her to leave home?

motivation

n. the ~ to + inf. (she has the ~ to master English)

motive

n. 1. to establish, find a ~

2. to question smb.'s ~s

3. altruistic; base; honorable; humane; noble; selfish;

ulterior ~s; the highest ~s (to have nothing but the highest ~s)

4. the profit ~

5. an underlying ~

6. a ~ behind, for (the police could not find a ~ for the

murder)

7. a ~ to + inf. (she had no ~ to commit the crime)

motor

I n. 1. to start a ~

2. to turn off a ~

3. an outboard ~

4. a ~ runs, works; stalls (see also engine 1-7)

II v. (d; intr.) to ~ to (they ~ed to town)

motorbike

n. to drive, ride a ~

motorcar

n. (BE) to drive; park a ~ (see car 1-9)

motorcycle

n. 1. to drive, ride a ~

2. to ride on a ~ (as a passenger)

motor scooter

n. to drive, ride a ~

motorway

(BE) see highway

motto

n. to coin a ~

mound

n. 1. a burial ~

2. (baseball) (AE) to take the ~

mount

n. an engine ~

mountain

n. 1. to climb, scale a ~

2. high; rugged; snow-covered ~s

3. block; folded; volcanic ~s

4. a chain, range of ~s

5. (misc.) the elevation, height of a ~; to make a ~ out of a

molehill ('to exaggerate')

mourn

v. (D; intr.) to ~ for, over

mourning

n. 1. to declare, proclaim (a period of) ~

2. to go into ~

3. deep ~

4. national ~

5. in ~ for

mouse

n. 1. to catch mice

2. a field; house; meadow; white ~

3. mice gnaw

4. (misc.) as quiet as a ~

moustache

n. 1. to grow a ~

2. to trim a ~

3. to finger, twist one's ~

4. a handlebar ~

mouth

n. 1. to close, shut; open one's ~

2. to cram, stuff one's ~ (with food)

3. to rinse one's ~

4. (misc.)(colloq.) a big ~ ('a gossip'); to shoot off one's ~

('to talk too much'); to make smb.'s ~ water ('to tempt smb.')

mouthful

n. (colloq.) ['something true'] to say a ~

mouthpiece

n. ['spokesperson'] to act, serve as a ~ for

move

I n. ['act'] 1. to make a ~ (who will make the first ~?)

2. a false ~ (one false ~ would be costly)

3. a brilliant; clever, smart; decisive ~ ['moving of a piece

in chess, checkers']

4. to make a ~

5. a brilliant; stupid, wrong ~

6. an opening ~ (also fig.) ['act of moving']

7. a ~ to (our firm's ~ to the Coast)

8. (misc.) (colloq.) to get a ~ on ('to go faster'); on the ~

II v. 1. ('to stir') to ~ deeply, profoundly

2. ('to change the position of) to ~ bodily

3. (d; intr.) ('to request') to ~ for (to ~ for a new trial)

4. (D; intr., tr.) ('to change or cause to change one's

position, place of residence, place of work') to ~ from; into,

to; out of (let's ~ from this table to that one; they ~d from

the city to the suburbs; the firm is ~ing to California; let's ~

the chair from/out of this room to that one; he ~d his family

from/out of an old house into a new apartment; we are ~ing our

main office from/out of the city to a small town)

5. (D; tr.) ('to stir') to ~ to (she was ~d to tears)

6. (d; intr.) ('to change one's position') to ~ towards (to ~

towards the exit)

7. (H) ('to induce') what ~d her to make such a gesture?

8. (L; subj.) ('to propose') she ~d that the resolution

be/should be approved

move in

v. 1. (d; intr.) ('to close in') to ~ for (to ~ for the kill)

2. (D; intr.) to ~ on ('to close in on') (the police ~d in on

the fugitives)

3. (D; intr.) to ~ on ('to establish control of) (organized

crime was ~ing in on the industry)

4. (D; intr.) to ~ on, with ('to take up residence with') (her

relatives wanted to ~ with her)

movement

n. ['organized effort to attain a goal'] 1. to launch a ~

2. to support a ~

3. to oppose; suppress a ~

4. a civil-rights; consumer; feminist, women's; labor; peace;

political; radical; revolutionary; social ~

5. a ~ against; for (the ~ for equal pay) ['division of a

musical composition']

6. to perform a ~ ['military maneuver']

7. a pincers ~ ['move']

8. a downward; upward ~

9. jerky; rhythmic; uncoordinated ~s

10. a ~ towards ['evacuation']

11. a bowel ~ (to have a bowel ~)

move up

v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ into, to (she has ~d up to the position of

general manager)

2. (D; intr.) to ~ through (to ~ through the ranks)

movie

n. (esp. AE) ['film'] 1. to make, produce a ~

2. (CE) a home ~ ['cinema']

3. a drive-in ~

movies

n. (AE) ['cinema'] to go to the ~

mower

n. 1. to operate, work a ~

2. a hand; lawn; power ~

much

determiner, n., pronoun 1. to make ~ of smt.

2. ~ of (we did not believe ~ of what we heard; he isn't ~ of

an artist)

3. ~ to + int. (she has ~ to say; we have ~ to learn)

4. (misc.) ~ as we want to help USAGE NOTE: The use of the

preposition of is necessary when a pronoun follows--we did not

believe much of what we heard. When a noun follows, the use of

of the limits the meaning--much sorrow is caused by drug abuse;

much of the sorrow that is caused by drug abuse could be

avoided.

muck about

v. (colloq.) (BE) to ~ with ('to mess around with')

mucus

n. 1. to secrete ~

2. nasal ~

mud

n. ['wet earth'] 1. to spatter ~

2. ~ oozes, squishes

3. ~ cakes

4. a layer of ~

5. (misc.) to spatter smb. with ~ ['malicious charges']

6. to sling, throw ~ at smb.

muddle

n. ['confusion'] in a ~

mufti

n. ['civilian clothes'] in ~

mug

n. a shaving ~

mulct

v. (rare) (D; tr.) ('to defraud') to ~ of (to ~ smb. of her/his

money)

mule

n. 1. to drive; ride a ~

2. ~s bray

3. a team of ~s

4. (misc.) as stubborn as a ~

mull

v. (d; intr.) to ~ over (to ~ over a new proposal)

multiplication

n. to do ~

mum

adj. to remain ~

mumble

v. (L; to) he ~d (to us) that he would get up later

mumps

n. to catch, come down with the ~

murder

n. ['homicide'] 1. to commit ~

2. a brutal, cold-blooded, grisly, heinous, vicious, wanton;

premeditated; ritual ~

3. (AE) (a) first-degree; second-degree ~

4. mass ~

5. multiple, serial ~s ['ruinous influence'] (colloq.)

6. ~ on (the rainy weather has been ~ on business)

murderer

n. a mass; serial ~

murmur

n. ['complaint'] 1. to let out a ~ (she didn't let out a ~)

['abnormal sound'] (med.)

2. a heart ~

muscle

n. 1. to contract; flex, tense; move; pull, strain; relax;

wrench a ~

2. to develop one's ~s

3. involuntary; smooth; striated; voluntary ~s

4. ~s ache

muscle in

v. (colloq.) (D; intr.) to ~ on (to ~ on smb.'s territory)

muse

v. (D; intr.) to ~ about, over, upon

museum

n. 1. an art (esp. AE; BE prefers art gallery); ethnographic;

public; science; wax ~

2. at, in a ~ (to work at a ~)

mushroom

I n. 1. to pick ~s

2. an edible ~

II v. (D; intr.) to ~ from; into, to

music

n. 1. to compose, write ~

2. to perform, play ~

3. to set smt. to ~

4. to read ~

5. background; band; chamber; choral; classical; country,

hillbilly; dance; folk; funky; incidental; instrumental; light;

martial; modern; organ; popular; rock; sacred; serious; soul ~

6. sheet ~

7. a piece of ~

8. (fig.) ~ to (what she said was ~ to my ears)

9. to ~ (to dance to the ~ of a big band)

10. (misc.) to face the ~ ('to accept one's punishment')

musical

n. to produce, stage a ~

musical chairs

n. to play ~

musician

n. an accomplished; natural; strolling ~

Muslim

n. a Black; Shiite; Sunni ~

muslin

n. bleached; unbleached ~

must

v. 1.(F) we ~ go

2. (misc.) I really ~ go; you surely ~ know

mustache

see moustache

muster

I n. to pass ~

II v. 1. (d; tr.) to ~ into (to ~ smb. into the army)

2. (d; tr.) to ~ out of ('to discharge from') (to be ~ed out of

the army)

mutation

n. 1. to induce a ~

2. a gene ~

mute

adj. to stand ~ ('to remain silent during an arraignment')

mutiny

I n. 1. to foment, incite, stir up; organize a ~

2. to crush, put down, quell a ~

3. a ~ breaks out

II v. (D; intr.) to ~ against

mutter

v. 1. (B) she ~ed a few words to us

2. (D; intr.) to ~ about

3. (L; to) she ~ed (to him) that she would catch up later

mysterious

adj. ~ about (~ about one's past)

mystery

n. 1. to pose a ~ (her disappearance poses a real ~)

2. to clear up; fathom, solve, unravel a ~

3. an unsolved ~

4. a murder ~

5. a ~ deepens

6. a ~ to (it was a ~ to me)

7. (misc.) shrouded, wrapped in ~

mystified

adj. ~ to + int. (she was ~ to find her watch gone)

mystifying

adj. ~ that + clause (it's ~ that the matter was never

investigated)

myth

n. 1. to create a ~

2. to debunk, dispel; explode a ~

3. a ~ that + clause (we dispelled the ~ that their army was

invincible)

nadir

n. 1. to reach a ~

2. at a ~

nag

v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ at (he kept ~ging at her)

2. (H) he kept ~ging her to buy a new sofa

nail

I n. ['tapered piece of metal'] 1. to drive, hammer a ~ (he

drove a ~ into the board)

2. to remove a ~

3. a loose ~ ['horny substance growing at the ends of fingers

and toes']

4. to cut, pare, trim; do; file; manicure; polish one's ~s

5. to break a ~

6. to bite one's ~s

7. a fingernail; toenail ['misc.']

8. as hard/tough as ~s

II v. (D; tr.) to ~ to (she ~ed the plaque to the wall)

naive

adj. 1. ~ of (that was ~ of you)

2. ~ to + int. (it's ~ to trust everyone; you are ~ to believe

them)

naked

adj. 1. stark ~

2. (misc.) to walk around ~

naked eye

n. to the ~ (visible to the ~)

name

I n. ['appellation'] 1. to adopt,, assume; bear; use a ~

2. to give smb. a ~

3. to call smb. a (bad) ~

4. to immortalize smb.'s ~

5. to invoke God's ~

6. an assumed; Christian (esp. BE), first, given; code; dirty;

family ~, surname; fancy; geographic; legal; maiden; married;

middle; personal; pet; professional; proper; stage ~ (she uses

her middle ~)

7. a brand, proprietary, trade ~

8. a common, vernacular ('not technical') ~

9. a ~ for (there is no ~ for such conduct)

10. by ~ (to know smb. by ~ only)

11. in ~ (she is the chairperson in ~ only)

12. in smb.'s ~ (the book was charged out in your ~)

13. under a ~ (under an assumed ~) ['reputation']

14. to make a ~ (for oneself)

15. to clear one's ~

16. to besmirch, smear smb.'s (good) ~

17. to give smb. a bad ~

18. a bad; good ~ ['misc.']

19. to drop ~s ('to boast of one's connections'); in the ~ of

the law

II v. 1. (d; tr.) to ~ after, for (AE) (Hannah was ~d after her

great-grandmother)

2. (d; tr.) to ~ as (she was ~d as the winner)

3. (H) they ~d me to head the commission

4. (N; used with a noun) she was ~d winner of the contest

name-calling

n. to engage in, go in for, resort to ~

nameless

adj. to remain ~

nap

n. to have, take a ~

napkin

n. 1. to fold a ~

2. to tuck a ~ (under one's chin)

3. a cocktail; dinner; linen; paper ~

nappy

(BE) see diaper

narcosis

n. 1. to produce (a state of) ~

2. (a) ~ wears off

3. under ~

narcotics

n. to smuggle ~ (into a country)

narrate

v. (B) she ~d her story to us

narration

n. a graphic; gripping ~

narrow down

v. (D; tr.) to ~ to (the choice was ~ed down to a few

candidates)

narrow-minded

adj. ~ + int. (it was ~ of her to say that)

nasal passages

n. blocked, congested ~

nasty

adj. 1. ~ about (they were very ~ about the whole incident)

2. ~ to (he is ~ to everyone)

3. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ of them to do that)

nation

n. 1. to build; establish a ~

2. a civilized; friendly; independent; peace-loving; sovereign

~

3. belligerent, warring ~s

4. across the ~ (there were strikes across the ~)

5. (misc.) a member ~ (of the UN)

national anthem

n. to play; sing; strike up the ~

National Guard

n. (US) to call out; federalize the

nationalism

n. 1. to foster ~

2. extreme; rampant

nationhood

n. to achieve ~

native

I adj. 1. ~ to (this flower is ~ to our state)

2. (misc.) to go ~ ('to behave like the local population when

in a foreign country')

II n. friendly; hostile ~s

natter

v. (colloq.) (BE) (D; intr.) ('to chatter') to ~ about; to (to ~

on to smb. about smt.)

natural

I adj. 1. (AE) ~ to (that comes ~ to me)

2. ~ to + inf. (it's ~ to want a nice car)

3. ~ that + clause (it's perfectly ~ that children love ice

cream)

II n. (colloq.) ['person who seems to be destined for

success'] a ~ to + inf. (she's a ~ to win the election)

nature

n. ['character, quality'] 1. an impetuous; placid ~

2. human ~ (it's only human ~ to want to live well)

3. second ~

4. one's true ~

5. by ~ (she is friendly by ~)

6. in one's ~ (it was not in his ~ to complain)

7. of a certain ~ (wounds of a serious ~) ['physical

universe']

8. to harness (the forces of) ~

9. (misc.) mother ~; a freak of ~; back to ~

naught

n. (lit.) 1. to come to ~

2. all for ~

naughty

adj. 1. ~ of

2. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ to do that)

nausea

n. 1. to cause ~

2. a wave of ~ (came over her)

nauseated

adj. to feel ~

nauseating

adj. 1. ~ to

2. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ to watch them)

nauseous

adj. to feel ~ USAGE NOTE: Some purists still claim that

nauseous means only 'nauseating'. In fact, most speakers now use

it as a synonym of nauseated.

navigation

n. celestial; electronic ~

navy

n. 1. a merchant ~ (BE; AE has merchant marine)

2. the Royal Navy

near

adv. (rare) ~ to (she came ~ to winning the title)

nearer, nearest

adj., adv. ~ to (the park is nearer to our hotel than it is to

yours; which stop is nearest to Albert Hall?) USAGE NOTE: When

near is an adjective, it is not used in the collocation 'near

to'. (Compare close to.)

neat

adj. ~ in (~ in one's habits)

necessary

adj. 1. absolutely ~

2. ~ for; to

3. ~ to + inf. (it is ~ to sleep)

4. ~ that + clause; subj. (it is ~ that we all be/should be

there)

necessitate

v. 1. (G) working for that firm would ~ living abroad

2. (K) going to school would ~ his moving to the city

necessity

n. 1. to obviate a ~

2. an absolute, dire; military ~

3. the bare; daily ~ties

4. a ~ for

5. of ~ (you will of ~ remain silent)

6. (misc.) the ~ties of life

neck

I n. 1. to crane one's ~

2. to twist, wring smb.'s ~

3. (misc.) to risk one's ~ ('to risk one's life'); to break

one's ~ trying to do smt. ('to make a maximum effort to get smt.

done'); to stick one's ~ out ('to expose oneself to danger'); by

a ~ ('by a close margin'); up to one's ~ in work ('swamped with

work'); ~ and ~ ('even')

II v. (colloq.)(D; intr.) ('to hug and kiss') to ~ with

neckline

n. a high; low, plunging; sweetheart ~

necktie

n. (AE) 1. to tie a ~

2. a loud ~ (CE has tie)

need

I n. 1. to create a ~

2. to feel a ~

3. to fill, meet, obviate a ~

4. to satisfy a ~

5. to minister to smb.'s ~s

6. an acute, crying, desperate, dire, pressing, urgent ~

7. a basic, fundamental; biological; emotional, psychological;

personal; physical; physiological; spiritual; unfulfilled,

unmet; universal ~

8. bodily; emergency; material ~s

9. a ~ for (there is no ~ for violence)

10. a ~ to + inf. (there was a pressing ~ to act immediately;

there was no ~ for you to go)

11. in ~ (to live in dire ~; badly in ~)

12. in ~ of (in crying ~ of food) USAGE NOTE: The sentence she

needn't have gone implies that she did go (though there was no

need for her to go). The sentence she didn't need to go does not

indicate if she went or not.

II v. 1. to ~ badly, desperately, sorely

2. (E) we all ~ to work

3. (F; in neg. and occ. in interrogative sentences) she ~ not

work; or: she doesn't ~ to work; ~ she go? or: does she ~ to go?

4. (G) the house needs painting

needle

n. 1. to thread a ~

2. a crochet; darning; hypodermic; knitting; phonograph; sewing

~

3. (misc.) a ~ in a haystack ('smt. that is impossible to

find')

needlepoint

n. to do ~

needlework

n. to do ~

negative

n. ['exposed film'] 1. to develop a ~ ['phrase that

rejects']

2. in the ~ (to reply in the ~) ['expression that contains

negation']

3. a double ~

neglect

I n. 1. benign; complete, total; parental ~

2. child ~

3. a state of ~

II v. 1. to ~ willfully

2. (E) she ~ed to pay the fine

neglectful

adj. ~ of

negligence

n. 1. contributory; criminal; rank; willful ~

2. (legal) gross; ordinary; slight ~

negligent

adj. 1. grossly ~

2. ~ about; in

negotiate

v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ about, over

2. (D; intr.) to ~ for

3. (D; intr.) to ~ with (we ~d with them for release of the

prisoners; to ~ with smb. about a common border)

negotiations

n. 1. to conduct; enter into ~

2. to break off ~

3. delicate; direct; fruitless, unsuccessful; high-level;

marathon, round-the-clock; successful; top-level ~

4. diplomatic; peace ~

5. ~ between

6. ~ for

negotiator

n. a management; union ~

neighbor I neighbour

n. 1. a next-door ~

2. a ~ to (she was a good ~ to us)

II v. (esp. BE) (D; intr.) to ~ on

neighborhood, neighbourhood

n. 1. a bad ('unsafe'); changing; friendly; good, nice, pleasant

~

2. an ethnic; residential ~

3. in a ~ (we live in a nice ~)

neighborly, neighbourly

adj. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ of you to do that)

neither

determiner, pronoun ~ of (~ of the two; ~ of them) USAGE NOTE:

The use of the preposition of is necessary when two or a pronoun

follows. When a noun follows, two constructions are possible--

neither student knew the answer; neither of the students knew

the answer.

nelson

n. ['type of wrestling hold'] a full; half ~

nemesis

n. to meet one's ~

neologism

n. to coin a ~

nerve

n. ['assurance'] ['gall'] (colloq.) 1. to display, have ~

2. the ~ to + inf. (she had the ~ to ask for another day off)

['self-confidence']

3. to lose one's ~ ['sensitivity']

4. a raw ~ (his remark hit a raw ~) ['band of nervous

tissue']

5. the cranial ~s

nerves

n. ['nervousness'] 1. an attack; bundle of ~ ['mental

state']

2. to fray, frazzle smb.'s ~; to get on smb.'s ~

3. to calm, settle one's ~

4. frayed, frazzled; steady; strong; taut; weak ~ ['misc.']

5. to have ~ of steel ('to be very strong emotionally')

nervous

adj. ~ about, of (BE) (we were ~ about the recent reports of

local violence)

nest

n. 1. to build, make a ~

2. a machine-gun ~

3. (misc.) a hornets' ~ ('an angry reaction')

nest egg

n. ['money set aside as a reserve'] to accumulate; set aside a

~

nestle

v. 1. (d; intr., tr.) to ~ against (the children ~d against

their mother)

2. (P; intr.) the small village ~d in the green hills

nestle up

v. (d; intr.) to ~ to (the children ~d up to their mother)

net

n. 1. to weave a ~

2. to cast, spread a ~

3. a butterfly; fishing; mosquito ~

4. a life (esp. AE), safety (also fig.) ~

5. in a ~ (to catch fish in a ~)

netting

n. mosquito ~

nettles

n. ~ sting

network

n. 1. an old-boy; old-girl ~

2. a communications; road ~

3. a national ~ (of radio, TV stations)

4. over a ~ (over a national ~)

neurosis

n. mild; severe ~

neutral

I adj. ~ in (~ in a dispute)

II n. ['position of disengaged gears'] in ~ (to run an engine

while in ~)

neutrality

n. 1. to maintain, observe ~

2. to declare one's ~

3. armed; strict ~

new

adj. 1. ~ at, in (I'm ~ at this)

2. ~ to (this procedure is ~ to us)

new leaf

n. to turn over a ~ ('to begin a new way of life')

news

n. ['new information'] 1. to announce, give; break, flash;

cover the ~

2. to spread (the) ~

3. to censor; control; cover up, suppress (the) ~

4. to color, distort, twist (the) ~

5. bad; good; interesting; sensational; shocking; startling;

unexpected; welcome ~

6. local; international; national; political ~

7. the latest ~ (have you heard the latest ~?)

8. ~ spreads, travels

9. a bit, item, piece of ~; a ~ item

10. ~ about, of(~ about the earthquake; is there any news of

them?)

11. the ~ that + clause (have you heard the ~ that the border

has been closed?) ['newscast']

12. to listen to; turn on; watch the ~

13. the late; morning; nightly ~ (on TV)

14. on the ~ (we heard that item on the late ~)

15. (misc.) to make (the) ~ ('to be newsworthy')

news conference

n. to hold a ~

newspaper

n. 1. to edit; print; publish a ~

2. a daily; evening; morning; weekly ~

3. a ~ comes out, is published

4. (misc.) to make the ~s ('to be printed in the newspapers')

New Year

n. to greet, ring in the ~

next

adj., adv. 1. (cannot stand alone) ~ to (there's a newsstand ~

to the hotel)

2. (misc.) ~ of kin; ~ in line

nibble

v. (D; intr.) to ~ at

nibble away

v. (D; intr.) to ~ at

nice

adj. 1. ~ to, with (he's ~ to the children)

2. ~ to + int. (it's ~ just to sit and relax = it's ~ just

sitting and relaxing; she is ~ to work with = it is ~ to work

with her = it is nice working with her)

3. ~ that + clause (it's ~ that we could all get together)

niche

n. ['position'] 1. to carve out a ~ (she has carved out a ~

for herself in her field)

2. to occupy a ~ (she occupies a special ~ in her field)

nick

n. (misc.) in the ~ of time ('precisely when needed')

nickname

v. (N; used with a noun) he was ~d Butch

niggardly

adj. (lit.) ~ in

niggle

v. (D; intr.) to ~ about, over (to ~ over every sentence)

nigh

adv. (old-fashioned) ['near'] ~ on, onto, unto (~ onto ten

years)

night

n. 1. to spend a ~ (we spent a restless ~ waiting for news)

2. a clear; dark, murky; overcast; starlit; stormy ~

3. a restless, sleepless ~

4. a first, opening ~ (of a play)

5. a wedding ~

6. last; tomorrow ~; tonight

7. at ~ (to work at ~; late at ~)

8. by ~ (London by ~)

9. for a ~ (to put smb. up for the ~)

10. on a certain ~ (on the ~ of December first; on that ~)

11. throughout the ~

12. (misc.) to bid, wish smb. good ~; (AE) to work ~s; in the

dead of the ~ USAGE NOTE: The collocation at night is usu. used

with verbs (she works at night) and contrasts with during the

day. The collocation by night is usu. used with nouns (London by

night) and contrasts with by day. (see the Usage Note for day)

nightcap

n. ['last drink of the night'] 1. to have a ~

2. (misc.) to invite smb. in for a ~; to join smb. in a ~

nightclub

n. at, in a ~ (to work at/in a ~)

nightfall

n. at ~

nightingale

n. ~s sing, warble

nightmare

n. 1. to have a ~

2. a horrible, terrible ~

3. a ~ about

nightshift

n. 1. to work the ~

2. (to work) on the ~

nip

I n. ['stinging cold'] (there is) a ~ in the air

II v. (colloq.) (BE) (P; intr.) ('to move quickly') she ~ped out

and bought some bread

nipples

n. cracked; sore, tender ~

nitpick

v. (colloq.) (D; intr.) to ~ at

noble

adj. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ of him to make the sacrifice)

nobody

pronoun we had ~ to talk to = we had ~ that we could talk to

nod

I n. ['movement of the head'] 1. an approving ~

2. a ~ to

3. (misc.) (BE) the proposal was approved on the ~ (without the

need for a vote) ['awarding of a decision'] (usu. sports)

4. to get the

II v. (D; intr., tr.) to ~ at, to (when she entered the room,

she ~ded to us)

node

n. a lymph ~

noise

n. 1. to make, produce (a) ~

2. to cut (AE; colloq.), cut down on, reduce the ~

3. constant, persistent; deafening; loud; shrill ~

4. a ~ abates, dies down

nominate

v. 1. (D; tr.) to ~ as (she was ~d as our candidate)

2. (D; tr.) to ~ for (to ~ smb. for the presidency)

3. (H) they ~d her to serve as chairperson

nomination

n. 1. to place, put smb. (smb.'s name) in ~

2. to accept; reject a ~

3. a ~ to (a ~ to a committee)

nominative

n. (grammar) the ~ absolute

nonconformity

n. ~ in, to

none

determiner, n., pronoun ~ of (~ of them) USAGE NOTE: The use of

the preposition of is necessary when a pronoun follows. When a

noun follows, the use of of the limits the meaning; no replaces

none when the meaning is not limited" we saw none of the

students whom we had discussed earlier; we drank none of the

wine that you brought; we saw no students; we drank no wine.

nonsense

n. 1. to speak, talk ~

2. to put up with, tolerate ~

3. (colloq.) (AE) to cut the ~

4. arrant (lit.), complete, outright, perfect, pure, sheer,

total, utter ~

5. ~ to + inf. (it was sheer ~ to trust them)

6. (misc.) (BE) to make ~ of ('to spoil') (the recession made ~

of our plans for expansion)

nonsensical

adj. ~ to + inf. (it's ~ to trust her)

nook

n. 1. a cozy ~

2. a breakfast ~

3. (misc.) every ~ and cranny

noon

n. 1. high ~

2. at ~

3. from ~ (to evening)

no one

see nobody

noose

n. 1. to tighten a ~ around (they tightened the ~ around his

neck)

2. a hangman's ~

norm

n. ['standard'] 1. to establish, set a ~ ['average']

2. above; below the ~

normal

adj. 1. ~ to + inf. (it's ~ to want a steady job)

2. ~ that + clause (it's only ~ that we should expect equal

pay)

north

I adj., adv. 1. ~of2. up ~

II n. 1. magnetic; true ~

2. in, to the ~

northeast

n. in; to, towards the ~

North Pole

n. at the ~

northwest

n. in; to, towards the ~

nose

I n. 1. to blow; wipe one's ~

2. to pick one's ~

3. an aquiline, Roman; bulbous; pug, snub, turned-up ~

4. a bloody; running, runny ~ (the child has a runny ~)

5. through the ~ (to breathe through the ~)

6. a ~ bleeds; runs

7. (misc.) to bury one's ~ in a book ('to become absorbed in a

book'); to count ~s ('to count those present'); to cut off one's

~ to spite one's face ('to harm one's own interests'); to lead

smb. by the ~ ('to order smb. around'); to pay through the ~

('to pay an exorbitant price'); to keep one's ~ out of smb.

else's business; to poke, stick one's ~ into smb. else's

business; to thumb one's ~ at smb. ('to defy smb.'); to keep

one's ~ to the grindstone ('to work long and hard'); under

smb.'s (very) ~ ('in smb.'s plain sight'); to turn up one's ~ at

('to sneer at'); on the ~ (AE; colloq.) ('exactly'); a ~ for

scandal ('an ability to ferret out scandal'); by a ~ ('by a

small margin'); to follow one's ~ ('to go straight forward'); to

tweak ('pinch') smb.'s ~

II v. 1. (colloq.) (D: intr.) to ~ into (to ~ into smb.'s

affairs)

2. (P; tr.) she ~d the car into the street

nosebleed

n. 1. to have a ~

2. to stop a ~

3. alight; severe ~

nose dive

n. 1. (also fig.) to go into, take a ~ (stocks took a ~)

2. to come out of a ~

nostalgia

n. 1. to feel ~

2. ~ for

nostrils

n. flaring, wide ~

nosy

adj. (colloq.) ~ about

notable

adj. ~ for

notch

n. ['cut'] 1. to make a ~

2. a ~ in

notch up

v. (esp. BE) (d; tr.) ('to score') to ~ against (our team has

~ed up seven victories against them)

note

I n. ['memorandum'] ['record'] 1. to make a ~ of (she made a

~ of the exact time)

2. to take ~ of ['short letter'] ['official letter']

3. to compose, write a ~

4. to address; deliver a ~

5. to drop, send smb. a ~

6. a diplomatic; protest ~

7. a ~ from; to ['musical tone']

8. to hit, strike a ~ (she hit the high ~ beautifully)

9. a false ~ (also fig.)

10. a high; low ~

11. (AE) an eighth; half; quarter; whole ~ ['characteristic

feature']

12. to strike a ~ (to strike a sour ~)

13. a discordant; false; festive; fresh; jarring; optimistic;

personal; pessimistic; sour; triumphant ~

14. on a ~ (the meeting ended on an optimistic ~) ['document

relating to a debt']

15. to discount a ~

16. a demand; promissory; treasury ~

17. a ~ matures ['paper money']

18. a banknote; pound ~

II v. 1. (L) we ~d that she was late again

2. (0) ~ how it is done

notebook

n. a loose-leaf ~ (AE)

noted

adj. (cannot stand alone) ~ for (our city is ~ for its fine

restaurants)

notes

n. ['condensed record'] 1. to make, take ~ (our students

always take copious ~)

2. (usu. fig.) to compare ~

nothing

n. 1. to ask (for) ~ (to ask ~ in return)

2. to gain ~ by (we will gain ~ by ignoring the regulations)

3. ~ about (we know ~ about it)

4. ~ to (they are ~ to us)

5. ~ to + inf. (we have ~ to lose)

6. (misc.) to leave ~ to chance; to make ~ of being awarded an

honor; we expect ~ of him; you can expect nothing from them;

good for ~; ~ doing ('definitely not'); we have ~ that we can

discuss

notice

I n. ['heed'] 1. to take ~ of

2. to attract ~

3. to escape ~

4. scant ~ (to attract scant ~) ['sign']

5. to place, pose, put up a ~ ['announcement']

['notification']

6. to serve ~ on

7. advance ~

8. a ~ that + clause (we read the ~ that the water would be

turned off for two hours)

9. at, on short ~

10. until further ~ ['warning of one's intention to end an

agreement']

11. to give ~

12. to put smb. on ~

13. a month's; week's ~

14. (colloq.) ~ to + inf. (the landlady gave him ~ to move)

15. subject to ~ ['review "]

16. to get rave ~s (the play got rave ~s) ['mention']

17. a brief ~

18. a book ~

II v. 1. (I) we ~d him leave the house

2. (J) we ~d him leaving the house

3. (L) we ~d that she had left

notification

n. 1. to send ~

2. to get, receive ~

3. ~ that + clause (we read the ~ that our building had been

sold)

4. pending (further) ~

notify

v. 1. (BE) (B) to ~ a crime to the police

2. (D; tr.) to ~ about, of (we ~fied the police of the

incident)

3. (BE) (H) we'll ~ her to draw up a contract

4. (L; must have an object) she ~fied us that she would accept

the position

5. (formal) (0) he will ~ us where we are to meet

notion

n. 1. to have a ~

2. to dispel a ~

3. a foggy, hazy, vague; ludicrous; odd, strange; preconceived;

widespread ~

4. a ~ about, of (he didn't have the slightest ~ of what I

meant)

5. a ~ that + clause (we tried to dispel the ~ that benefits

would be curtailed)

notoriety

n. 1. to enjoy ~

2. ~ for (~ for being corrupt)

3. ~ surrounding (the ~ surrounding the published accounts of

bribery in high places)

notorious

adj. 1. ~ as (he was ~ as an outlaw)

2. ~ for (our town is ~ for its gambling casinos)

noun

n. 1. to decline, inflect a ~

2. an abstract; attributive; collective; common; count; mass,

uncountable; predicate; proper; verbal ~

3. a feminine; masculine; neuter ~

nourishment

n. 1. to take ~

2. to give ~

3. ~ for

novel

n. 1. to publish; write a ~

2. a detective, mystery; dime; historical ~

3. (misc.) to make a ~ into a film

novelty

n. 1. to outgrow smt.'s ~ (it outgrew its ~)

2. a ~ wears off

3. a ~ for, to

novice

n. 1. a rank ~

2. a ~ at, in

now

adv. 1. just; right ~

2. until, up to ~

nowhere

adv. 1. to get, go ~ ('to fail to arrive at a result')

2. ~ to + inf. (we had ~ to go)

3. (misc.) from, out of ~

nuance

n. a fine, subtle ~

nucleus

n. ['core'] to form a ~

nude

n. in the ~ (to pose in the ~)

nugget

n. a gold ~

nuisance

n. 1. to cause, create a ~

2. to make a ~ of oneself

3. a confounded, damned, perpetual ~

4. a public ~

5. a ~ to

6. a ~ to + inf. (it was a ~ to move during the semester)

7. a ~ that (it's a ~ that there's no hot water)

nuisance value

n. 1. to have a ~

2. a high ~

null

adj. (misc.) ~ and void

numb

adj. ~ with (~ with cold)

number

I n. ['symbol indicating quantity'] 1. an even; odd ~

2. a high; low ~

3. an algebraic; cardinal; complex; compound; decimal;

imaginary; infinite; irrational; mass; mixed; natural; negative;

ordinal; positive; prime; quantum; whole ~

4. (misc.) the call ~ (of a book); the daily; lucky; winning ~

(of a lottery); a serial ~ (of a product, part); a serial ~ (of

a soldier) ['quantity']

5. to decrease, reduce; increase a ~ (to reduce the ~ of

traffic accidents)

6. an approximate, round; certain; enormous, untold; growing;

large; small ~

7. (misc.) our school has doubled its ~s ['telephone number']

8. to call; dial a ~

9. a telephone ~; an unlisted ~ (AE; BE has ex-directory

listing! number) ['issue']

10. a back ~ ['single selection in a program of

entertainment']

11. to do a ~ ['misc.']

12. to carry a ~ (when adding)

II v. (d;intr.)to ~ in (our books ~ in the thousands)

numbers

n. ['form of gambling'] 1. to play the ~ ['large group']

2. in ~ (there is safety in ~) ['misc.']

3. by the ~ ('done to a specific count')

numeral

n. an Arabic; Roman ~

nuptials

n. to officiate at, perform (the) ~

nurse

I n. 1. a community-health (AE), public-health (AE) ~ (BE is

approximately health visitor)

2. a community (BE), district (BE), visiting (AE) ~

3. a general-duty; head; industrial, occupational-health;

operating-room (AE); practical; school; supervising ~

4. a graduate (AE); Licensed Practical (AE), State Enrolled

(BE); professional; Registered (AE), State Registered (BE) ~

5. (misc.) a ~ practitioner

II v. (d;tr.) to ~ back to (to ~ smb. back to health)

nursery

n. 1. a day ~

2. at, in a ~

nursing

n. 1. to study ~

2. community-health, public-health ~ (AE; BE has health-visitor

service)

3. geriatric, gerontological; maternal-child health; medical-

surgical; obstetric; operating room; pediatric; practical;

primary; professional; psychiatric ~

nut

n. 1. to crack a ~

2. to shell ~s

3. (misc.) a hard/tough ~ to crack ('a difficult problem to

deal with')

nutrients

n. basic, essential ~

nuts

adj. (colloq.) ['infatuated'] 1. ~ about (he's ~ about her)

['crazy']

2. to go ~

nutshell

n. (colloq.) ['brief form'] in a ~ (to put smt. in a ~) ('to

state smt. very succinctly')

nutty

adj. (slang) 1. ~ to + int. (it's ~ to behave like that)

2. (misc.) as ~ as a fruitcake

nuzzle up

v. (D; intr.) to ~ against; to (the dog ~d up against her)

nylon

n. 1. sheer ~

2. a pair of ~s ('a pair of nylon stockings')

oaf

n. a stupid ~ (you stupid ~!)

oar

n. to feather; peak ~s

oath

n. ['solemn promise; solemn promise to tell the truth'] 1. to

administer an ~ to smb.

2. to put smb. under ~

3. to swear, take an ~

4. to violate an ~

5. a solemn ~

6. a loyalty ~

7. an ~ to + inf. (she took an ~ to do her duty)

8. an ~ that + clause (I took an ~ that I would obey all

regulations)

9. on (BE), under ~ (to testify under ~ to tell the truth)

['swearword']

10. to mutter, utter an ~

11. a mild; strong ~

12. a string of ~s

oatmeal

n. to cook ~

obedience

n. 1. to demand, exact ~ from

2. to instill ~ in

3. to pledge, swear ~ to

4. blind, strict ~

5. ~ to

obedient

adj. ~ to

obeisance

n. (formal) ['curtsy'] to make one's ~s

obituary

n. 1. to send in; write an ~

2. to print, publish an ~

3. (misc.) to read the ~ries

object

I n. 1. a material, physical ~

2. a sex ~

3. (grammar) a direct; indirect ~

4. (misc.) an ~ of derision; an unidentified flying ~ (= UFO)

II v. 1. to ~ strenuously, strongly, violently

2. (D; intr.) to ~ to (to ~ to new taxes)

3. (L) she ~ed that the accusation was based on hearsay

objection

n. 1. to lodge, make, raise an ~

2. to deal with, meet an ~

3. to overrule; sustain an ~

4. to withdraw an ~

5. a serious, strenuous, strong, violent, vociferous; valid ~

6. (legal) ~ overruled; ~ sustained

7. an ~ to (to raise an ~ to a proposal; we have no objections

to your going)

8. an ~ that + clause (the judge overruled their ~ that illegal

evidence had been introduced)

9. over smb.'s ~s (the resolution was adopted over the

vociferous ~s of the opposition)

objectionable

adj. ~ to

objective

n. 1. to attain, gain, win an ~

2. an economic; long-range; military ~

objectivity

n. in all ~

objector

n. a conscientious ~

obligate

v. (H) what does the agreement ~ us to do?

obligated

adj. 1. ~ to (I'm ~ to you)

2. ~ to + inf. (he is ~ to pay off all debts by the end of the

year)

obligation

n. 1. to assume, take on an ~

2. to feel an ~

3. to discharge, fulfill, meet an ~

4. a legal; moral; social ~; family ~s

5. a military ~ ('required military service')

6. an ~ to (an ~ to one's parents)

7. an ~ to + inf. (we have an ~ to help them)

8. under (an) ~

obligatory

adj. 1. ~ for

2. (formal) ~ on, upon (doing one's duty is ~ on a soldier)

oblige

v. 1.(d; tr.)to ~ by (you would ~ me by not smoking)

2. (H) the contract ~s us to pay a penalty if we finish late

obliged

adj. 1. ~ to (I'm ~ to you)

2. ~ to + inf. (we are ~ to attend all classes)

obliterate

v. 1. to ~ completely, entirely, totally, utterly

2. (D; tr.) to ~ from

oblivion

n. to sink into ~

oblivious

adj. (cannot stand alone) ~ of, to (~ of one's surroundings; she

was ~ to what was going on)

obnoxious

adj. 1. ~ to

2. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ of them to do that)

oboe

n. to play the ~

obscene

adj. ~ to + inf. (it's ~ to make such a comparison)

obscure

adj. ~ to (the meaning was ~ to me)

obscurity

n. 1. to emerge from ~

2. to sink into ~

observance

n. a religious ~

observant

adj. ~ of

observation

n. ['comment'] 1. to make an ~

2. an astute, keen, penetrating, shrewd ~

3. a personal ~

4. an ~ about

5. an ~ that + clause (she made the astute ~ that the whole

matter had been exaggerated) ['condition of being observed']

6. to keep; place smb. under ~

7. to be under ~ ['act of observing']

8. (an) empirical; scientific ~

observe

v. L to ~ attentively, carefully, closely

2. (I) we ~d them enter the building

3. (J) we ~d them entering the building

4. (L) ('to comment') several commentators have ~d that the

rate of inflation has eased

5. (0) I ~d how it was done

observer

n. 1. a casual; impartial; keen, perceptive; outside; shrewd;

skilled ~

2. a military ~

obsessed

adj. ~ by, with (~ by greed; ~ with fear)

obsession

n. an ~ for; with

obsolescence

n. built-in; planned ~

obstacle

n. 1. to pose an ~

2. to come across, encounter an ~

3. to clear, overcome, surmount an ~

4. (of a horse) to take an ~

5. to remove an ~

6. a formidable; insurmountable ~

7. an artificial; natural ~

8. an ~ to (an ~ to progress)

obstinate

adj. ~ about; in

obstruction

n. 1. to remove an ~

2. an intestinal;

respiratory ~

3. an ~ to

obtrude

v. (formal) (d; intr.) ('to intrude') to ~ on, upon

obvious

I adj. 1. ~ to (her disappointment was ~ to everyone)

2. ~ that + clause (it's ~ that he is drunk)

II n. to state the ~

occasion

n. ['opportunity'] 1. to have; take an ~ (to do smt.)

2. a propitious ~

3. an ~ for

4. an ~ to + inf. (I had no ~ to speak with them; there was no

~ for me to tell her)

5. an ~ arises ['happening'] ['event']

6. to celebrate; mark, observe an ~

7. a festive, gala; fitting, propitious; happy, joyful, joyous;

memorable; official; special; unforgettable ~

8. on an ' ~ (on this ~; on numerous ~s) ['challenge']

9. to rise to the ~ ['reason']

10. an ~ for (there is no ~ for alarm) ['misc.']

11. on ~ ('sometimes')

Occident

n. in the ~

occlusion

n. a coronary ~

occupation

n. ['profession'] 1. a profitable, rewarding ~

2. by ~ (she is a waitress by ~) ['act of occupying']

3. a military ~

4. under ~

occupied

adj. 1. deeply; solely ~

2. ~ in; with (they are ~ with their own concerns)

occupy

v. (d; refl., tr.) to ~ with (she ~pied them with minor chores)

occur

v. (d; intr.) ('to come to mind') to ~ to (an idea ~red to her)

occurrence

n. a common, daily, regular; unusual

ocean

n. 1. across the ~ (to fly across the ~)

2. in the ~

o'clock

adv. at (ten) ~

odd

adj. 1. ~ to + int. (it was ~ of her to do that)

2. ~ that + clause (it's ~ that she is not at home)

odds

n. ['allowance designed to equalize a bettor's chances'] 1. to

give, lay ~

2. to accept, take ~

3. to buck ('oppose') the ~ ['disadvantages']

4. to beat the ~

5. considerable, formidable, great, heavy, hopeless, long,

overwhelming ~

6. ~ against (all the ~ were against us)

7. against ~ (to struggle against formidable ~)

['advantages']

8. ~ in favor of ['disagreement']

9. at ~ over; with ['possibility']

10. the ~ that + clause (what are the ~ that they will show

up?) ['misc.']

11. by all ~ ('without question'); ~ and ends

ode

n. 1. to compose an ~

2. an ~ to (an ~ to joy)

odious

adj. ~ to

odor, odour

n. ['smell'] 1. to emit, exude, give off, produce an ~

2. to perceive; recognize an ~

3. a faint, slight; fetid, foul, rank, unpleasant; heavy;

musty; pleasant; pungent, strong ~

4. an ~ emanates from ['repute'] (BE)

5. in bad; good ~

off

adv. ['situated'] 1. comfortably; well ~ ['not exact']

2. far, way (esp. AE) ~

3. ~ in (he's way ~ in his calculations)

off-balance

adj., adv. caught ~

offend

v. to ~ deeply, gravely

offender

n. a chronic; first ~

oflfense, offence

n. ['infraction'] 1. to commit an ~

2. a minor, petty, trivial; serious ~

3. a capital; impeachable; indictable ~

4. an ~ against ['feeling of outrage']

5. to take ~ at (she takes ~ at every remark) ['insult']

(formal)

6. to give ~

offensive

I adj. 1. ~ to (his actions were ~ to everyone)

2. ~ to + inf. (it's ~ to read such things in the newspaper)

II n. 1. to assume, go over to, take the ~

2. to launch, mount an ~

3. (usu. mil.) to carry out, undertake an ~

4. to break off an ~

5. an economic; military; peace ~

6. on the ~

offer

I n. 1. to make an ~

2. to accept, agree to; consider an ~

3. to decline, refuse, reject, spurn an ~

4. to withdraw an ~

5. a firm; reasonable; tempting; tentative ~

6. an introductory; job; trial ~

7. an ~ to + inf. (her ~ to help was accepted gratefully)

8. (BE) on ~ ('available')

II v. 1. (A) she ~ed the job to me; or; she ~ed me the job

2. (D; refl., tr.) to ~ as (the money was ~ed as an inducement)

3. (E) they ~ed to compromise

offering

n. 1. to make an ~

2. a burnt; peace; sacrificial ~

3. an ~ to

offer up

v. (d; tr.) to ~ as (to ~ as a sacrifice)

office

n. ['function'] ['place where a function is performed'] 1.

to assume (an) ~

2. to hold; take ~

3. to seek (public) ~

4. (pol.) to run for (AE), stand for (BE) ~

5. to resign from (an) ~

6. (pol.) (an) appointive; elective; high; public ~

7. a branch; head, home, main ~

8. a booking; box, ticket; business; dead-letter; dentist's

(AE); doctor's (AE); lawyer's; left-luggage (BE); lost-and-found

(AE), lost property (BE); met (BE), meteorological (BE); patent;

post; printing ~

9. at, in an ~ (she works at our ~)

10. (pol.) in; out of ~ (our party is out of ~) ['ministry']

(BE)

11. the Foreign; Home ~ ['misc.']

12. smb.'s good ~s ('smb.'s services as a mediator') USAGE

NOTE; In North America, doctors and dentists have offices; in

Great Britain, they have surgeries.

officer

n. ['person holding a certain rank in the armed forces'] 1. to

commission an ~

2. to promote an ~

3. to break, demote; dismiss an ~

4. a commissioned; non-commissioned; petty; warrant ~

5. a commanding; company-grade (AE); field-grade (AE); flag;

general; high-ranking; line; senior; staff; top-ranking ~

6. an air-force; army; military; naval ~

7. a duty; executive; intelligence; liaison; line; public-

relations; staff ~; ~ of the day; ~ of the deck ['person

holding a position of authority']

8. a correctional (AE); executive; juvenile; medical; peace,

police; personnel; probation; public-relations; revenue (BE);

senior nursing (BE); truant (AE) ~

official

n. 1. a high, high-ranking, top-ranking; responsible ~

2. an appointed; elected ~

3. a church; city; county; customs; federal (US); government;

health; law-enforcement, police; local; postal; public; state ~

officiate

v. (D; intr.) to ~ at (to ~ at a ceremony)

offing

n. in the ~ ('forthcoming')

offspring

n. to produce ~

ogle

v. (d; intr.) to ~ at

oil

n. 1. to drill for; hit, strike ~

2. to pump ~

3. to produce; refine ~

4. crude; refined ~

5. household; lubricating; machine; motor ~

6. castor; coconut; cod-liver; cooking; corn; cottonseed;

linseed; mineral; olive; palm; peanut; poppyseed; safflower;

salad; sardine; sunflower; vegetable ~

7. coal ~ ('kerosene-AE, paraffin-BE'); shale ~

8. a film of ~

9. (misc.) to bum the midnight ~ ('to work very late at

night'); ~ and water do not mix

oils

n. to paint in ~

ointment

n. 1. to apply, rub in, rub on an ~

2. a skin ~

OK

I adj. (colloq.) ~ to + inf. (it is ~ to bring your lunch with

you)

II n. (colloq.) ['approval'] 1. to give one's ~

2. to get the ~

3. the ~ to + inf. (we got the ~ to continue)

old age

n. to live to a ripe ~

olive branch

n. ['symbol of peace'] to extend, hold out, offer the ~

Olympic Games

n. to hold the ~

omelet

n. 1. to make an ~

2. a cheese; mushroom; plain; Spanish; Western ~

omen

n. 1. a bad; good ~

2. an ~ for

omission

n. 1. to correct, rectify an ~

2. a glaring ~

3. (misc.) sins of ~

omit

v. (E) (BE) he ~ted to explain why he had been late

once

adv. at ~

one

determiner, pronoun 1. ~ by ~

2. ~ of (~ of them; ~ of the students)

ooze

v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ from, out of; into (blood was ~ing from

the wound)

2. (d; intr.) to ~ with (to ~ with charm)

open

I adj. 1. ~ for (~ for business)

2. (cannot stand alone) ~ to (~ to the public; I'm ~ to

suggestions)

3. (misc.) to lay oneself ~ to criticism; to bring smt. out

into the ~

II v. 1. to ~ wide

2. (D; intr., tr.) to ~ by, with (we ~ed our meeting by

singing a song; we ~ed our meeting with a song)

3. (D; tr.) to ~ for (to ~ new land for development)

4. (D; tr.) to ~ to (they ~ed their meetings to the public)

5. (N; used with an adjective) ~ your mouth wide

opener

n. ['device that opens'] 1. a bottle; can (AE), tin (BE) ~

2. a letter ~ (AE; BE has paper knife)

open house

n. to have, hold an ~

opening

n. ['vacancy'] 1. an ~ for (we have an ~ for an engineer)

['putting into operation']

2. a grand ~ (the grand ~ of a new supermarket)

open season

n. an ~ on (an ~ on deer)

open up

v. (D; intr., tr.) to ~ to (the government has ~ed up the files

to the public; he finally ~ed up to the press)

opera

n. 1. to perform, stage an ~

2. (a) comic; grand; light ~

3. a soap ~

4. a horse ~ ('western film')

5. at the ~

operate

v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ against (their troops were ~ing against

the guerrillas)

2. (med.) (D; intr.) to ~ for; on (the surgeon ~d on her for

appendicitis; she was ~d on for appendicitis)

operating system

n. to boot up; reboot the ~ (of a computer)

operation

n. ['surgical procedure'] 1. to perform an ~

2. to have, undergo an ~

3. an exploratory; major; minor ~

4. an ~ for (an ~ for the removal of gallstones) ['military

activity, movement']

5. to conduct; launch an ~

6. guerrilla; joint; large-scale; mine-sweeping; mopping-up ~s

['state of being functional']

7. to put into ~ (the plant has been put into ~)

8. in ~ (the factory is in ~) ['project']

9. a cloak-and-dagger, covert, secret; rescue; sting (AE) ~

operations

n. 1. to conduct ~

2. drilling; joint; military; mining; offensive; salvage ~

3. (mil.) a theater of ~

operator

n. 1. a computer; crane; elevator (AE); ham, radio; machine

(AE); radar; switchboard (AE), telephone (AE); tour ~

2. (colloq.) a slick, smooth ~

opinion

n. 1. to air, express, give, offer, pass, state, venture, voice

an ~

2. to form an ~ about (I still have not formed an ~ about the

candidates)

3. to mold (public) ~

4. to entertain, have, hold an ~

5. (legal) (AE) to hand down an ~ (the court handed down an ~)

6. a conflicting; considered; dissenting; frank, honest;

informed; negative; opposing; personal; positive; prevailing,

prevalent; strong ~ (she has strong ~s about everything)

7. a high; low ~ of (he has a high ~ of himself)

8. (an) expert; lay ~

9. public ~

10. a second ~ (as given by a doctor)

11. shades of ~

12. an ~ about, on

13. the ~ that + clause (she expressed her ~ that a compromise

would be reached)

14. in smb.'s ~ (in my humble ~)

15. of an ~ (she is of the ~ that nothing will help)

opponent

n. 1. a formidable, strong; weak ~

2. (ironical) my worthy ~

opportunity

n. 1. to grab, seize, take an ~

2. to afford, give, offer an ~

3. to find; have an ~

4. to lose an ~

5. a fleeting; lost. missed ~

6. (AE) equal ~ ('government policy of giving all citizens an

equal chance')

7. an ~ for

8. an ~ to + inf. (we had an ~ to visit our parents)

9. (misc.) ~ knocks ('appears')

oppose

v. 1. to ~ resolutely, strongly, vehemently

2. (K) I ~d his dropping out of college

opposed

adj. 1. diametrically; strongly, vehemently ~

2. ~ to

opposite

I adj. (BE) ~ to USAGE NOTE: When opposite means 'facing', it

can be an adjective in BE ~ her house is opposite to ours. More

usu., opposite is used as a preposition in both BE and AE ~ her

house is opposite ours. When opposite means 'diametrically

opposed', it is used only in BE as an adjective--her opinions

are opposite to ours.

II n. 1. a direct ~

2. an ~ of, to

3. (misc.) ~s attract

opposition

n. 1. to arouse, stir up ~

2. to offer, put up ~

3. to crush, overcome ~

4. to come across, meet, run up against ~

5. (ling.) to neutralize an ~

6. determined, fierce, stiff, strong, unbending, unyielding,

vehement ~

7. ~ to (~ to new taxes)

8. against, despite, in spite of, over (the) ~ (we adopted the

resolution over the ~ of the other party)

9. in ~ to

oppression

n. under ~ (to live under ~)

opt

v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ for

2. (rare) (E) they ~ed to decline the invitation

optimism

n. 1. to display, show; express ~

2. incurable, unflagging ~

3. ~ about, over

optimist

n. an incurable ~

optimistic

adj. 1. cautiously; incurably ~

2. ~ about, over

3. ~ that + clause (we are ~ that the results will be

favorable)

option

n. 1. to exercise an ~

2. an exclusive; first ~

3. a local ~ (of a political subdivision)

4. a stock ~

5. an ~ on

6. an ~ to + inf. (they had an ~ to buy the team)

7. (misc.) to have no ~ but to...

oracle

n. ['authority'] to consult an ~

orange

n. 1. a mandarin; navel ~

2. (misc.) to squeeze an ~

oration

n. 1. to deliver an ~

2. a funeral ~

oratory

n. 1. eloquent; inflammatory, mob, rabble-rousing ~

2. campaign ~

orbit

n. 1. to make an ~ around, of, round (the spaceship made five ~s

of the moon)

2. in; into ~ (to put a satellite into ~)

orchard

n. an apple; cherry; peach ~

orchestra

n. 1. to conduct, direct, lead (esp. AE) an ~

2. a chamber; dance; philharmonic, symphony; pops; string ~

ordain

v. (formal) 1. (L; subj.) the emperor ~ed that all foreigners be

expelled

2. (N; used with a noun) he was ~ed priest

ordeal

n. 1. to undergo an ~

2. a terrible, trying ~

3. (an) ~ by fire; water

order

I n. ['request for merchandise or services'] 1. to give, place,

put in; make out, write out an ~

2. to fill; take an ~ (has the waiter taken your ~?)

3. to cancel an ~

4. a prepublication; rush; shipping; side (esp. AE); standing ~

5. (new) ~s are falling off

6. on ~ (the merchandise is on ~)

7. to ~ (made to ~)

8. (misc.) a tall ~ to fill ('a difficult task to carry out')

['command']

9. to give, hand down (AE), issue an ~

10. to carry out, execute an ~; to obey, take ~s

11. to cancel, countermand, rescind, revoke; violate an ~

12. a direct; executive ~

13. doctor's; marching; sealed; verbal; written ~s

14. an ~ to + inf. (we received an ~ to attack)

15. an ~ that + clause; subj. (headquarters issued an ~ that the

attack be/should be resumed)

16. by smb.'s ~ (by whose ~ was this done?)

17. under ~s (we were under ~s to remain indoors) ['court

decree']

18. to issue an ~

19. an affiliation (BE); cease-and-desist; court; gag;

maintenance (BE), support (AE); restraining ~ ['association,

group']

20. a cloistered; Masonic; mendicant; monastic; secret ~

['system']

21. an economic; pecking; social ~ (he's at the bottom of the

pecking ~) ['proper procedure']

22. a point of ~

23. in ~; out of ~ (the senator was out of ~)

24. to call a meeting to ~ ['state of peace']

25. to establish; maintain; restore ~ ['state in which

everything is in its proper place or condition']

26. good, shipshape ~

27. in; out of ~ (everything is in good ~; this machine is out

of ~ again) ['condition']

28. working ~ (in working ~) ['sequence']

29. alphabetical; chronological; numerical ~

30. in; out of ~ (in ~ of importance; in alphabetical ~; these

entries are out of ~) ['military formation']

31. close; extended; open ~ ['instructions to pay']

32. a money, postal (BE) ~ ['misc.']

33. law and ~; a new ~; an old ~

II v. 1. (C)~ a copy for me; or: ~ me a copy

2. (D; tr.) to ~ from (to ~ merchandise from a mail-order house)

3. (d; tr.) to ~ from, out of (she ~ed him out of the house)

4. (d; tr.) to ~ off (the referee ~ed the player off the field)

5. (H) the sergeant ~ed his platoon to fall in

6. (L; subj.) the mayor ~ed that free food be/should be

distributed

7. (esp. AE) (N; used with a past participle) the judge ~ed the

prisoner transferred to the county jail

8. (misc.) the doctor ~ed her to bed

orders

n. ['ordination'] to receive (holy) ~

ordinance

n. ['local law'] 1. to adopt, enact, pass; issue an ~

2. to apply, enforce an ~

3. to obey, observe an ~ 4; to repeal, rescind, revoke an ~

5. a city, municipal; township ~

6. an ~ that + clause; subj. (the town issued an ~ that all dogs

be/should be muzzled)

ordnance

n. naval ~

ore

n. copper; iron ~

organ

n. ['part of the body'] 1. body; major; reproductive; sense,

sensory; sexual; speech; vital ~s ['large wind instrument']

2. to play the ~

3. a barrel; electronic; hand; pipe; reed ~ ['periodical']

4. a government; official; party ~

organism

n. 1. a dead; healthy; living ~

2. a deadly; harmful; infectious ~

3. microorganisms; minute ~s

organization

n. 1. to establish, form an ~

2. to disband, dissolve an ~

3. a charitable, philanthropic; civic, community; government;

health-maintenance (AE); international; local; national;

nonprofit, not-for-profit (AE); official; professional; profit-

making, proprietary; religious; state; student; UN; voluntary;

women's; youth ~

4. a front ~ for

orgasm

n. to achieve ~; to have, reach an ~

orgy

n. 1. to engage in, stage an ~

2. a drunken ~

Orient

n. in the ~

orient, orientate

v. (D; refl., tr.) to ~ to (to ~ oneself to one's surroundings)

orientation

n. ['introduction'] 1. to give, offer smb. (an) ~ to

2. to get, go through, receive (an)

origin

n. 1. in ~ (the documents were Norse in ~)

2. of ~ (she is of humble ~; the fire was of undetermined ~)

original

n. in the ~ (to read a text in the ~)

originality

n. 1. to display, show ~

2. ~ in

originate

v. (d; intr.) to ~ from; in; with (the idea ~d with her)

orphan

n. 1. to be left an ~

2. a war ~

orthodoxy

n. strict ~

oscillate

v. (D; intr.) to ~ between

osmosis

n. by ~ (to absorb by ~)

other

adj. ['second'] every ~ (I jog every ~ day)

ought

v. (E) you ~ to help

oust

v. (D; tr.) to ~ from

out

adj.., adv. ['unconscious'] 1. ~ cold ('completely

unconscious') ['intent on']

2. ~ to + inf. (she is ~ to get revenge) ['gone']

3. ~ to (~ to lunch) ['misc.']

4. over and ~ (used at the end of a radio message); to turn smt.

inside ~; down and ~ ('destitute')

outage

n. (AE) ['failure'] a power ~

outburst

n. an angry; furious; spontaneous; sudden; violent ~

outcome

n. 1. to decide the (final) ~ of

2. (AE) to measure ~s ('to evaluate results')

outcry

n. 1. to make, raise an ~

2. a public ~

3. an ~ against; for

outgrowth

n. a direct ~

outing

n. to go on an ~

outlay

n. ['spending of money'] 1. to make ~s for

2. a capital; huge; large; modest; small ~

outlet

n. ['passage'] 1. an ~ to (an ~ to the sea) ['means of

expression']

2. to find an ~ for (to find an ~ for one's emotions)

3. to provide an ~ for ['retail store']

4. a factory ~

outline

I n. 1. to draw up, make an ~

2. a bare; broad, general; rough ~

3. in ~ (to draw in ~; to present a project in broad ~)

II v. 1. (B) they ~d the project to us

2. (d; tr.) to ~ against (the ship was ~d against the horizon)

outlook

n. ['viewpoint'] 1. to have an ~ on (she has a healthy ~ on

life)

2. a healthy; negative, pessimistic; optimistic, positive ~

['prospects']

3. a bright; dismal, gloomy ~

4. the long-range, long-term; short-range, short-term ~

5. an ~ for (the ~ for the future is bright)

outpost

n. a military ~

output

n. 1. to increase, step up ~

2. to curtail, cut back, reduce ~

3. annual; daily; monthly ~

outrage

n. 1. to express; feel ~

2. to spark (AE), spark off (BE), stir up ~

3. an ~ against (an ~ against public morality)

4. an ~ to + inf. (it was an ~ to take innocent civilians

hostage)

5. an ~ that + clause (it was an ~ that her name was omitted)

outrageous

adj. 1. ~ to + inf. (it's ~ to permit such behavior)

2. ~ that + clause (it's ~ that such practices are allowed)

outs

n. (colloq.) to be on the ~ with smb. ('to be on bad terms with

smb.')

outset

n. at; from the ~

outsider

n. a rank ~

outskirts

n. on the ~ (of a city)

outspoken

adj. ~ in (~ in their opposition to new taxes)

outstanding

adj. ~ in (~ in scientific achievement)

outward

adv. ~ bound

ovation

n. 1. to get, receive an ~

2. a standing; thunderous, tremendous ~

3. to an ~ (they walked out on the stage to a thunderous ~)

oven

n. 1. to light, turn on an ~

2. to turn off an ~

3. an electric; gas; microwave; self-cleaning ~

over

adj. ['finished'] ~ between; with (it's all ~ between them)

overboard

adv. 1. to fall-2. (misc.) man-! to go ~ over smt. ('to carry

smt. to excess')

overdose

I n. a fatal, lethal ~

II v. (D; intr.) to ~ on (to ~ on a medication)

overflow

v. (D; intr.) to -into (the mob ~ed into the street)

overgrown

adj. ~ with

overhaul

I n. ['repairs'] a complete; major; thorough ~ (our car needs a

major ~)

II v. to ~ completely; thoroughly

overindulgence

n. ~ in

overjoyed

adj. ~ to + inf. (we were ~ to learn of the good news)

overpass

n. (esp. AE) an ~ over (an ~ over a road) (BE has flyover)

overrated

adj. vastly ~

overrun

adj. ~ with (~ with weeds)

overseas

adv. to go ~

oversight

n. 1. an ~ that + clause (it was through an ~ that you were not

invited)

2. by, through an ~ (her name was omitted through an ~)

overtime

n. 1. to earn; work ~

2. (sports) a sudden-death ~

overtones

n. political; racial ~

overture

n. ['musical introduction'] 1. to compose; perform, play an ~

2. an ~ to ['introductory proposal']

3. to make an ~; to make ~s to

4. to spurn smb.'s ~s

owe

v. 1. (A) she ~s ten dollars to her sister; or; she ~s her sister

ten dollars (the to is usu. not used when the indirect object is

a pronoun: she owes her ten dollars)

2. (D; tr.) to ~ for (we still ~ one hundred dollars for the

car)

owing

adj. ~ to

owl

n. ~shoot

own

n. and pronoun 1. to hold one's ~ ('to continue to survive')

2. to come into one's ~ ('to receive recognition')

3. on one's ~ ('independently')

4. of one's ~ (for reasons of one's ~) ('for one's own reasons')

owner

n. 1. a part ~

2. the lawful, rightful ~

ownership

n. communal; joint; private; public; state ~

own up

v. (colloq. )(D; intr.) ('to confess') to ~ to (he ~ed up to

stealing the watch)

ox

n. 1. oxen bellow

2. a pair; team; yoke of oxen

3. (misc.) as strong as an ~

oxygen

n. 1. to administer ~; to give smb. ~

2. to get, receive ~

3. liquid ~

pace

I n. ['rate of movement'] 1. to set the ~

2. to keep ~ with

3. to change ~; to slacken the ~

4. a brisk, fast, rapid; even, steady; frantic, hectic;

grueling, killing ~

5. a slack, slow, sluggish; snail's ('extremely slow') ~

6. at a certain ~ (at a fast ~)

7. off the ~

8. (misc.) a change of ~ (also fig.) ('step'] (esp. mil.)

9. to take a ~ (to take three ~s forward) ['misc.']

10. to put smb. through the ~s ('to subject smb. to a test of

skill')

II v. (P; intr.) she was ~ing back and forth

pacemaker

n. (med.) to insert a ~

pacifier

n. (AE) to suck on a ~ (BE has dummy)

pack

I n. ['deck of playing cards'] 1. to cut; shuffle a ~ ['load,

bundle']

2. a back; full field (mil.); parachute ~ ['mass']

3. an ice ~

II v. 1. (C) ~ a sandwich for me; or; ~ me a sandwich

2. (d; intr.) to ~ into (they all ~ed into the auditorium)

3. (D; tr.) to ~ into (I ~ed everything into one suitcase)

4. (N; used with an adjective) ~ everything tight

package

n. 1. to deliver a ~

2. to mail (esp. AE), post (BE); send; unwrap; wrap a ~

3. a bulky;

neat ~

4. (misc.) a ~ deal

packaging

n. tamper-proof; tamper-resistant ~

packed

adj. 1. loosely; tightly ~

2. vacuum ~

packer

n. a meat ~

packet

n. a pay ~ (BE; AE has pay envelope)

packing

n. ['act of packing'] to do the ~

pack off

v. (D; tr.) to ~ to (to ~ the children off to camp)

pact

n. 1. to agree to. make; sign a ~

2. to denounce a ~

3. a formal; informal ~

4. a defense; mutual-assistance; nonagression; trade ~

5. a ~ to + inf. (we had a ~ not to reveal the facts of the

case)

6. a ~ that + clause (the two governments signed a ~ that they

would jointly defend their borders)

pad

n. ['cushion'] 1. a heating; heel; knee; shoulder ~ ['piece

of material']

2. a gauze; quilted; scouring ~ ['connected sheets of paper']

3. a scratch; writing ~ ['airstrip']

4. a helicopter; launch, launching ~ ['one's residence']

(slang)

5. at one's ~

paean

n. (lit.) ['hymn of praise'] 1. to sing a ~

2. a ~ to (to sing a ~ to smb.'s glory)

page

I n. ['leaf of a book, journal, newspaper'] 1. to turn a ~

2. to turn down a ~

3. to cite a (volume and) ~

4. to set a ~ (in type)

5. a title ~ (in a book)

6. an amusement; editorial; society; sports ~ (in a newspaper)

7. (misc.) you will not find a dull ~ in the whole book; a

glorious ~ in our history; it reads like a ~ from real life

['one side of a sheet of paper']

8. a blank ~

II n. ['youth who serves'] 1. (BE) a hotel ~

2. (US) a congressional ~

III v. to ~ smb. over a loudspeaker

pageant

n. a beauty; colorful ~

paid

adj. highly, well ~

pail

n. a garbage (AE); ice; lunch; milk ~

pain

I n. ['sensation of suffering'] 1. to cause ~

2. to inflict ~ on

3. to bear, endure, stand, take ~ (she cannot stand any ~)

4. to feel. experience. suffer ~ (she experienced constant ~)

5. to allay, alleviate, dull, ease, kill, relieve, soothe ~

6. (an) acute, excruciating, great, intense, maddening,

piercing, severe, sharp ~

7. (a) chronic, constant, gnawing, persistent, steady; dull;

intractable, stubborn; nagging; referred; shooting; slight;

stabbing; sudden; throbbing ~

8. (a) back; chest; physical (he felt sharp chest ~s and went

to see the doctor)

9. ~ appears; disappears, wears off

10. a spasm; stab; twinge of ~

11. in ~ (to be in chronic ~) ['penalty']

12. on, under, upon ~ of (mass meetings were forbidden on ~ of

death) ['bother']

13. (colloq.) a ~ to + inf. (it's a ~ to get up so early in the

morning = it's a ~ getting up so early in the morning)

II v. 1. to ~ badly, deeply

2. (R) it ~ed me to watch them quarrel; it ~ed me that he did

not keep his promise

pained

adj. (cannot stand alone) ~ to + inf. (I was ~ to learn of his

refusal to help)

painful

adj. 1. ~ to

2. ~ to + inf. (it's ~ to read of such things)

pains

n. ['trouble'] 1. to go to, spare no, take ~ to + inf. (she

took great ~ to get her message across) ['physical suffering']

2. (med.) labor ~

3. growing

paint

I n. 1. to apply, spread ~ (to apply ~ to a surface; to spread ~

evenly)

2. to spray ~ (to spray ~ on a wall)

3. to daub ~ (to daub ~ on a wall)

4. to dilute ~

5. to mix ~s

6. to scrape ~

7. exterior; flat; floor; house; latex; lead-based; metallic;

oil-based; wall ~

8. grease; war ~

9. wet ~!

10. ~ chips; peels

11. a blob, speck; splash of ~

12. a coat of ~ (to apply a second coat of ~)

13. a set of (oil) ~s

II v. 1. (usu. D; C occurs occ.) to ~ for (she ~ed a beautiful

portrait for us)

2. (d; intr.) to ~ in (to ~ in oils)

3. (J) the artist ~ed her strolling through her garden

4. (N: used with an adjective) to ~ a house white

5. (misc.) to ~ the town red ('to go on a binge')

painter

n. 1. a house; sign ~

2. a landscape; portrait ~

painting

n. 1. to do; restore a ~

2. to authenticate a ~

3. a finger; oil; water-color ~

4. a ~ depicts, portrays, shows (smt.)

pair

n. (ling.) a minimal ~

pair off

v. (D; intr., tr.) to ~ with

pair up

v. (D; intr., tr.) to ~ with

pajamas, pyjamas

n. a pair of ~

pal

n. a pen ~ (BE also has pen friend)

palace

n. an imperial; presidential (not US); royal

palatable

adj. ~ to

palate

n. 1. a cleft; perforated ~

2. the hard; soft ~

3. (misc.) to tickle the ~ ('to be very tasty')

pale

I adj. ['devoid of color'] 1. deathly ~

2. to go, turn ~

3. ~ with (rage)

II v. 1. (d; intr.) ('to become devoid of color') to ~ at ('to ~

at the sight of blood')

2. (d; intr.) ('to become less important') to ~ before, beside

(everything ~d before the possibility of war)

3. (d; intr.) ('to fade') to ~ into (to ~ into insignificance)

III n. ['prescribed area'] beyond, outside the

pall

I n. ['blanket of gloom'] to cast a ~ over

II v. (D; intr.) ('to become less attractive') to ~ on, upon

(her constant preaching began to ~ on everyone)

palm

I n. ['part of the hand'] 1. to read smb.'s ~ ('to tell smb.'s

fortune')

2. (misc.) to have an itching ~ ('to have a great desire for

money, bribes'); to grease smb.'s ~ ('to bribe smb.')

II n. a potted; royal ~

palm off

v. 1. (D; tr.) to ~ as (he ~ed off the copy as an original)

2. (D; tr.) to ~ on (to ~ inferior merchandise on smb.)

palpable

adj. ~ to

palsy

n. cerebral ~

pan

I n. 1. to grease a ~

2. a baking; cake; frying ~

3. (misc.) to scour pots and ~s

II v. (d; intr.) to ~ for (to ~ for gold)

panacea

n. 1. to find a ~

2. a universal ~

3. a ~ for

panache

n. (with) great ~

pancake

n. 1. to make a ~

2. (misc.) as flat as a ~

pandemonium

n. to cause, create, stir up ~

pander

v. (d; intr.) to ~ to (to ~ to the worst elements in society)

panegyric

n. to deliver a ~

panel

n. ['board'] 1. a control, instrument ~ ['group that

discusses or investigates a topic']

2. to select a ~

3. to serve on a ~

4. an impartial ~

5. an advisory; consumer; fact-finding; government ~

6. a ~ on (a ~ on drug addiction)

panel discussion

n. to hold; lead, moderate a ~

paneling, panelling

n. wood ~

pangs

n. 1. birth ~

2. ~ of conscience; hunger (she felt ~ of conscience)

panic

I n. 1. to cause, create; spread ~

2. to feel ~ at (they felt ~ at the thought of leaving their

family)

3. to avert, prevent ~

4. ~ spreads; subsides

5. in a ~ over

II v. (D; intr.) to ~ at (to ~ at the outbreak of fire)

panic button

n. to press, push the ~

panicky

adj. to get ~ over

pant

v. (D; intr.) to ~ for (to ~ for breath)

pants

n. l. (esp. AE) see trousers

2. ski; sweat ~

paper

n. ['lecture, treatise'] ['essay'] 1. to deliver, give,

offer, present, read a ~

2. to publish; write a ~

3. (in a school, at a university) to do, write; hand in a ~

(the pupils did a ~ on the problem of air pollution; the

students were required to hand in their ~s by the end of the

semester)

4. an invited; position; term; test ~

5. a ~ about, on

6. a ~ for (I had to do a ~ for my history course)

['document']

7. a green (BE); white ~ ['negotiable instruments']

8. commercial; negotiable ~ ['material made from wood pulp']

9. to recycle (scrap) ~

10. blank; blotting; bond; carbon; cigarette; filter; glossy;

graph; lined; litmus; manila; scrap; scratch (esp. AE); tar;

tissue; toilet; tracing; typing; wax, waxed; wrapping; writing ~

11. (misc.) a ream of ~ ['sheet of writing material']

12. to line ~

13. a piece, sheet; scrap of ~

14. on ~ ('in written form') ['newspaper']

15. to get a ~ out, publish a ~

16. a school; trade ~ (see also newspaper)

papers

n. ['documents'] 1. to show one's ~

2. (US) to take out first ~ ('to begin the process of becoming

a naturalized citizen')

3. first (US); naturalization; second (US); ship's; working ~

['school-work']

4. to correct, grade (esp. AE), mark ~ ['articles sent by

mail']

5. printed ~ (BE; CE has printed matter)

par

n. ['nominal value'] 1. at ~ ['common level']

2. on a ~ with ['average']

3. above, over; below ~

4. up to ~ (to feel up to ~)

parachute jump

n. to make a ~

parade

I n. 1. to have, hold, stage a ~

2. a church (BE); identification (BE; AE has police lineup);

inaugural; military; sick (BE; AE has sick call); ticker-tape ~

II v. (P; intr.) to ~ in front of an audience

parade rest

n. at ~ (the platoon was at ~)

paradise

n. an earthly ~

paradox

n. a ~ that + clause (it's a ~ that such good friends cannot

work together)

paradoxical

adj. ~ that + clause (it's ~ that we feel cold in warm weather)

parallel

I adj. ~ to, with

II n. 1. to draw a ~ between; with

2. to find ~s among, between

3. a striking ~

4. (misc.) without ~ (in history)

paralysis

n. 1. complete; creeping; partial ~

2. infantile ~

paramount

adj. ~ over

paranoid

adj. ~ about

paratroops

n. to commit, deploy; drop ~

parcel

n. 1. to deliver a ~

2. to address; mail (esp. AE), post (BE); send a ~

3. to get, receive a ~

4. to open, unwrap; wrap a ~

parcel out

v. (B) she ~ed out the work to us

pardon

I n. 1. to grant a ~

2. to beg smb.'s ~

3. a full ~

II v. (D; tr.) to ~ smb. for

pare down

v. (D; tr.) to ~ to (to ~ expenses to the minimum)

parent

n. 1. to obey one's ~s

2. a loving; permissive; unfit ~

3. an adoptive; foster; natural; single ~; stepparent

parentheses

n. (esp. AE; BE prefers brackets) 1. to put smt. in, into ~

2. between, in ~

parenthood

n. planned ~

parity

n. ['equality'] 1. to achieve, attain, establish ~

2. ~ among, between ['equivalence in value']

3. at ~

park

n. 1. to lay out a ~

2. an amusement; city; national; public; state ~

3. a caravan (BE), trailer (AE); theme ~

4. a car ~ (BE; AE has parking lot)

5. (BE) a coach ~

6. an industrial ~ (AE; BE has industrial estate)

parlay

v. (d; tr.) ('to convert') to ~ into (to ~ a small investment

into a fortune)

parley

I n. to hold a ~ with

II v. (D; intr.) to ~ with

parliament

n. 1. to convene, convoke (a) ~

2. to adjourn; disband, dissolve (a) ~

3. a bicameral; national; provincial; unicameral ~

4. a rump ~

5. a ~ adjourns; convenes, meets; disbands

6. a house of ~

7. in ~ (to sit in ~)

8. (misc.) to stand for (BE) ~; a member of ~ (in GB

abbreviated as MP) USAGE NOTE: In Great Britain, the Queen or

King opens (a session of) Parliament. After the State Opening,

Parliament is in session. Parliament sits until the session is

over and then it rises.

parlor, parlour

n. 1. a beauty; funeral; massage ~

2. a sun ~ (AE; BE has sun lounge) USAGE NOTE: The services

offered by a massage parlor are often sexual rather than

therapeutic.

parody

n. 1. to compose a ~

2. a ~ of.on

parole

I n. ['conditional release from prison'] 1. to grant a ~

2. to violate (one's) ~

3. early ~

4. on ~ (to release smb. on ~)

II v. (D; tr.) to ~ from (to ~ smb. from prison)

part

I n. ['share'] 1. to do one's ~ ['viewpoint, position']

2. for, on one's ~ (for my ~, I will say no more)

['participation']

3. to take ~ in

4. an active ~ ['role']

5. to play a ~ (to play the ~ of Hamlet)

6. to act; look the ~

7. to learn, memorize, study one's ~; to understudy a ~

8. a bit; leading, major; speaking; walk-on ~ (she had a bit ~

in the play) ['element, portion']

9. to spend a ~ of (they spent the major ~ of their life in

England)

10. an essential; important, significant; insignificant, minor,

small; large, major ~

11. the (a) better ('greater'); good ('large') ~ (the better ~

of an hour)

12. a component, constituent, integral ~

13. for the most ~ ('mostly')

14. in ~ ('partly'); (in great ~) ['component of a machine']

15. a defective ~

16. automobile (AE), motorcar (BE); spare ~s ['division']

17. in ~s (a story in five ~s) ['side']

18. to take smb.'s ~ (in a dispute)

19. (legal) of a ~ (the party of the first ~) ['dividing line

in hair'] (AE; BE has parting)

20. to make a ~ (in one's hair) ['physical organ']

21. the private ~s ['area']

22. a remote ~ (in a remote ~ of the country)

II v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ as (to ~ as friends)

2. (d; intr., tr.) to ~ from (the children were ~ed from their

parents)

3. (d; intr.) to ~ with (she hates to ~ with her money)

partake

v. (d; intr.) to ~ of (to ~ of food and drink)

partial

adj. (colloq.) ['fond of] (cannot stand alone) ~ to

participant

n. 1. an active; reluctant; willing ~

2. a ~ in

participate

v. 1. to ~ actively

2. (D; intr.) to ~ in

participation

n. 1. active ~

2. ~ in

participle

n. (grammar) an active; dangling (esp. AE), misrelated (BE);

passive; past; perfect; present ~

particle

n. 1. a dust; minute ~

2. (physics) an alpha; elementary; subatomic ~

particular

I adj. ~ about (~ about one's appearance)

II n. ['detail'] 1. in every ~; in all ~s ['misc.']

2. in ~ ('especially')

partition

v. (D; tr.) to ~ into (the area was ~ed into two countries)

partner

n. 1. an active; full; junior; senior ~

2. a silent (AE), sleeping (BE) ~

3. (boxing) a sparring ~

4. (misc.) a ~ in (~s in crime)

partnership

n. 1. to form a ~

2. to dissolve a ~

3. a ~ between

4. a ~ in

5. in ~ with

partridge

n. a covey of ~s

parts

n. (grammar) the principal ~ (of a verb)

party

I adj. ['participating'] ~ to (~ to an arrangement)

II n. ['social gathering'] 1. to arrange, give, have, throw;

host a ~ for

2. to attend; crash a ~

3. a birthday; Christmas; cocktail; coming-out; dinner;

farewell; garden; going-away; lavish; New Year's Eve; pajama,

slumber; singles; stag; surprise; tea ~

4. a ~ breaks up (the ~ broke up at midnight)

5. at a ~ (we had a good time at the ~) ['political

organization']

6. to establish, form a ~

7. to break up, disband, dissolve a ~

8. a centrist; communist; conservative; labor; left-wing;

liberal; majority; minority; political; populist; progressive;

radical; reactionary; right-wing; ruling; socialist; splinter ~;

the ~ in power ['participant'] ['litigant'] (legal)

9. an aggrieved; disinterested; innocent; third ~

10. the interested ~ties

11. a ~ to (a lawsuit)

12. (misc.) the ~ of the first, second part ['group sent on a

mission']

13. a boarding; landing; raiding; rescue; search; stretcher;

surveying ~

party line

n. 1. to follow, hew to the ~

2. to deviate from, veer from the ~

pass

I n. ['permission'] ['leave of absence'] 1. to issue a ~

2. to cancel, revoke a ~

3. a ~ to (we got a ~ to town)

4. on ~ (they are in the city on ~) ['flight']

5. to make a ~ (over a target) ['aggressive attempt to become

friendly']

6. to make a ~ (at smb.) ['transfer of a ball, puck']

7. to complete; throw a ~

8. to block; intercept a ~

9. (Am. football) a forward; incomplete; lateral; touchdown ~

['ticket']

10. a free ~

11. a ~ to (we got free ~es to the concert) ['misc.']

12. things came to a pretty ~ ('the situation became very

complicated')

II v. 1. (A) ('to hand') ('to throw') ~ the sugar to me; or: ~

me the sugar; my teammate ~ed the ball to me; or my teammate ~ed

me the ball

2. (D; intr.) to ~ as, for ('to be accepted as') (he can ~

as/for a Frenchman)

3. (d; intr.) to ~ between ('to be exchanged') (a significant

look ~ed between them)

4. (d; intr.) ('to shift') to ~ from; to (to ~ from one subject

to another)

5. (d; intr.) to ~ on, upon ('to judge') (to ~ on the merits of

a case)

6. (D; tr.) ('to deliver') to ~ on, upon (the judge ~ed

sentence on the accused; to ~ judgment on smb.)

7. (d; intr.) ('to go'); ('to fly') to ~ over (several planes

~ed over our house; to ~ over a bridge)

8. (d; intr.) to ~ over ('to disregard') (they ~ed over her

when promotions were handed out)

9. (d; intr.) ('to go') to ~ through (she was just ~ing through

town)

10. (d; tr.) ('to insert') to ~ through (he ~ed the cable

through the loop)

11. (s) to ~ unnoticed

12. (misc.) (BE) to be ~ed fit for service

III n. ['passage'] 1. to clear a ~

2. to block a ~

3. a mountain ~

4. a ~ between; over; through (a ~ through the mountains)

passage

n. ['accommodations'] 1. to book ~ (on a ship) ['section']

2. an obscure ~ (in a text) ['way, channel']

3. to clear; force a ~

4. a secret ~ ['channel in the body']

5. nasal ~s

6. (BE) the back ~ ('the rectum') ['transition']

7. a ~ from; to

8. (misc.) a rite of ~ ['trip']

9. an outward ~

passageway

n. a ~ between

pass along

v. (B) ~ the message along to the others

pass around

v. (B) ~ the chocolate around to the children

pass down

v. (B) to ~ a tradition down to the next generation

passenger

n. 1. to carry ~s (trains carry many ~s every day)

2. to pick up, take on ~s

3. to drop (off), leave off ~s

4. a first-class; second-class; steerage; tourist-class;

transit ~

5. a ~ for (~s for the next flight should go to the last gate)

passing

n. ['death'] 1. to mourn smb.'s ~ ['misc.']

2. in ~ ('incidentally')

passion

n. 1. to arouse, excite, inflame, stir up ~

2. to gratify, satisfy one's ~

3. to curb, restrain one's ~

4. animal, deep, frenzied, wild ~

5. ~s run high

6. a ~ for (a ~ for gambling)

7. (misc.) to fly into a ~; his eyes blazed with ~

pass off

v. (d; refl., tr.) to ~ as (he ~ed himself off as a doctor)

pass on

v. 1. (B) they ~ed the information on to us

2. (d; intr.) to ~ to (let's ~ to another topic)

pass out

v. (AE) (B) they ~ed the food out to all who came

passport

n. 1. to issue; renew a ~

2. to apply for a ~

3. to falsify, forge a ~

4. to revoke a ~

5. a diplomatic; Nansen ~

6. a ~ expires

7. (fig.) a ~ to (a ~ to happiness)

pass round

see pass around

password

n. to give the ~

past

n. ['time preceding the present'] 1. a checkered (AE),

chequered (BE); dark, murky ~

2. in the ~

3. (misc.) to recapture the ~

paste

n. to make, mix a ~

pastime

n. the national ~ (in America the national ~ is baseball)

pastry

n. 1. to bake, make ~

2. light; puff (BE) ~

3. (a) Danish ~

pat

I adj., adv. (colloq.) to stand ~ ('to refuse to change')

II n. to give smb. a ~ (on the back)

patch

n. ['piece of material used to cover a hole'] 1. to sew on a ~

['insignia']

2. a shoulder ~ ['plot of ground'] (esp. AE)

3. a cabbage; potato ~

patent

n. 1. to grant, issue a ~

2. to apply for; obtain, take out a ~

3. to hold a ~

4. to infringe a ~

5. ~ pending ('a patent has been applied for')

6. a ~ on (she took out a ~ on her invention)

paternity

n. to establish ~

path

n. 1. to beat, blaze, clear, make a ~ (to clear a ~ through a

jungle)

2. to cross smb.'s ~

3. a beaten ~

4. a bridle ~

5. a ~ goes, leads somewhere

6. a ~ to (the ~ to success)

7. (misc.) to lead smb. up the garden ~ ('to deceive smb.'); to

lead smb. down the primrose ~ ('to lead smb. in an ill-advised

search for pleasure')

pathetic

adj. 1. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ to watch her condition deteriorate

day by day)

2. ~ that + clause (it's ~ that he has sunk so low)

pathway

n. a ~ to

patience

n. ['quality of being patient'] 1. to display, show ~

2. to tax, try smb.'s ~

3. to lose one's ~; to run out of ~

4. endless, inexhaustible, infinite ~

5. one's ~ wears thin

6. ~ for; with (she has endless ~ with the children)

7. the ~ to + inf. (do you have the ~ to do this job?)

8. out of ~ with ['card game'] (BE)

9. to play ~ (AE has solitaire)

patient

I adj. ~ in; with

II n. 1. to cure; handle; treat a ~

2. to discharge a ~ (from a hospital)

3. an ambulatory; cardiac; comatose; hospital; mental; private

~

patriot

n. an ardent, fervent; sincere ~

patriotism

n. 1. to display, show ~

2. (an) ardent, fervent, strong; sincere ~

patrol

n. 1. a highway (AE), motorway (BE); military; police;

reconnaissance ~

2. (naval) a shore ~

3. on ~ (they are out on ~)

patron

n. 1. a regular, steady ~

2. (misc.) a ~ of the arts

patronage

n. political ~

patter

v. (d; intr.) to ~ against, on (the rain was ~ing on the

windows)

pattern

I n. 1. to establish, set a ~

2. an intricate; overall; underlying ~

3. a holding; traffic ~ (our plane was in a holding ~)

4. (ling.) an intonation; speech ~

5. a behavior; personality ~

II v. (d; tr.) to ~ after, on, upon (we ~ed our road system on

theirs)

pause

n. ['temporary stop'] 1. an awkward; long, prolonged;

pregnant; short ~

2. a ~ in ['reason or cause for hesitating']

3. to give smb. ~

pavement

n. ['paved surface'] 1. to tear up the ~ (in order to lay

pipes)

2. the ~ buckles

3. (misc.) to pound the ~ ('to walk about aimlessly or with

determination') USAGE NOTE: In BE, pavement also means

'sidewalk'.

pawn

n. a helpless ~

pay

I n. 1. to draw, receive ~

2. back; equal; incentive; mustering-out (mil.); overtime;

severance (AE; BE has redundancy payment); retroactive; sick;

strike; take-home ~

3. ~ for (equal ~ for equal work)

4. in smb.'s ~ (he was in the ~ of the enemy)

II v. 1. to ~ handsomely, highly, well

2. (A) she paid the money to me; or: she paid me the money

3. (D; intr.) to ~ by (to ~ by check)

4. (D; intr., tr.) to ~ for (have you paid for the book? I paid

ten dollars for this record)

5. (D; intr., tr.) to ~ into (we have been ~ing into a pension

fund; the money was paid into her account)

6. (d; intr., tr.) to ~ out of (she paid out of her own pocket)

7. (E) it doesn't ~ to economize on essentials

8. (H) he paid us to watch his house

payable

adj. 1. ~ to

2. (misc.) ~ at sight; ~ on demand

pay back

v. 1. (B) we must pay the money back to her

2. (D; tr.) to ~ for (she paid me back for the tickets)

paycheck

n. a monthly; weekly ~

pay dirt

n. (colloq.) (AE) ['success'] to hit, strike

payment

n. 1. to make (a) ~

2. to stop ~ (of, on a check)

3. to suspend ~s

4. a cash; down ('initial'); redundancy (BE; AE has severance

pay); token ~

5. (a) ~ for, on

6. in full ~ (of a bill)

payoff

n. to make a ~

pay out

v. (B) the benefits have been paid out to the workers

payroll

n. 1. to meet (esp. AE) a ~

2. a monthly; weekly ~

peace

n. 1. to achieve, bring about ~

2. to make ~ with

3. to negotiate (a) ~ with

4. to impose a ~ on

5. to keep the ~

6. to break, disturb, shatter the ~

7. a durable, lasting, permanent; fragile ~

8. ~ reigns

9. at ~ with (we were at ~ with our neighbors)

10. in ~ (to live in ~)

11. (misc.) a breach of the ~; ~ and quiet; a ~ march

peacetime

n. in ~

peacock

n. (misc.) as proud as a ~

peak

n. 1. to reach a ~

2. to scale the ~ (of a mountain)

3. at the ~ (at the ~ of her success)

pearls

n. 1. to string ~

2. cultured; imitation; natural ~

3. a string of ~

peas

n. 1. split ~

2. (misc.) as like as two ~ in a pod

peck

v. (d;intr.)to ~ at(to~ at one's food)

pecker

n. (colloq.) (BE) ['spirits'] ['courage'] to keep one's ~ up

peculiar

adj. 1. ~ to

2. ~ that + inf. (it's ~ that he never answers his phone)

pedal

n. 1. to depress, step on a ~

2. a brake; clutch; gas (AE) ~

peddler, pedlar

n. an influence; itinerant; smut ~

pedestal

n. on a ~ ('held in high esteem')

peek

I n. to take a ~

II v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ at; through (to ~ at smt. through a

window)

2. (d; intr.) to ~ into (to ~ into the files)

3. (d; intr.) to ~ under (to ~ under the bed)

peek in

v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ at

2. (misc.) she ~ed in from behind the bushes

peek out

v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ at

2. (D; intr.) to ~ from behind (to ~ from behind the shades)

3. (D; intr.) to ~ from under (to ~ from under the bed)

peel

I n. a banana; lemon; potato ~ (see the Usage Note for rind)

II v. (C) ~ a banana for me; or: ~ me a banana

peep

I n. ['sound'] 1. to let out a ~

2. a ~ out of (we didn't hear a ~ out of him)

II v. ('to look') 1.(D; intr.) to ~ at; through (to ~ at smb.

through a keyhole)

2. (d; intr.) to ~ into (to ~ into smb.'s dossier)

3. (d; intr.) to ~ under (to ~ under the bed)

peep out

v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ at

2. (D; intr.) to ~ from behind (to ~ from behind the blinds)

3. (D;

intr.) to ~ from under (to ~ from under the bed)

peer

v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ at; through (to ~ at smb. through a

window)

2. (d; intr.) to ~ into (to ~ into smb.'s eyes)

peerage

n. (GB) to raise smb. to the ~

peer out

v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ at

2. (D; intr.) to ~ from behind (to ~ from behind the curtains)

3. (D; intr.) to ~ from under (to ~ from under a car)

peeve

n. one's pet ~

peevish

adj. ['irritable'] ~ about

peg

n. ['degree, step'] (fig.) to come down a ~; to bring smb.

down a ~

pelt

v. (d; tr.) to ~ with (to ~ smb. with rocks)

pelt down

v. (D; intr.) to ~ on (the rain ~ed down on the roof)

pen

I n. ['enclosure'] 1. a pig ~ ['dock']

2. a submarine ~

II n. ['device for writing'] 1. a ballpoint; felt-tip (AE),

fibre-tip (BE); flair; fountain ~

2. (misc.) with a stroke of the ~, the new law was enacted

penalize

v. (D;tr.) to ~ for

penalty

n. 1. to impose, mete out a ~

2. to pay a ~ (to pay the full ~ for one's mistakes)

3. to rescind a ~

4. a light, mild; maximum; minimum; severe, stiff, strict ~

5. the death ~

6. a ~ for

7. on, under ~ (of death)

penance

n. to do, perform ~ for

penchant

n. a ~ for

pencil

n. 1. an indelible; lead ~

2. a cosmetic, eyebrow ~

3. a styptic ~

pendulum

n. 1. to swing a ~

2. a ~ swings

penetrate

v. 1. to ~ deeply

2. (D; intr.) to ~ into (our troops ~d deeply into enemy lines)

penetration

n. 1. a deep ~

2. (mil.) a ~ in depth

penicillin

n. 1. oral ~

2. an injection, jab (BE; colloq.), shot of ~

penitence

n. true ~ for

penitent

adj. ~ for

pen name

n. under a ~ (to write under a ~)

pennant

n. ['baseball championship'] (AE) to lose; win the ~

penny

n. 1. to pinch ~nies ('to be frugal')

2. (misc.) a pretty ~ ('a large sum of money'); (BE; colloq.)

the ~ drops ('somebody finally under-stands'); (BE; colloq.) to

spend a ~ ('to use a toilet')

pension

n. 1. to award, grant a ~

2. to draw, receive a ~

3. to revoke a ~

4. a disability; old-age; survivor's ~

5. on a ~ (to live on a ~; to retire on a ~)

6. (misc.) a ~ plan

people

n. 1. average, common, plain; working ~

2. old; young ~

3. the chosen ~

4. boat ~ ('destitute refugees traveling in boats')

5. city; country; little, ordinary; primitive ~

pepper

I n. ['spice'] 1. black; hot; red; white ~

2. a dash of ~ ['vegetable']

3. (a) green; red; sweet ~

4. stuffed ~s

II v. (d; tr.) ('to shower') to ~ with (she was ~ed with

questions)

pepper away

v. (D; intr.) to ~ at

pep talk

n. to give a ~ (the coach gave the team a ~)

perceive

v. (formal) 1. (d; tr.) to ~ as (I ~d her statement as a threat)

2. (L) we ~d that the situation was critical

percentage

n. ['profit'] (colloq.) ~ in (there is no ~ in investing more

money)

perceptible

adj. 1. barely ~

2. ~ to

perception

n. 1. to have a ~

2. clear; keen ~

3. color; depth; extrasensory ~

4. the ~ that + clause (events confirmed our ~ that she had

been treated unfairly)

perceptive

adj. 1. ~ of (that observation was very ~ of her)

2. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ of them to grasp our meaning)

perceptiveness

n. the ~ to + inf. (she had the ~ to know what would happen)

perch

I n. a high ~

II v. (P; intr.) the birds ~ed on the wire

per diem

n. ['daily allowance for expenses'] 1. to pay (a) ~

2. to receive (a) ~

perfect

I adj. ~ for (she would be ~ for the job)

II n. (grammar) the future; past; present

perfection

n. 1. to achieve, attain ~

2. the acme of ~

3. to ~ (cooked to ~)

perfidy

n. (formal) an act of ~

perform

v. to ~ live

performance

n. ['act of performing'] 1. to deliver, give, put on a ~

2. a breathtaking, inspired, superb; listless; uneven ~

3. a benefit; command; gala; live; repeat; request ~

['functioning of a machine']

4. engine ~

performer

n. a star ~

perfume

n. 1. to dab on, put on, spray on; use ~

2. to reek of (derog.); smell of ~

3. (a) strong ~

peril

n. 1. to face a ~

2. to avert a ~

3. at one's ~

4. in ~ (our lives were in ~)

perimeter

n. ['boundary'] 1. (mil.) to guard a ~

2. on a ~

period

n. ['portion of time'] 1. a cooling-off; incubation;

prehistoric; question-and-answer; rest; transitional; trial;

waiting ~

2. (sports) an extra ~

3. for a ~

4. in a certain ~ (in that ~ of history) ['menstruation']

5. to have a ~

6. a monthly ~ ['punctuation mark'] (esp. AE; BE prefers full

stop)

7. to place, put a ~ (at the end of a sentence)

periodical

n. 1. a current ~ (where does the library keep current ~s?)

2. bound ~s

peripheral

adj. ~ to

periphery

n. on the ~

periscope

n. 1. to lower; raise a ~

2. (as commands) ~ down; ~ up

perish

v. (formal) 1. (D; intr.) to ~ by (to ~ by the sword)

2. (D; intr.) to ~ from, of (to ~ from disease)

perjury

n. to commit ~

perm

n. ['permanent wave'] 1. to give smb. a ~

2. to get a ~

permeated

adj. (cannot stand alone) ~ with (~ with idealism)

permissible

adj. ~ to + inf. (it is not ~ to smoke in the library)

permission

n. 1. to give, grant ~

2. planning ~ (BE; AE has building permit)

3. ~ to + inf. (we had ~ to leave early)

permit

I n. 1. to grant, give a ~

2. to cancel, rescind, revoke a ~

3. a building (AE; BE has planning permission); work ~

II v. 1. (H) they ~ted her to leave

2. (K) who ~ted their leaving early?

pernickety

(esp. BE) see persnickety

perpendicular

adj. ~ to

perpetuity

n. in ~ ('forever')

perplex

v. (R) it ~ed me to learn of his decision; it ~ed me that they

refused the offer

perplexed

adj. 1. ~ about, at, by, over

2. ~ to + inf. (we were ~ to learn of your decision)

perplexing

adj. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ to read so many contradictory

accounts of the incident)

persecute

v. (D; tr.) to ~ for (they were ~d for their religious beliefs)

persecution

n. 1. to suffer ~

2. bloody; relentless ~

3. political; racial; religious ~

perseverance

n. 1. to display ~

2. ~ at, in

3. the ~ to + inf. (she had enough ~ to finish)

persevere

v. (D; intr.) to ~ at, in

persist

v. (D; intr.) to ~ in (to ~ in doing smt.)

persistence

n. 1. to display, show ~

2. dogged ~

3. ~ in

4. the ~ to + inf. (will you have the ~ to stick it out?)

persistent

adj. 1. doggedly ~

2. ~ in

persnickety

adj. (colloq.) (esp. AE) ['fussy'] ~ about

person

n. 1. a juridical; real ~

2. a displaced; missing ~

3. (legal) a ~ aggrieved

4. (grammar) the first; second; third ~

5. in ~ (to appear in ~)

personal history

n. to record, take down smb.'s ~

personality

n. ['noted person'] 1. a celebrated ~ ['behavioral

characteristics']

2. a charismatic, charming; dynamic, forceful, magnetic,

striking, strong ~

3. a dual, split; multiple ~ ['misc.']

4. to indulge in ~ties ('to make impolite remarks about

people')

personnel

n. enlisted (AE; BE has other ranks); government; indigenous;

military; qualified ~

perspective

n. 1. to put smt. into ~

2. the proper, right, true; wrong ~

3. from a ~ (to view a situation from a new ~)

4. in ~ (to look at, see smt. in ~)

perspicacity

n. the ~ to + inf. (she had enough ~ to see through their

schemes)

perspiration

n. 1. profuse ~

2. beads of ~ (ran down my face)

perspire

v. to ~ profusely

persuade

v. 1. (D; tr.) to ~ of (we had to ~ them of the need to evacuate

their house)

2. (H) we ~d them to leave

3. (L; must have an object) we ~d her that it would be best to

wait

persuasion

n. 1. friendly ~

2. (humorous) religious ~ (what is their religious ~?)

persuasiveness

n. the ~ to + inf. (she has enough ~ to convince anyone)

pertain

v. (d; intr.) to ~ to (these facts ~ to the case)

pertaining

adj. (cannot stand alone) ~ to

pertinent

adj. 1. ~ to

2. ~ to + inf. (is it ~ to cite those facts?)

perturb

v. (R) it ~ed me (to learn) that she was late again

perturbed

adj. 1. ~ about, at, by, over

2. ~ to + inf. (we were ~ to learn of the bad news from the

front)

perturbing

adj. ~ to + inf. (it's ~ to read such distortions of fact in the

press)

pervaded

adj. (cannot stand alone) ~ with (~ with cynicism)

perverse

adj. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ to behave like that)

perversion

n. sexual ~

pervert

n. asexual ~

pessimism

n. 1. to display ~

2. to overcome ~

3. ~ about, at, over

pessimistic

adj. ~ about, at, over

pester

v. 1. (D; tr.) to ~ about, for (he kept ~ing me for his money)

2. (D; tr.) to ~ into (they ~ed me into going)

3. (H) they kept ~ing me to buy a new car

pet

n. 1. a household ~

2. a teacher's ~

3. (misc.) a ~ animal

petition

I n. 1. to circulate; file, present a ~

2. to grant a ~

3. to withdraw a ~

4. to deny, reject a ~

5. a ~ about; against; for

II v. 1. (D; intr., tr.) to ~ for (to ~ for a new trial; they

~ed the government for tax relief)

2. (H) we have ~ed city council to provide more teachers

3. (formal) (L; subj.) they ~ed that the case be/should be

retried

petrol

(BE) see gasoline

petting

n. heavy ~ (old-fashioned)

petty

adj. ~ to + inf. (it was ~ of him to do that)

phalanx

n. ['formation'] to form a (solid) ~

pharmacy

n. 1. a hospital ~

2. at, in a ~ (she works down at the ~)

phase

n. 1. to begin, enter a ~

2. to go through a ~

3. a closing, final; critical, crucial; initial, new, opening ~

(the war was entering its final ~)

phenomenon

n. 1. an isolated ~

2. a natural ~

philander

v. (D; intr.) to ~ with

philosophy

n. ['belief] ~ that + clause (it was her ~ that people should

help each other)

phone

see telephone

phoneme

n. (ling.) an independent, separate ~

phooey

interjection (expresses disgust) ~ on!

photo

see photograph

photocopy

n. to make a ~

photofinish

n. (to end) in a ~

photograph

I n. 1. to take a ~

2. to develop; touch up a ~

3. to blow up, enlarge a ~

4. to mount a ~

5. an aerial; family; group; still ~

6. (misc.) to pose for a ~

II v. (P; intr.) she ~s well

photography

n. color; still; trick ~

phrase

n. 1. to coin; turn a ~

2. a colloquial; empty; glib; hackneyed, trite; well-turned ~

3. (grammar) a noun; participial; prepositional; verb

physical, physical examinaton

n. 1. to do a ~

2. to get, have a ~

physician

n. 1. an attending; family; house; practicing ~

2. an allopathic; homeopathic; osteopathic ~

physics

n. classical, Newtonian; high-energy, particle; nuclear; solid-

state; theoretical ~

physique

n. a burly, muscular, powerful ~

pianist

n. a concert ~

piano

n. 1. to play the ~

2. to tune a ~

3. a baby grand; grand; upright ~

4. (misc.) a ~ is in tune or out of tune

piazza

n. ['open square'] on a ~

pick

I n. ['tool for breaking'] an ice ~

II n. (colloq.) ['selection'] to take one's ~

III v. 1. (C) ('to select') ~ a nice melon for me; or: ~ me a

nice melon

2. (d; intr.) to ~ at ('to eat sparingly') (to ~ at one's food)

3. (D; tr.) ('to select') to ~ from, out of (she ~ed this album

from our record library)

4. (colloq.) (d; intr.) to ~ on ('to find fault with') (she's

always ~ing on me)

5. (H) ('to select') they ~ed me to serve as secretary

6. (N; used with an adjective) the animals ~ed the carcass

clean

picketing

n. informational ~ (esp. AE); mass ~

pickings

n. (colloq.) ['choice'] lean, slim ~

pickle

n. 1. a dill; sour; sweet ~

2. (BE) mustard ~; ~s and chutney

3. (misc.) in a ~ ('in trouble') USAGE NOTE: In the United

States, a pickle is a pickled cucumber. In Great Britain, the

typical pickle is a thick sauce of pickled vegetables.

pick out

v. 1. (C) ~ a nice melon for me; or: ~ me out a nice melon

2. (D; tr.) ('to select') to ~ for (we must ~ the best

candidate for the job)

3. (H) I ~ed out a nice tie to go with this shirt

pick up

v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ after ('to clean up for') (I was always

~ing up after them)

2. (slang) (d; intr.) to ~ on ('to continue'); ('to become

aware of)

picnic

n. ['outing with a meal'] 1. to go on, have a ~ ['picnic

meal'] (BE)

2. to make; pack a ~ ['pleasure'] (colloq.)

3. a ~ to + inf. (it's no ~ to work there = it's no ~ working

there)

picture

I n. ['photograph'] 1. to snap, take a ~ ['drawing, image,

painting']

2. to draw; paint; retouch a ~

3. to frame; hang a ~

4. (BE) an Identikit (T) ~

5. in a ~ (did you see the animals in the ~?)

6. (misc.) as pretty as a ~ ['film']

7. a motion (AE), moving (esp. AE) ~

8. in a ~ (who played in that ~?)

9. (esp. BE) to go to the ~s ['description']

10. to draw, paint a ~

11. a clear; detailed;

gloomy; realistic ~

12. (misc.) (colloq.) to get the ~ ('to comprehend the

situation')

II v. 1. (d; tr.) to ~ as (I cannot ~ her as an actress)

2. (J) can you ~ them leading a demonstration?

pie

n. 1. to bake a ~

2. an apple; blueberry; cherry; lemon-meringue; meat; mince;

pecan; pumpkin; shepherd's ~

3. a piece, slice, wedge of ~

4. (misc.) as easy as ~

piece

n. ['figure used in a game'] 1. chess ~s ['coin']

2. a fifty-cent; gold; ten-cent ~ ['an artistic work']

3. a collector's ~ (BE; CE has collector's item)

4. a conversation ~

5. a ~ of music ['unit']

6. by the ~ ['fragment']

7. to break into ~s (the vase fell and broke into small ~s; she

broke the dish into ~s) ['misc.']

8. to go to ~s ('to fall apart'); a solid ~ of work ('high-

quality work'); to give smb. a ~ of one's mind ('to tell smb.

brusquely what one thinks'); to speak one's ~ ('to state one's

opinion frankly'); a ~ of news; (BE; colloq.) a nasty ~ of work

('a nasty person'); to pick a theory to ~s ('to disprove a

theory')

piecemeal

adv. to do smt. ~

piecework

n. to do ~

pier

n. at, on a ~ (to meet smb. at the ~)

pig

n. ['swine'] 1. a sucking (BE), suckling (AE) ~

2. ~s grunt, oink, squeal

3. a young ~ is a piglet

4. a female ~ is a sow

5. a male ~ is a boar ['glutton'] (colloq.)

6. to make a ~ of oneself ['misc.']

7. as fat as a ~; a male chauvinist ~; to buy a ~ in a poke

('to buy, accept smt. with no previous inspection')

pigeon

n. 1. a carrier, homing ~

2. a clay ~

3. ~s coo

piggyback

adv. to carry smb. ~ ('to carry smb. on one's shoulders')

pigheaded

adj. ~ of (that was ~ of him)

pig out

v. (slang) (AE) (D; intr.) to ~ on (to ~ on ice cream)

pigtails

n. in ~ (little girls in ~)

pile

I n. ['concrete post'] to sink a ~

II n. ['soft raised surface on a rug'] shaggy; smooth; soft;

thick ~

III n. ['fortune'] 1. to make a ~ ['reactor']

2. an atomic ~

IV v. (P; intr.) ('to crowd') the children ~d into the car

pilfer

v. (D; tr.) to ~ from

pilgrimage

n. 1. to go on, make a ~

2. a ~ to (they went on a ~ to Jerusalem)

3. on a ~

pill

n. ['tablet of medicine'] 1. to swallow, take a ~

2. (colloq.) to pop ~s

3. a headache; sleeping ~ ['oral contraceptive']

4. to take the ~

5. to be on the ~ ['misc.']

6. it was a bitter ~ to swallow ('it was very difficult to

experience failure')

pillbox

n. to storm; take a ~

pillow

n. to fluff up a ~

pilot

n. ['person who flies aircraft'] 1. an air ~ force; airline,

commercial; fighter; glider; helicopter; kamikaze; licensed;

test ~ ['person who guides ships into and out of a port']

2. to drop; take on the ~

3. a harbor ~ ['device for steering']

4. an automatic ~

pin

I n. ['metal fastener']!, a safety; straight ~

2. abobby ~ (AE;BE has hairgrip)

3. a drawing ~ (BE; AE has thumbtack)

4. a ~ pricks

5. (misc.) the head of a ~ ['tube-shaped piece of wood']

6. a rolling ~ ['target in bowling']

7. to spot ('place') ~s

II v. 1. (D;tr.) ('to trap') to ~ against (~ned against the

wall)

2. (D; tr.) ('to trap') to ~ beneath, underneath (he was ~ned

beneath the car)

3. (d; tr.) ('to place') to ~ on (we ~ned our hopes on her)

4. (d; tr.) to ~ to (her arms were ~ned to her sides)

pinball machine

n. (BE also has pintable) to play; tilt a ~

pincers

n. a pair of ~

pinch

I n. ['painful squeeze'] 1. to give smb. a ~ ['emergency']

(colloq.)

2. at (BE), in (esp. AE) a ~ ['arrest'] (colloq.)

3. to make a ~

II v. (colloq.) (D;tr.) ('to arrest') to ~ for (~ed for

speeding)

pinch-hit

v. (AE) (from baseball) (D; intr.) to ~ for ('to replace')

pine

v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ after, for (to ~ for home)

2. (E) they were ~ing to return home

pink

n. (colloq.) ['good health'] in the ~ (of condition)

pinnacle

n. 1. to reach a ~ (to reach the ~ of one's power)

2. at a ~ (at the ~ of one's success)

pintable

(BE) see machines

pipe

I n. ['device for smoking'] 1. to light a ~

2. to puff on, smoke a ~

3. to fill one's ~

4. a peace ~ ['long tube']

5. a drain; exhaust; overflow; water

II v. (D; tr.) to ~ from; into, to (to ~ water from a stream to

a house)

pipeline

n. in a ~ (also fig.)

pique

n. a fit of ~

piracy

n. 1. to commit ~

2. air; literary ~; ~ on the high seas

3. an act of ~

pistol

n. 1. to cock; fire a ~

2. to aim, point; level a ~ at

3. to load a ~

4. to draw, whip out a ~

5. an automatic; dueling; starting; toy; water ~

6. the ~ fired, went off; jammed; misfired

pit

I n. an orchestra ~

II v. (d; tr.) to ~ against (we were ~ted against a formidable

opponent)

pitch

I n. ['high-pressure sales talk'] (colloq.) 1. to deliver a ~

2. a sales ~ ['blade angle']

3. a propeller ~

4. reverse ~ ['intensity']

5. a fever; high; low ~ (to reach a fever ~) ['throw of a

baseball'] (esp. AE)

6. to throw a ~

7. an underhand; wild ~ (to uncork a wild ~)

II v. 1. (A) ('to throw') ~ the ball to me; or: ~ me the ball

2. (d; intr.) to ~ into ('to begin to work together

enthusiastically') (let's all ~ into this job)

pitfall

n. 1. to avoid a ~

2. a hidden ~

pitiful

adj. ~ to + inf. (it's ~ to see such suffering)

pittance

n. (formal) a mere, small ~

pity

n. 1. to arouse ~

2. to feel; show ~

3. to have, take ~ on smb.

4. ~ for

5. a ~ to + inf. (it's a ~ to see what has happened)

6. a ~ that + clause (it's a ~ that the meeting was canceled)

7. out of ~ (he agreed out of ~ for her children)

8. (misc.) for ~'s sake; a sense of ~

pivot

v. (D; intr.) to ~ on (the dancer ~ed on the ball of her foot;

the future ~s on what we decide now)

placard

n. to carry a ~

place

I n. ['space occupied at a table'] 1. to lay (BE), set (esp.

AE) a ~ for smb. ['position']

2. to take smb.'s ~

3. to trade ~s

4. (misc.) to know one's ~ (in life); to give up one's ~ in

line/in a queue; to occupy a prominent ~ in world literature

['point in space']

5. a meeting ~

6. at, in a ~ (at the same old ~) ['dwelling']

7. at smb.'s ~ (let's meet at your ~) ['appropriate

position']

8. in; out of ~ (everything was in ~) ['seat']

9. to take one's ~ (they took their ~s) ['standing in a

competition']

10. to take a ~ (she took second ~ in the competition)

11. a ~ goes to (first ~ went to Smith) ['duty, function']

12. one's ~ to + inf. (it's not my ~ to criticize them)

['stage'] ['step']

13. in a ~ (in the first ~) ['misc.']

14. to take ~ ('to happen'); to go ~s ('to be successful'); all

over the ~ ('everywhere'); in ~ of ('instead of)

II v. 1. (d; tr.) ('to put') to ~ above (to ~ one's family above

all other concerns)

2. (d; tr.) ('to put') to ~ at (she ~d her car at our disposal)

3. (d; tr.) ('to present') to ~ before (to ~ evidence before a

grand jury)

4. (d; tr.) ('to put') to ~ in (to ~ one's confidence in smb.)

5. (D; tr.) to ~ with ('to find a home for') (to ~ a child with

a family)

6. (P; tr.) ('to put') to ~ books on a table)

placebo

n. 1. to administer, give a ~

2. (misc.) a ~ effect

plagiarism

n. to be guilty of ~

plague

n. 1. bubonic ~

2. a ~ spreads

3. (misc.) to avoid smb. like the ~

plain

I adj. 1. ~ to (the truth is ~ to everybody)

2. ~ to + inf. (the facts are ~ to see)

3. ~ that + clause (it's ~ to everyone that she will never

return)

4. (misc.) as ~ as day; or: as ~ as the nose on your face

II n. 1. a broad; coastal ~

2. on a ~

plain clothes

n. in ~ (the police officer was in ~)

plan

I n. 1. to concoct, devise a ~

2. to draw up, formulate, map out a ~

3. to make ~s

4. to outline; unveil a ~

5. to accept; carry out, execute, implement a ~; to put a ~

into operation

6. to present, propose a ~

7. to foil, frustrate, thwart; reject; shelve a ~

8. a brilliant, ingenious; complicated, elaborate; feasible;

grandiose, sweeping; impracticable; impractical; realistic;

secret; well-laid, well-thought-out ~

9. a contingency; five-year; long-term; master; security; short-

term ~

10. (on) the installment ~ (AE; BE has hire-purchase)

11. a flight; floor ~

12. a health ~ ('health insurance'); a pension, retirement ~

13. an easy-payment ~

14. a ~ calls for (smt.)

15. ~s materialize

16. a ~ for

17. a ~ to + inf. (the mayor had a ~ to reduce traffic

congestion)

II v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ for (to ~ for one's old age)

2. (d; intr.) to ~ on (to ~ on early retirement)

3. (E) we ~ to visit them soon

4. (Q) they ~ned very carefully how they would accomplish their

mission

plane

I n. see airplane

II n. 1. an inclined ~

2. on a lofty ~

III v. (N; used with an adjective) to ~ a board smooth

plank

n. ['board extending from a ship'] to walk the ~ ('to go to

one's death') (see the Usage Note for platform)

planning

n. 1. grandiose; long-range, long-term; short-range, short-term

~

2. city; discharge; family ~

plan on

v. (G) we ~ned on spending a month in Europe

plant

I n. ['shrub, bush'] 1. to grow ~s

2. to water a ~

3. an annual; biennial; climbing; decorative; exotic;

perennial; tropical ~

4. a ~ grows ['factory'] ['utility']

5. to manage, operate, run a ~

6. a power ~ ['buildings'] ['equipment']

7. (the) physical ~ (of an institution)

II v. 1. (D; tr.) to ~ with (to ~ a field with rye)

2. (misc.) to ~ an idea in smb.'s head

plantation

n. a coffee; cotton; rubber; sugar; tea

plaque

n. ['filmy deposit on teeth'] 1. to remove ~ (from teeth)

2. dental ~

3. ~ accumulates, builds up ['tablet']

4. to put up a ~ (in smb.'s honor)

5. a memorial ~

plaster

n. ['pasty composition'] 1. to apply ~ (to apply ~ to a wall)

2. to daub ~ (to daub ~ on a wall)

3. crumbling, falling ~

4. ~ comes off, falls off (a wall) ['pastelike mixture used

for healing purposes']

5. a mustard ~ ['tape']

6. (BE) (a) sticking ~

plastic

n. laminated ~

plate

n. ['dish'] 1. a cake; dinner; salad; soup ~ ['denture']

2. a dental; lower; upper ~ ['tag']

3. a license (AE), number (BE) ~ ['thin layer']

4. armor; silver ~ ['container passed around for donations of

money']

5. to pass the ~

6. a collection ~

plateau

n. 1. a high ~

2. (misc.) to reach a ~ ('to cease making progress')

platform

n. ['raised stage'] 1. to mount ('ascend') a ~

2. from a ~ (to speak from a ~)

3. a launching ~ ['statement of policies'] (esp. AE; BE

prefers manifesto)

4. to draft, draw up a ~

5. to adopt a ~

6. a party; political ~ USAGE NOTE: A political platform

consists of various statements that are called planks.

platitude

n. 1. to mouth, utter a ~ (he's always mouthing ~s)

2. in ~s (to speak in ~s)

platoon

n. 1. to form a ~

2. to deploy a ~

plaudits

n. to earn, receive, win ~

plausible

adj. 1. ~ to + inf. (it is ~ to assume that they will not accept

our invitation)

2. ~ that + clause (it's ~ that most of the voters will not

support this referendum)

play

I n. ['stage presentation'] 1. to present, produce, put on,

stage; revive; write a ~

2. to perform; rehearse a ~

3. to review a ~

4. to criticize, pan (colloq.-) a ~

5. a miracle; morality; mystery; nativity; one-act; passion ~

6. a ~ closes; opens; runs (the ~ ran for two years on

Broadway)

7. (misc.) the ~ got rave reviews ['action, activity']

8. to bring into ~ (to bring various factors into ~)

9. to come into ~ ['competition, playing']

10. fair; foul; rough; team ~

11. in; into; out of ~ (to put the ball into ~) ['attempt to

attract'] (colloq.) (esp. AE)

12. to make a ~ for (he made a ~ for her) ['misc.']

13. a ~ on words ('a pun')

II v. 1. ('to compete') to ~ fair; foul; rough

2. (C) ('to perform') ~ a nice song for me; or: ~ me a nice

song

3. (d; intr.) ('to compete') to ~ against (to ~ against a

strong opponent)

4. (d; intr.) ('to gamble') to ~ for (to ~ for money)

5. (d; intr.) ('to perform') to ~ for (she ~s for our team)

6. (d; intr.) to ~ for ('to attempt to obtain') (to ~ for time)

7. (d; intr.) to ~ on, upon ('to exploit') (to ~ on smb.'s

fears)

8. (d; intr.) to ~ on ('to pun') (to ~ on words)

9. (D; tr.) ('to do, make') to ~ on (they ~ed a joke on us; she

~ed a trick on me)

10. (d; intr.) ('to perform') to ~ to (to ~ to a full house)

11. (esp. tennis) (d; intr.) ('to direct one's strokes') to ~

to (to ~ to an opponent's forehand)

12. (D; intr.) ('to amuse oneself) to ~ with (to ~ with

matches)

13. (L) (esp. in children's language) ('to pretend') let's ~

that I'm the teacher and you're the pupil

14. (0; can be used with one object) ('to oppose in') I'll ~

you a game of cards

15. (s) ('to feign') they ~ed dead

16. (misc.) to ~ smb. for a fool ('to ridicule smb.')

play about

(BE) see play around

play around

v. (D; intr.) to ~ with

play back

v. (B) she ~ed the tape back to us

player

n. ['athlete'] 1. a clean; dirty ~

2. a key ~ ['electronic instrument']

3. a record ~

playgoer

n. a habitual ~

playground

n. 1. (BE) an adventure ~ ('children's playground designed for

spontaneous play')

2. a city, public ~

playing

n. clean; dirty ~

play off

v. (d;tr.) to ~ against ('to set against') (to ~ one side off

against the other)

play up

v. (d; intr.) to ~ to ('to flatter') (to ~ to the boss)

plea

n. 1. to enter, make, put forward a ~

2. to answer, respond to a ~

3. to deny, reject a ~

4. (slang) to cop a ~ ('to plead guilty to a lesser charge')

5. an ardent, fervent, impassioned, moving, passionate; urgent

~

6. (to enter) a guilty ~; (to enter) a ~ of not guilty; more

usu. is: to plead guilty; to plead not guilty

7. a ~ for (a ~ for mercy)

8. (misc.) ~ bargaining

plead

v. 1. to ~ fervently

2. (D; intr.) to ~ for; with (to ~ with the judge for mercy)

3. (legal) to ~ guilty (to a charge)

4. (legal) to ~ not guilty (to a charge)

pleasant

adj. ~ to + inf. (it's ~ to lie in the sun = it's ~ lying in the

sun; she is ~ to work with = it is ~ to work with her = it is ~

working with her = she is a ~ person to work with)

please

v. 1. to ~ greatly, highly

2. (R) it ~d us to learn of your success; it ~d us greatly that

you could accept our invitation

pleased

adj. 1. greatly, highly ~

2. ~ about, at, by, with

3. ~ to + inf. (we are ~ to be here; I am ~ to meet you)

4. ~ that + clause (she was ~ that the proposal had been

accepted)

pleasure

n. 1. to afford, give ~ (it gives me great ~ to present the next

speaker)

2. to feel; find, take ~ in

3. to derive ~ from

4. to forgo a ~

5. a genuine, real; rare ~

6. a ~ to + inf. (it's a ~ to work with them = it's a ~ working

with them = they are a ~ to work with; it is a ~ to teach these

children = it is a ~ teaching these children = these children

are a ~ to teach)

plebiscite

n. 1. to conduct, hold a ~

2. a ~ to + inf. (a ~ to determine the status of a territory)

pledge

In. 1. to make, take a ~

2. to give smb. one's ~

3. to honor, redeem one's ~

4. a solemn ~

5. a campaign ~

6. a ~ to + inf. (she made a solemn ~ to contribute fifty

pounds)

7. a ~ that + clause (he took a ~ that he would stop smoking)

8. (misc.) to take the ~ ('to vow to stop drinking')

II v. 1. (A) she ~d her support to us; or: she ~d us her support

2. (D; tr.) to ~ to (she was ~d to secrecy)

3. (E) they ~d to return

4. (L) he ~d that he would repay the debt within a month

plenty

determiner, n., pronoun 1. ~ of (~ of money)

2. ~ to + inf. (she gave us ~ to do)

3. (formal) in ~ (to live in ~)

4. (formal) of ~ (a time of ~)

pliers

n. a pair of ~

plod

v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ through ('to go through laboriously') (to

~ through a long reading list)

2. (P; intr.) ('to move') they ~ded slowly along the road

plot

I n. ['conspiracy'] 1. to devise, hatch; weave a ~

2. to foil, thwart a ~

3. to expose a ~

4. a cunning, diabolic; sinister ~

5. a ~ against

6. a ~ to + inf. (to expose a ~ to overthrow the government)

['story']

7. to build, construct the ~ (of a novel)

8. a contrived; intricate; simple ~

9. a ~ thickens ['piece of ground']

10. a cemetery; garden ~; a ~ of land

II v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ against (to ~ against the government)

2. (E) they ~ted to overthrow the government

3. (Q) they were ~ting how to obtain the necessary information

plow I plough

n. to pull a ~

plow II plough

v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ into ('to strike') (the racing car skidded

and ~ed into the crowd)

2. (d; intr.) to ~ through ('to go through laboriously') (to ~

through a long reading list; to ~ through a crowd; to ~ through

deep snow)

ploy

n. 1. to resort to, use a ~

2. a clever, ingenious ~

3. a ~ to + inf. (it was a ~ to get money)

pluck

I n. ['courage'] the ~ to + inf. (he had enough ~ to stand up

to the boss)

II v. l.(d;intr.)('totug')to~at2.(D;tr.) ('to pull') to ~ from

(to ~ feathers from a chicken)

plug

I n. ['electrical fitting'] 1. to insert, put a ~ into a

socket

2. a ~ fits into a socket ['device carrying an electric

current']

3. a spark (AE), sparking (BE) ~ ['word of praise'] (colloq.)

4. to put in a ~ for ['misc.'] (colloq.) (esp. AE)

5. to pull the ~ ('to cut off a life-support system'); to pull

the ~ on smt. ('to put an end to smt.')

II v. (d; intr., tr.) to ~ into (the lamp ~s into this

receptacle)

plug away

v. (D; intr.) to ~ at ('to work at laboriously') (to ~ at a job)

plumber

n. 1. to call (in) a ~

2. a master ~

plummet

v. (d; intr.) to ~ to (to ~ to earth)

plump

I adj. pleasingly ~

II v. (colloq.) (D; intr.) to ~ for ('to support')

plunge

I n. ['risk'] (colloq.) to take the ~

II v. 1. (d; intr.) ('to throw oneself) to ~ from; to (to ~ to

one's death from a cliff)

2. (d; intr.) ('to dive'); ('to rush') to ~ into (to ~ into the

water; to ~ into war)

3. (d; tr.) ('to throw'); ('to thrust') to ~ into (the room was

~ed into darkness; to ~ a dagger into smb.'s heart)

plural

n. in the ~

plus

n. to weigh the ~es and the minuses

ply

v. 1. (d; intr.) ('to travel') to ~ between (these ships ~

between the two cities)

2. (d; tr.) ('to provide') to ~ with (they plied him with

liquor)

pneumonia

n. 1. to come down with, contract, develop ~

2. bronchial; viral ~

poach

v. (D; intr.) ('to trespass') to ~ on, upon

pocket

n. 1. to turn out one's ~s

2. to pick smb.'s ~

3. a back; coat; hip; inside; shirt; side; watch ~

4. an air ~

pocketbook

n. (AE) ['handbag'] to carry a ~

podium

n. from; on a ~

poem

n. 1. to compose, write; memorize; recite a ~

2. a dramatic; epic, heroic; lyric; narrative ~

poet

n. ~ laureate

poetry

n. 1. to compose, write ~

2. to memorize; read; recite; scan ~

3. dramatic; epic, heroic; lyric; narrative ~

pogrom

n. to carry out; instigate; organize a ~

point

I n. ['location, position, place, spot'] 1. to arrive at,

reach a ~

2. an assembly; cutoff; focal; jumping-off; pressure; rallying;

salient; starting; turning; vanishing; vantage ~

3. the ~ of no return

4. at a ~ (at that ~ in history)

5. for a ~ (for all ~s east)

6. from; to a ~ (from this ~ to that ~) ['level']

['degree']

7. to arrive at, reach a ~

8. a high; low ~ (she has reached the high ~ of her career)

9. the boiling; breaking; freezing; melting; saturation ~

10. (up) to a ~ (to a certain ~ they are right) ['step,

stage']

11. at, on the ~ (they were on the ~ of leaving) ['argument']

['topic']

12. to bring up, make, raise a ~

13. to argue; cover, discuss; emphasize, stress, underscore;

explain; illustrate; review; win a ~

14. to belabor, labor; strain, stretch a ~

15. to drive, hammer, press a ~ home; to make one's ~

16. to concede, yield a ~

17. a controversial; crucial; fine; major; minor; moot;

selling; sore; sticking; subtle; talking; telling ~

18. the ~ that + clause (she made the ~ that further resistance

was useless)

19. beside the ~ (her remarks were beside the ~)

20. on a ~ (on that ~ we disagree)

21. to the ~ (to speak to the ~)

22. (misc.) to come to the ~; ~ by ~; a good ('convincing') ~;

to have a ~ ('to have a convincing argument') ['core,

essence']

23. to see the ~ (he never did see the ~ of the joke)

24. to get to the ~ ['emphasis']

25. to make a ~ of (he made a ~ of repeating her name several

times) ['distinguishing feature']

26. smb.'s bad, weak; good, strong ~s ['punctuation mark']

27. a decimal; exclamation (AE) ~ ['scoring unit']

28. to score a ~ (also fig.)

29. to shave ~s ('to manipulate the results of a contest for

illegal purposes')

30. (esp. tennis) a game; match; set ~

31. by ~s (to lead by five ~s)

32. (boxing) on ~s (to win on ~s) ['regard']

33. in ~ of (in ~ of law; in ~ of fact) ['aim, object,

purpose, reason']

34. to get, see the ~

35. a ~ in (there is no ~ in complaining = there is no ~

complaining)

36. a ~ to (there is no ~ to your going)

37. (misc.) what's the ~? ['tapered end']

38. a sharp ~ (this pencil has a sharp ~) ['misc.']

39. a ~ of view; at the ~ of a gun; a Brownie ~ (colloq.)

('ingratiation in the eyes of a superior') (to make Brownie ~s);

a case in ~ ('a pertinent case'); a ~ of order

II v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ at, to ('to draw attention to') (she

~ed at me)

2. (d; tr.) ('to aim') to ~ at (to ~ a gun at smb.)

3. (D; intr.) to ~ to ('to cite') (they ~ed to poverty as a

major problem; the evidence ~s to him as the criminal)

pointers

n. ['advice'] 1. to give smb. ~ on

2. to ask for; get ~ on

pointless

adj. ~ to + int. (it's ~ to continue the discussion)

point out

v. 1. (B) she ~ed out the sights to us

2. (L; to) they ~ed out (to us) that such investments would be

risky

poise

I n. 1. to keep, maintain one's ~

2. to lose one's ~

3. the ~ to + inf. (do you have enough ~ to speak without

notes?)

II v. (D; refl.) ('to brace oneself) to ~ for (she ~d herself

for the ordeal)

poison

n. 1. to administer, give (a) ~

2. to swallow, take ~

3. (a) lethal; slow; strong ~

4. rat ~ (to spread rat ~)

poison gas

n. to use ~ against

poisoning

n. blood; food; lead; ptomaine ~

poke

I n. ['punch'] (colloq.) to give smb. a ~ (in the eye)

II v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ at ('to jab') (he kept ~ing at me)

2. (D; tr.) ('to jab') to ~ in (to ~ smb. in the ribs)

3. (d; tr.) ('to extend') to ~ out of (to ~ one's head out of

the window)

4. (d; tr.) ('to produce by piercing') to ~ through (to ~ a

hole through a wall)

5. (P; tr.) ('to thrust') to ~ one's head through a window

6. (misc.) to ~ fun at smb.

poke about

see poke around

poke around

v. (colloq.) (D; intr.) to ~ in ('to look through') (stop ~ing

around in my desk)

poker

n. to play ~

polarization

n. ~ between

polarize

v. (D; intr., tr.) to ~ into (~d into opposing camps)

pole

I n. ['long, slender piece of wood, metal'] 1. to put up a ~

2. a breakaway; fishing; ski; tent; totem; trolley ~

3. a telegraph; telephone (AE); utility (AE) ~

II n. ['end of the earth's axis'] 1. the North; South Pole

2. a celestial; magnetic ~ ['terminal of a battery']

3. a negative; positive ~ ['misc.']

4. ~s apart; or: at opposite ~s ('diametrically opposed')

police

n. border; campus (US); city, municipal; local; military;

mounted; secret; security; state ~

police car

n. an unmarked ~

policeman

n. 1. a military ~ (abbreviated as MP)

2. see police officer

police officer

n. an off-duty; plainclothes; uniformed ~

policewoman

see police officer

policy

I n. ['plan'] ['principle'] 1. to adopt, establish,

formulate, set a ~

2. to adhere to, follow, pursue; carry out, implement a ~

3. to form, shape a ~

4. a cautious; clear, clear-cut; conciliatory; deliberate;

established, set; firm; flexible; foolish; friendly; prudent;

rigid; sound, wise ~

5. (a) company; economic; foreign; government, public; long-

range, long-term; military; monetary; national; official; open-

door; personnel; population; scorched-earth; service; short-

range, short-term; standard; wait-and-see; written ~

6. a ~ to + inf. (it is our established ~ to treat everyone

fairly)

7. a ~ that + clause; subj. (it is company ~ that all workers

be/should be paid according to the same criteria)

II n. ['contract for insurance'] 1. to take out a ~

2. to issue, write up a ~

3. to reinstate a ~

4. to cancel a ~

5. an endowment; homeowner's; insurance; lifetime; straight

life; term ~

polio, poliomyelitis

n. to contract, develop ~

polish

n. ['gloss'] 1. to apply ~

2. French (BE); furniture ~

3. nail ~ (AE; BE has nai7 varnish)

polite

adj. 1. ~ to

2. ~ to + inf. (it was not ~ to say that)

politeness

n. 1. studied ~

2. ~ to

politic

adj. (formal) ['expedient'] ~ to + inf. (it would not be ~ to

get involved in their affairs)

political fences

n. ['political standing'] to mend one's ~

politician

n. an astute, shrewd; crooked; glib; great; hack; honest ~

politics

n. 1. to go in for ~

2. to play ~

3. to talk ~

4. local, parish-pump (BE); national; partisan, party; power;

practical ~

poll

n. 1. to conduct, take a ~

2. (AE) an exit ~ (taken of voters leaving the voting booths)

3. (esp. AE) a straw ('unofficial') ~

4. a public-opinion ~

5. a ~ among (to conduct a ~ among students)

pollination

n. cross ~

pollution

n. 1. to control ~

2. air; environmental; noise, sound; water ~

polo

n. to play ~

polyandry

n. to practice ~

polygamy

n. to practice ~

polyp

n. 1. to remove a ~

2. a benign; malignant ~

pomp

n. ceremonial ~

pond

n. to drain a ~

ponder

v. (d; intr.) to ~ on, over, upon (to ~ over a problem)

pontificate

v. (D; intr.) to ~ on

pony

n. a polo ~

pool

I n. ['joint enterprise'] 1. to form a ~

2. a car; stenographic, typing ~ ['group of vehicles']

3. a motor ~ ['total of money bet by gamblers']

4. a football ~ (BE has pools) ['billiards']

5. to shoot ~ ['stock, supply']

6. a gene ~

II n. ['basin'] 1. an indoor; outdoor; paddling (BE), wading

(AE); swimming ~ ['small body of water']

2. deep; shallow; stagnant ~

pools

see pool 14

poor

adj. ~ in (the country is ~ in natural resources)

pop

I adv. (colloq.) to go ~ ('to make a short explosive sound')

II v. (P; intr., tr.) we have to ~ into the store for a minute;

~ your head out of the window and see if it's raining; to ~

round the corner

popular

adj. 1. ~ as (she was ~ as a nightclub singer)

2. ~ with (~ with teenagers)

popularity

n. 1. to acquire, gain, win ~

2. to enjoy ~

3. to lose ~

4. ~ with

populated

adj. densely, heavily; sparsely ~

population

n. 1. a decreasing, shrinking; dense; excess, overflow;

expanding, growing, increasing, rising; sparse; stable;

transient ~

2. an aging; civilian; foreign-born; indigenous; local; native-

born; rural; urban ~

3. (misc.) a ~ explosion

porch

n. 1. (AE) a back; front ~ (BE uses veranda)

2. (AE) a sun ~ (BE has sun lounge)

3. (AE) a screened, screened-in ~ (BE uses veranda)

4. (BE) a church ~

pore

v. (d; intr.) to ~ over ('to examine') (to ~ over a document)

pores

n. blocked, clogged, closed; open ~

pornography

n. explicit, hard-core; soft, soft-core

porpoise

n. 1. a school of ~s

2. a young ~ is a calf

3. a female ~ is a cow

4. a male ~ is a bull

porridge

n. (esp. BE) 1. to cook, make ~

2. (misc.) a bowl of ~; (BE; slang) to do ~ ('to spend time in

prison')

port

n. 1. to clear ('leave') a ~

2. to make ~ ('to arrive at a port')

3. to call at a ~

4. a free; home ~

5. in; into ~ (to put into ~)

portion

n. 1. an individual ~

2. equal ~s

portion out

v. (B) they ~ed the food out to the needy

portrait

n. 1. to make, paint a ~

2. to commission a ~

3. a family; full-length; group ~

4. (misc.) to pose for, sit for one's ~

portray

v. (d; tr.) to ~ as (to ~ smb. as a hero)

pose

I n. to assume, strike a ~

II v. 1. (B) ('to put') she ~d a question to the speaker

2. (d; intr.) to ~ as ('to pretend to be') (to ~ as an expert)

3. (D; intr.) to ~ for ('to serve as a model for') (to ~ for an

artist)

position

n. ['posture'] 1. to assume, take a ~

2. an awkward, uncomfortable; comfortable ~

3. a kneeling; lotus; lying; prone; sitting; squatting;

straddle; supine ~

4. the fetal, foetal ~ ['attitude']

5. to assume, take a ~

6. a firm; radical; strong; untenable; weak ~

7. an official; unofficial ~

8. a ~ on (to take a ~ on foreign aid)

9. a ~ that + clause (they took the ~ that further resistance

would be useless) ['site'] ['military site']

10. to attack, storm a ~

11. to hold, maintain; occupy, take up; regain a ~

12. to give up, lose, surrender a ~

13. a defensive; dominant; enemy; fortified; impregnable;

strong; unfortified; untenable, vulnerable, weak ~

14. a ~ of strength

15. from a ~ (to negotiate from a ~ of strength) ['place']

['situation']

16. to occupy a ~

17. an embarrassing; ludicrous ~

18. a high, leading, prominent; unique ~ (to occupy a prominent

~)

19. in a ~ (she is in a ~ to know) ['proper place']

20. in ~ (the players were in ~)

21. out of ~ ['job']

22. to apply for, look for, seek; find a ~

23. a permanent; temporary; tenured ~

24. a government; managerial; official; teaching ~

positive

adj. ~ about

possess

v. what ~ed you to do it?

possession

n. 1. to get, take ~ of

2. material ~s

3. in ~ of

possibility

n. 1. to raise a ~

2. to exclude, rule out a ~

3. a good, strong; remote, slim ~

4. a ~ of (there is a strong ~ of snow)

5. a ~ that + clause (there's a strong ~ that the concert will

be canceled)

possible

adj. 1. easily, perfectly; humanly ~

2. ~ to + inf. (it is ~ to rent a boat)

3. ~ that + clause (it is ~ that we will be able to attend)

possum

n. (colloq.) to play ~ ('to pretend to be asleep')

post

I n. ['mall'] 1. (BE) see mail I

2. (BE) free ~

3. (CE) parcel ~

4. (BE) by return of ~ (AE has by return mail)

II v. (BE) 1. (A) she ~ed the book to me; or: she ~ed me the

book

2. (D; tr.) to ~ from; to (the letter was ~ed from London to

Edinburgh) (AE has mail II)

III n. ['station'] 1. a command; listening; observation;

trading ~ ['place of duty']

2. to leave; quit one's ~

3. at one's ~ (to be asleep at one's ~)

IV v. (esp. BE) (d; tr.) ('to station') to ~ to (she was ~ed to

Bonn)

V n. ['pole'] 1. a starting ~ (at a horse race)

2. (colloq.) (BE) a telegraph ~

3. (misc.) from pillar to ~ ('from one situation to another

without letup'); (BE) to pip at the ~ ('to overtake and defeat

at the very end')

postage

n. 1. to pay the ~

2. the return ~

postcard

n. 1. to send a ~

2. to drop smb. a ~

3. a picture ~

poster

n. 1. to put up a ~

2. a campaign ~

postmaster

n. the ~ general

postpone

v. 1. (D; tr.) to ~ to, until (the concert has been ~d to

Wednesday)

2. (G) they ~d leaving because of the weather

postscript

n. 1. to add a ~

2. a ~ to

postulate

I n. (formal) a ~ that + clause (his ~ that the area was

uninhabited proved to be true)

II v. (formal) (L) they ~d that the collision had been caused by

fog

posture

I n. 1. to assume a ~

2. an erect; good ~

3. a defense; political ~

II v. (D; intr.) ('to pretend') to ~ as

pot

n. 1. (fig.) a melting ~

2. a pepper ~ (BE; AE has pepper shaker)

3. a chamber ~

4. (misc.) to scour ~s and pans

potato

n. 1. to bake; boil; fry; mash; peel ~es

2. a baked ~

3. chipped (BE), French-fried (AE); mashed; scalloped ~es

potential

n. 1. to develop; realize one's ~

2. a ~ for

potion

n. a love ~

potluck

n. ['whatever is offered'] to take ~

potshot

n. (colloq.) ['critical remark'] to take a ~ at

potter

v. (BE) (d; intr.) to ~ about (to ~ about the house) (AE has

putter)

pottery

n. to glaze ~

potty

adj. (colloq.) (esp. BE) ['infatuated'] ~ about

pouch

n. diplomatic ~ (the letter was sent by diplomatic ~)

poultice

n. to apply a ~

pounce

v. (d; intr.) to ~ on, upon (the cat ~d on the mouse)

pound

I n. ['enclosure'] a dog ~

II v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ at (to ~ at the door; our artillery was

~ing at the enemy positions)

2. (d; tr.) to ~ into (I've been trying to ~ some facts into

their heads)

3. (d; intr.) to ~ on (to ~ on a table)

pour

v. 1. (C) ~ a cool drink for me; or: ~ me a cool drink

2. (d; intr.) to ~ down (tears ~ed down her cheeks)

3. (d; intr., tr.) to ~ from (blood ~ed from the gaping wound)

4. (d; intr., tr.) to ~ into (water ~ed into the pit)

5. (d; intr., tr.) to ~ out of (oil ~ed out of the tank)

6. (d; tr.) to ~ over (to ~ gravy over meat)

pout

v. (D; intr.) to ~ about

poverty

n. 1. to breed ~ (illiteracy breeds ~)

2. to eliminate, eradicate, wipe out ~

3. abject, dire, extreme, grinding, severe ~

4. in ~ (to live in grinding ~)

powder

n. 1. to put on ~

2. baby; baking; bleaching; curry; dusting; face; garlic;

scouring; talcum; tooth ~

3. gunpowder; smokeless ~

4. (misc.) (slang) to take a ~ ('to run off unexpectedly');

(colloq.) to keep one's ~ dry ('to remain calm')

power

n. ['authority'] 1. to assume, take; exercise, wield; seize;

transfer ~

2. emergency; executive; political ~

3. discretionary ~s

4. ~ over (they seized ~ over several provinces)

5. the ~ to + inf. (the prime minister has the ~ to dissolve

parliament)

6. in; into ~ (the government in ~; to come into ~)

['dominance']

7. the balance of ~ ['nation']

8. the great, world ~s; a superpower

9. (the) warring ~s

10. a foreign; occupying ~ ['capability']

11. to develop one's ~s (of observation)

12. bargaining; earning; healing; purchasing ~; recuperative;

staying; supernatural ~s ['military force, police force']

13. air; military; naval, sea; police ~

14. fire ~ ['source of energy']

15. to turn on the ~

16. to cut off, turn off the ~

17. electric; hydroelectric; nuclear; water ~ ['motive

force']

18. under one's own ~ ['exponent'] (math.)

19. to raise to a ~ (to raise five to the third ~)

powerless

adj. ~ to + inf. (she was ~ to help)

power line

n. to down a ~ (several ~s were downed during the storm)

power mower

n. to operate, work a ~

power of attorney

n. a ~ to + inf. (we had a ~ to conduct her business)

powwow

n. (colloq.) ['conference'] to hold a ~

pox

n. ['plague'] a ~ on

practicable

adj. ['feasible'] ~ to + inf. (it was not ~ to put up a new

building there)

practical

adj. ['sensible'] ~ to + inf. (it is not ~ to do that)

practice I practise

n. ['habit'] 1. to make a ~ of smt.

2. a common, usual; local; universal ~

3. a ~ to + inf. (it was her ~ to drink a glass of wine every

evening) ['exercise']

4. to have ~ (we have ~ today at four o'clock)

5. target ~

6. ~ at, in (~ at tying knots)

7. the ~ to + inf. (I've had enough ~ to pass the test)

['professional activity']

8. (a) legal; medical; nursing; professional ~

9. (of doctors) a general; group; private ~

10. a lucrative ~ ['application']

11. in; into ~ (to put a theory into ~; in theory and in ~)

['method of conducting business']

12. sharp, unethical, unfair, unscrupulous ~s

13. (esp. AE) fair-trade ~s USAGE NOTE: In Great Britain,

private practice refers to a practice that is not under the

National Health Service.

practice II practise

v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ on (you can ~ mouth-to-mouth resuscitation

on me)

2. (G) the boy ~d throwing the lasso

practitioner

n. a family, general; nurse (esp. US)

prairie

n. 1. a rolling; windswept ~

2. on the ~

praise

I n. 1. to earn ~

2. to bestow, heap, lavish ~ on smb.

3. to give ~ to smb.

4. to sing smb.'s ~s

5. faint; fulsome; glowing, high, strong, unrestrained,

unstinting ~

6. ~ for

7. in ~ of

8. (misc.) a chorus of ~

II v. 1. to ~ highly, strongly

2. (D; tr.) to ~ for

praiseworthy

adj. (formal) ~ to + inf. (it is ~ to do volunteer work)

pram

n. (BE) to push, wheel a ~ (AE has baby carriage, carriage)

prance

v. (P; intr.) to ~ around the room

prank

n. 1. to play a ~ on smb.

2. a childish; foolish; innocent; mischievous; wanton ~

prate

see prattle

prattle

v. 1. to ~ endlessly

2. (D; intr.) to ~ (on) about (he ~d on endlessly about his

operation)

pray

v. 1. to ~ devoutly, fervently; silently

2. (D; intr.) to ~ for; to (to ~ to God for good health)

3. (L; to) we ~ed (to God) that they would be safe

prayer

n. 1. to offer; say; utter a ~

2. to answer a ~

3. a fervent; silent ~

4. (a) communal; daily; evening; morning ~

5. a ~ for (to offer a ~ for peace)

6. a ~ that + clause; subj. (our ~ that peace be/should be

restored was heard)

7. (misc.) the answer to all our ~s

preach

v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ against (to ~ against sin)

2. (colloq.) (D; intr.) to ~ at (stop ~ing at me)

3. (D; intr.) to ~ to (to ~ to one's congregation)

4. (L) to ~ that the end of the world is near

preacher

n. an itinerant; lay ~

preamble

n. a ~ to

precaution

n. 1. to take ~s

2. elaborate ~s

3. a ~ against

precedence

n. to have, take ~ over

precedent

n. 1. to create, establish, set a ~

2. to cite a ~

3. to break (a) ~

4. a ~ for

precept

n. a ~ that + clause (we adhere to the ~ that all criminals can

be rehabilitated)

preceptor

n. a ~ to

precinct

n. a pedestrian (BE); police; voting ~

precious

adj. ~ to

precipitate

v. (d; tr.) to ~ into (to ~ a country into war)

precipitation

n. heavy; light ~

precise

adj. ~ about

precision

n. great, utmost; military; surgical; unerring ~

preclude

v. (formal) (d;tr.) to ~ from (to ~ smb. from doing smt.)

precondition

n. to set ~s

precursor

n. a ~ of, to

predecessor

n. smb.'s immediate ~

predestined

adj. (cannot stand alone) 1. ~ to (~ to glory)

2. ~ to + inf. (she was ~ to go far in life)

3. ~ that + clause (it was ~ that they would never meet again)

predicament

n. 1. an awkward; dire ~ (to get into an awkward ~)

2. in a ~

predicate

v. (d; tr.) ('to base') to ~ on, upon (to ~ a theory on certain

facts)

predict

v. 1. (K) I ~ed their getting into trouble

2. (L) she ~ed that it would rain

3. (Q) who can ~ how the elections will turn out?

prediction

n. 1. to make a ~

2. a ~ comes true

predilection

n. a ~ for

predispose

v. (formal) 1. (d; tr.) to ~ to

2. (H) what ~d you to go?

predisposed

adj. (cannot stand alone) 1. ~ to (~ to violence)

2. ~ to + inf. (~ to act rashly)

predisposition

n. 1. a ~ to

2. a ~ to + inf. (a ~ to act rashly)

predominance

n. ~ over

predominate

I adj. ~ over

II v. (D; intr.) to ~ over

preeminence

n. ~ in

preen

v. (formal) (d; refl.) to ~ oneself on ('to pride oneself on')

preface

n. a ~ to (a ~ to a book)

prefer

v. 1. (D; tr.) ('to bring') to ~ against (to ~ charges against

smb.)

2. (D; tr.) to ~ to (she ~s fish to meat)

3. (E) we ~ to remain at home

4. (G) I ~red going to a concert

5. (esp. BE) (H; no passive) I'd ~ you to stay out of the

dispute

6. (K) I would ~ your staying out of the dispute

7. (L; subj.) she ~s that he not get/should not get involved

8. (misc.) I (very) much ~ living in the suburbs USAGE NOTE:

This verb can be used in several ways to express preference ó I

prefer walking to riding; I prefer to walk rather than to ride;

I prefer not to ride.

preferable

adj. 1. ~ to

2. ~ to + inf. (it is ~ to remain silent)

3. ~ that + clause; subj. (it is ~ that she go alone) USAGE

NOTE: This adjective can be used in several waysówalking is

preferable to riding; it's preferable to walk rather than to

ride.

preference

n. 1. to give ~ to

2. to demonstrate, display, show; express a ~

3. a decided; individual; marked ~

4. (US) (a) veterans' ~

5. a ~ for (she showed a decided ~ for classical music)

6. in ~ to

prefix

v. (d; tr.) to ~ to (to ~ a title to a name)

pregnancy

n. 1. to terminate a ~

2. an ectopic; false; full-term; normal ~

prejudice

I n. ['bias'] 1. to arouse, stir up ~

2. to have, hold (a) ~

3. to break down, eliminate ~

4. (a) deep, deep-rooted, deep-seated, ingrained, strong ~

5. race, racial; religious ~

6. ~ against ['harm']

7. without ~ to (without ~ to our claims)

II v. (D; tr.) to ~ against

prejudicial

adj. ~ to

preliminary

I adj. ~ to

II n. ~ to

prelude

n. a ~ to

premature

adj. ~ to + inf. (it is ~ to celebrate)

premiere

n. 1. to give, stage a ~

2. to attend a ~

3. a lavish; world ~

premise

n. ['proposition'] (logic) 1. the major; minor ~

['assumption']

2. the ~ that + clause (her ~ that the results of the election

were already decided proved to be true)

premises

n. ['property'] on the ~ (to be consumed on the ~)

premium

n. ['high value'] 1. to put a ~ on ['additional sum']

2. to pay a ~

3. at a ~ (to sell at a ~) ['fee paid to an insurance

company']

4. an insurance ~

premonition

n. 1. to have a ~

2. a ~ that + clause (she had a ~ that an accident would

happen)

preoccupation

n. a ~ with

preoccupied

adj.. ~ with

preordained

adj. ~ that + clause; subj. (it was ~ that they meet/should

meet)

preparation

n. in ~ for (we are resting in ~ for the strenuous journey)

preparations

n. 1. to make ~

2. ~ for

preparatory

adj. ~ to

prepare

v. 1. to ~ carefully, thoroughly

2. (D; intr., refl., tr.) to ~ for (she was ~ing for the

examination; they ~d themselves for unpleasant news; she is ~ing

a paper for presentation at the national meeting)

3. (E) they were ~ing to leave

4. (H) parents should ~ children to cope with life

prepared

adj. ~ to + inf. (we are ~ to leave)

preposition

n. a compound; simple ~

preposterous

adj. ~ to + inf. (it's ~ to speak of such things)

prerequisite

I adj. (usu. does not stand alone) ~ to

II n. a ~ for, to

prerogative

n. 1. to exercise one's ~

2. the royal ~

3. smb.'s ~ to + inf. (it's our ~ to order an investigation)

prescribe

v. 1. (D; tr.) to ~ for (to ~ a remedy for the common cold)

2. (formal) (L; subj.) regulations ~ that a lawyer draw

up/should draw up the papers

prescription

n. 1. to fill (AE), make up a ~

2. a ~ for

3. by ~; on a ~ (to obtain a drug on a doctor's ~; by ~ only)

presence

n. 1. to make one's ~ felt, known ('to make others notice one's

presence')

2. in smb.'s ~

presence of mind

n. to display ~

present

I n. ['present time'] 1. at ~

2. for the ~ ['present tense of a verb']

3. in the ~

II n. ['gift'] 1. an anniversary; birthday; Christmas;

graduation; wedding ~

2. a ~ for

III v. 1. (B) ('to give') they ~ed an award to her

2. (D; tr.) ('to introduce') to ~ to (the new employees were

~ed to the rest of the staff)

3. (d; tr.) to ~ with ('to give a gift to') (he ~ed her with a

beautiful bouquet of roses)

4. (med.) the patient ~ed with ('complained of) severe pains

presentable

adj.. to make oneself ~

presentation

n. ['position of a fetus'] (med.) 1. a breech; face ~ ['act

of presenting']

2. to make a ~

3. an oral ~ (of a report)

presentiment

n. (formal) ['foreboding'] a ~ that + clause (she had a ~ that

an accident would take place)

preservative

n. a food ~

preserve

I n. 1. a forest; game, wild-life ~

2. (BE) see preserves

II v. 1. (D;tr.) to ~ against, from (to ~ the environment from

the ravages of pollution)

2. (D; tr.) to ~ for (to ~ a tradition for coming generations)

preserver

n. a life ~ USAGE NOTE: In AE, life preserver means 'life belt',

'life jacket'; in BE, it means 'club used for self-defence'.

preserves

n. ['fruit preserved by cooking with sugar'] apricot;

blueberry; cherry; grape; peach; raspberry; strawberry ~

preside

v. (D; intr.) to ~ over

presidency

n. 1. to gain the ~

2. a rotating ~

president

n. 1. a vice ~

2. an incoming; outgoing ~

3. a ~ elect

press

I n. ['instrument for crushing, shaping, squeezing'] 1. a

cider; cookie (AE); hydraulic; wine ~ ['publishing house']

2. a university; vanity ~ ['device for printing']

3. a printing ~

4. the ~es roll

5. (misc.) to go to ~

6. in ~ (our book is now in ~) ['newspapers, magazines']

['reporters']

7. to censor; control; muzzle the ~

8. a free ~

9. the foreign; gutter, yellow; local ~ ['publicity']

10. a bad; good ~ (we got a bad ~) ['smoothness of a fabric']

11. (a) permanent ~ ['aggressive defense used in basketball']

12. a full-court ~ ['type of lift used by weight lifters']

13. to do a ~

14. a bench; military ~

II v. 1. to ~ hard

2. (d; intr., tr.) ('to push') to ~ against (to ~ against a

door)

3. (d; intr., tr.) to ~ for ('to urge') (to ~ for reform; to ~

the authorities for information)

4. (D; tr.) ('to shape') to ~ into (to ~ clay into various

forms)

5. (d; tr.) ('to place') to ~ into (to ~ all equipment into

service)

6. (D; intr.) ('to squeeze') to ~ on (to ~ on a button).?. (H)

('to urge') they were ~ing me to agree to the compromise

press conference

n. to hold a ~

pressed

adj. ~ for time

press on

v. (D; intr.) to ~ with (the police ~ed on with the

investigation)

press-up

n. (BE) to do a ~ (see also push-up)

pressure

I n. 1. to exert, place, put ~ on smb.

2. to bring ~ to bear on smb.

3. to build up, increase (the) ~

4. to feel ~

5. to ease, relieve (the) ~

6. to face; resist ~ (to resist ~ from extremist groups)

7. inexorable, intense, maximum, relentless, strong, unrelieved

~

8. financial; outside; parental; peer; population; public ~ (to

resist public ~)

9. air; blood; oil; water ~

10. (esp. meteorology) atmospheric; barometric; high; low ~

11. ~ builds up, increases, rises; eases, falls

12. ~ for(~ for tax reform)

13. ~ from (to face inexorable ~ from the media)

14. under ~ (under relentless ~)

II v. (AE) 1. (D; tr.) to ~ into (to ~ smb. into doing smt.)

2. (H) to ~ smb. to do smt.

pressurize

v. (BE) see pressure II

prestige

n. 1. to enjoy, have; gain ~

2. to damage smb.'s ~

3. great, high; little, low ~

4. the ~ to + inf. (does she have enough ~ to get the party

nomination?)

5. of ~ (of little ~)

presume

v. (formal) 1. (d; intr.) to ~ on, upon (to ~ upon smb.'s good

nature)

2. (E) I will not ~ to give you advice

3. (L) we can ~ that she will return

4. (M) we must ~ her to be innocent

5. (N; used with an adjective) we must ~ her innocent; she must

be ~d innocent until proven guilty

presumption

n. a ~ that + clause (our decision was based on the ~ that they

would agree)

presumptuous

adj. ~ to + inf. (it's ~ of you to make such claims)

pretence

see pretense

pretend

v. 1. (E) ('to feign'); ('to make believe') she ~ed not to

notice; I ~ed to be busy; the children ~ed to be cowboys

2. (L) ('to feign'); ('to make believe') she ~ed that she was

asleep; they ~ed that they were tourists

pretender

n. a ~ to (a ~ to a throne)

pretense, pretence

n. ['simulation'] ['false show'] 1. to make a ~ (he made no

~ of being objective)

2. to see through smb.'s ~

3. under a ~ (under the ~ of patriotism; under false ~s)

4. without ~ (a person without ~) ['unsupported claim']

5. to see through smb.'s ~

6. a ~ that + clause (he saw through the ~ that lower taxes

would cause unemployment) ['appearance']

7. to keep, maintain a ~ (to maintain some ~ of legality)

['attempt']

8. a ~ at (without any ~ at objectivity)

pretext

n. 1. to find a ~ for

2. a flimsy; mere ~

3. a ~ to + inf. (it was a ~ to occupy more territory)

4. a ~ that + clause (she refused to attend on the ~ that she

would be out of town)

5. at, on, under a ~ (he would call for help at/on the

slightest ~; under what ~ did she approach them?)

pretty

adj. to be sitting ~ ('to be well off)

prevail

v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ against, over (to ~ against overwhelming

odds)

2. (d; intr.) to ~ on, upon smb. to do smt. (they ~ed on me to

buy a new television set)

prevent

v. 1. (D; tr.) to ~ from (nothing can ~ this disease from

spreading)

2. (BE) (J) nothing can ~ this disease spreading

3. (K) you cannot ~ her getting married

prevention

n. 1. (health care) primary; secondary ~

2. accident; fire ~

preview

n. 1. to give a ~

2. a sneak ~ (of a film)

prey

I n. 1. to fall ~ to

2. easy ~

II v. (d; intr.) to ~ on (to ~ on small game)

price

I n. l.tofix,seta~2.tohike(AE; colloq.), increase, mark up,

raise ~s

3. to freeze; hold down, keep down; maintain ~s

4. to pay a ~

5. to place, put a ~ on smt.; to quote a ~

6. bring, command, fetch, get a ~ (icons bring a high ~)

7. to bring down ~s; to undercut (smb.'s) ~s (the latest news

brought down oil ~s)

8. to cut, lower, mark down, reduce, roll back, slash ~s

9. an exorbitant, high, inflated, outrageous, prohibitive,

steep, stiff ~

10. an attractive, bargain, fair, low, moderate, popular,

reasonable, reduced ~

11. an asking; buying, purchase; discount; going; list; market;

reduced; regular; resale; retail; sale; selling; unit; wholesale

~

12. (at an auction) a reserve (esp. BE), upset (esp. AE) ~

13. ~s drop, fall, go down, slump

14. ~s go up, rise, shoot up, skyrocket

15. a ~ for (to pay an exorbitant ~ for smt.)

16. at a certain ~ (to sell merchandise at reduced ~s)

17. (misc.) what ~ an economic recovery now? (BE) ('what are

the chances of an economic recovery now?'); what ~ glory if you

die in the trenches? (BE) ('what is the good of glory if you die

in the trenches?'); to place a ~ on smb.'s head ('to post a

reward for apprehending or killing smb.')

II v. (D; refl., tr.) to ~ out of (they ~d themselves out of the

market)

price index

n. a consumer; retail ~

prick

n. a pin ~

pride

I n. 1. to take ~ in

2. to hurt smb.'s ~

3. civic; fierce, great, strong; injured, wounded ~ (to take

great ~ in one's children)

4. the ~ to + inf. (do they have enough ~ to defend their

principles?)

5. (misc.) to appeal to smb.'s ~; to burst with ~; to pocket,

swallow one's ~

II v. (d; refl.) to ~ on (to ~ oneself on one's strength)

priest

n. 1. to ordain a ~

2. to defrock, unfrock a ~

3. an Anglican; Catholic; Episcopalian; Mormon; Orthodox ~

4. a high; parish ~

priesthood

n. to enter the ~

primary

n. ['party election'] (AE) 1. to hold a ~

2. a closed; direct; open; preferential; presidential; runoff ~

prime

n. 1. to reach one's ~

2. to pass one's ~

3. in one's ~

primed

adj. 1. ~ for (~ for the big game)

2. ~ to + inf. (we are ~ to begin)

prince

n. 1. a crown ~

2. (misc.) a ~ consort

princess

n. a crown ~

principal

n. a school ~ (esp. AE)

principle

n. 1. to establish, formulate, lay down a ~

2. to adhere to, apply a ~

3. to betray, compromise one's ~s

4. a basic; general; guiding; high; sound; strict ~

5. the ~ that + clause (we adhere to the ~ that everyone should

be treated fairly)

6. in ~ (to agree in ~)

7. (misc.) a matter, question; person of ~

print

I n. ['photograph'] 1. to develop; make a ~ ['printed

state']

2. in ~; out of ~ (I have not seen the story in ~; the book is

out of ~) ['text of a contract']

3. the fine, small ~ (people should always read the fine ~)

['printed letters']

4. clear; large; small ~ ['impression made by type']

5. dark; light

II v. to ~ smt. (in) boldface; in italics; in Roman

printer

n. ['device for printing computer data'] a daisy wheel; dot-

matrix; laser; letter-quality; serial; thermal ~

printing

n. offset ~

prior

adj. (cannot stand alone) ~ to

priority

n. 1. to establish, set a ~

2. to take ~ over

3. (misc.) to reexamine, rethink; reorder, sort out one's ~ties

prise

(BE) see pry 2,3

prison

n. 1. to go, be sent, be sentenced to ~

2. to spend time in ~

3. to be released from ~

4. to break out of, escape from ~

5. a maximum-security, minimum-security ~

prisoner

n. 1. to take smb. ~; to take a ~ (we took many ~s)

2. a political ~

prisoner of war

n. to interrogate; repatriate prisoners of war

privacy

n. 1. to violate smb.'s ~

2. an invasion of one's ~

private

n. ['common soldier'] 1. a buck ~

2. (US) a ~ first-class (the British Army has /ance corporal

privilege

n. 1. to award, give, grant a ~

2. to enjoy, exercise; have a ~ (to enjoy guest ~s)

3. to abuse a ~

4. to revoke; suspend a ~

5. a class; exclusive; special ~

6. franking; guest; kitchen ~s

7. executive ~

8. a ~ to + inf. (it was a ~ to work with them = it was a ~

working with them)

privileged

adj. (usu. does not stand alone) ~ to + inf. (we are ~ to live

in a democracy)

prize

I n. 1. to award, give a ~

2. to distribute ~s

3. to receive, win a ~

4. a booby; consolation; door ~

II (BE) see pry 2,3

pro

see professional

probability

n. in all ~

probable

adj. ~ that + clause (it's ~ that she will not arrive until

tomorrow; more usu. is: she'll probably not arrive until

tomorrow)

probate

n. 1. to grant ~

2. to prove a will at ~

probation

n. 1. to release smb. on ~

2. to violate (the terms of one's) ~

3. on ~ (he's out on ~)

probe

I n. 1. to conduct; launch a ~

2. an exhaustive, thorough ~

3. an interplanetary, space ~

4. a police ~

5. a ~ into, of (a police ~ into racketeering)

II v. 1. to ~ deeply, thoroughly

2. (d; tr.) to ~ about, on (to ~ smb. on a matter)

3. (D; intr.) to ~ for (to ~ for weak spots)

4. (D; intr.) to ~ into (to ~ into the facts)

problem

n. ['unsettled question'] ['source of difficulty'] 1. to

cause, create, pose, present a ~

2. to address, tackle; bring up, raise; resolve, settle. solve a

~

3. an acute, difficult, major, pressing, serious; insoluble,

insurmountable ~

4. a complicated, involved, knotty, thorny ~

5. a delicate. ticklish ~

6. a minor, petty ~

7. an emotional; physical; psychological; social ~

8. a perennial ~

9. a ~ to + int. (it's a ~ to make ends meet = it's a ~ making

ends meet)

10. (misc.) the crux of a ~; to get to the heart of a ~

['mathematical statement requiring a solution']

11. to do, solve a ~

12. a complicated; difficult; easy; simple ~

procedure

n. 1. to establish a ~

2. to follow a ~

3. (a) normal, proper, regular, standard ~ (to follow regular

~s)

4. a scientific; surgical ~

5. (surgery) a major; minor ~

6. parliamentary ~s

proceed

v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ against (to ~ against smb. in court)

2. (d; intr.) to ~ from; to (to ~ from New York to Philadelphia)

3. (d; intr.) to ~ with (to ~ with one's research)

4. (E) she ~ed to tell us every detail

proceedings

n. (often legal) 1. to conduct; initiate, institute ~ against (to

initiate legal ~ against a competitor)

2. judicial, legal ~

3. divorce ~ (to institute divorce ~)

proceeds

n. ['profit'] 1. net ~

2. ~ from (~ from the sale of surplus property)

process

n. 1. the judicial ~

2. mental ~es

processing

n. data; food ~

procession

n. 1. to lead a ~

2. a ceremonial; funeral; torchlight ~

3. in (a) ~ (to march in a ~)

processor

n. a food; word ~

proclaim

v. (formal) 1. (L; to) the president ~ed (to the nation) that new

currency would be issued

2. (N; used with a noun) the entire state was ~ed a disaster

area

proclamation

n. 1. to issue, make a ~

2. a ~ that + clause (the government issued a ~ that all

prisoners would be pardoned)

proclivity

n. (formal) a ~ for; to, towards

procure

v. (D; tr.) to ~ for

prod

v. 1. (D; tr.) to ~ into (to ~ smb. into doing smt.)

2. (H) they kept ~ding me to buy a new car

prodigy

n. a child; infant ~

produce

I n. ['fruits and vegetables'] farm ~

II v. 1. (d; tr.) to ~ as (she ~d several letters as evidence)

2. (D; tr.) to ~ for (to ~ food for export)

producer

n. an executive; film, movie; steel; television, TV ~

product

n. 1. to promote a (new) ~

2. a by-product; an end, finished ~

3. a waste ~

4. the gross national ~ (= GNP)

production

n. ['work presented on the stage, radio. TV, etc.'] 1. to put

on a ~

2. a Hollywood; stage, theatrical; TV ~ ['process of

producing']

3. to increase, speed up, step up ~

4. to decrease, roll back ~

5. mass ~

6. coal; oil; steel ~

7. (misc.) the means of ~ ['misc.']

8. (slang) to make a big ~ out of smt. ('to make a big fuss over

smt.')

productive

adj. ~ of

products

n. dairy ~

profess

v. (formal) (E) he ~ed to know nothing about the matter

profession

n. 1. to practice a ~

2. the legal; medical; nursing; teaching ~

3. by ~ (she's a lawyer by ~)

professional, pro

adj. and n. 1. (usu. sports) to turn ~ (he turned ~ at the age of

twenty)

2. a real, true ~ (she is a real ~) ('she does her work

seriously and well') USAGE NOTE: A professional tennis player

and a professional golfer compete for money. A tennis

professional and a golf pro coach for money, usu. at clubs.

professor

n. 1. (AE) an adjunct; assistant; associate; full ~

2. (GB) a Regius ~ (appointed by the Crown)

3. a research; visiting ~

4. a ~ emeritus, an emeritus ~

5. a college (esp. US), university ~

6. (misc.) an absent-minded ~ USAGE NOTE: We speak of a

professor of Latin, but of a lecturer or reader in Latin.

professorship

n. 1. to hold a ~

2. an endowed ~

proficiency

n. 1. to demonstrate, display ~

2. language ~

3. ~ at, in

proficient

adj. ~ at, in

profile

n. ['public exposure'] 1. to keep a high; low ~ ['side view']

2. in ~

profit

I n. 1. to clear, earn, make, realize, reap, turn a ~

2. to bring (in), yield a ~

3. a handsome, large; marginal, small; quick ~

4. an excess, exorbitant ~

5. a clear; net; gross ~

6. a ~ on (to make a ~ on a deal)

7. at a ~ (to operate at a ~)

II v. (D; intr.) to ~ by, from

profitable

adj. ~ to + inf. (is it ~ to work this mine?)

profiteer

n. a war ~

profuse

adj. (cannot stand alone) ~ in (~ in one's apologies)

profusion

n. in ~

prognosis

n. to make a ~

program

I n. ['plan'] 1. to chart, draw up a ~

2. to carry out, implement; evaluate; introduce; launch; phase

out, terminate a ~

3. a long-range; pilot; short-range ~

4. a building; development; political ~

5. a ~ to + inf. (to launch a ~ to reduce crime) ['schedule']

6. on one's ~ (what's on your ~ today?) ['entertainment']

7. to put on a ~ ['broadcast, telecast']

8. a call-in (AE), phone-in (BE); radio; television ~ ['coded

instructions for a computer']

9. to boot up; debug; execute; load; reboot; run; write a ~

10. a user-friendly ~

11. a computer; software; word processing ~ ['academic course

of study']

12. a graduate, post- graduate (esp. BE); honors; training;

undergraduate ~

13. a ~ in (a ~ in linguistics) ['organized activities']

14. an orientation; outreach (esp. AE); recreation; work-study

(AE) ~ ['misc.']

15. a reading ~ (for a dictionary) USAGE NOTE: The BE spelling

is programme, except for the computer uses, 9-11.

II v. (H) to ~ a computer to store certain information USAGE

NOTE: Except when referring to the computer, the BE spelling is

programme-- to programme an alarm system.

programme

see Usage Notes for program I, II

progress

I n. 1. to make ~

2. to facilitate ~

3. to hinder, impede, obstruct ~

4. considerable, good, great, material; rapid; slow; smooth;

spotty; steady ~

5. economic; scientific; significant; technological ~

6. ~ in (to make ~ in solving the problems of air pollution)

7. ~ towards (~ towards peace)

8. in ~ (negotiations are in ~)

II v. (D; intr.) to ~ to

progression

n. an arithmetic; geometric; harmonic ~

prohibit

v. 1. (D; tr.) to ~ from

2. (rare) (K) you cannot ~ their going out

prohibition

n. 1. to repeal (a) ~

2. a ~ against

project

n. ['organized undertaking'] 1. to conceive; draw up a ~

2. to carry out a ~

3. to shelve a ~

4. an irrigation; land-reclamation; pilot ('experimental');

public-works; water-conservation ~ ['publicly financed

housing'] (AE)

5. a housing ~ (BE has council block, housing estate)

projectile

n. to fire; launch a ~

projection

n. ['estimate'] 1. to make a ~

2. a computer ~ ['system of presenting a map']

3. a homolosine; isometric; Mercator; sinusoidal ~

projector

n. 1. to operate, work a ~

2. a cine-projector (BE), film, motion-picture (AE); opaque;

overhead; slide ~

proliferation

n. nuclear ~

prologue

n. a ~ to

prom

n. (AE) ['formal school dance'] 1. the junior; senior ~

2. at the ~

3. (misc.) to go to the ~; to take smb. to the ~ USAGE NOTE: In

BE, prow means 'a promenade concert'.

prominence

n. 1. to acquire, gain ~

2. to give ~ to (to give ~ to a story)

promiscuity

n. sexual ~

promise

I n. ['vow'] 1. to give, make a ~

2. to fulfill, keep a ~

3. to break, renege on, repudiate a ~

4. a broken; empty, hollow; rash; sacred, solemn ~

5. a campaign ~ (politicians sometimes break campaign ~s)

6. a ~ to + inf. (she made a ~ to write every week)

7. a ~ that + clause (they kept their ~ that the debt would be

repaid promptly)

8. (misc.) to hold smb. to a ~ ['basis for hope']

9. to show ~ (the young boxer showed real ~)

10. of ~ (a young boxer of ~)

II v. 1. (A) he ~d the book to me; or: he ~d me the book

2.(E) she ~d to return early; it ~s to be an exciting year

3. (H; often used in neg. constructions) he ~d me never to show

up late again

4. (L; may have an object) he ~d (me) that he would never show

up late again

5. (misc.) (BE) I ~ you ('I assure you')

promote

v. 1. (D; tr.) to ~ from; to (she was ~d from captain to major)

2. (old-fashioned) (BE) (N; used with a noun) she was ~d major

promotion

n. ['advancement in rank'] 1. to put smb. in for ~; to

recommend smb. for ~

2. to make, win one's ~ (he made his ~ to major) ('he was

promoted to major')

3. a ~ from; to (a ~ to captain; a ~ to the rank of professor)

['furtherance, fostering']

4. health ~ ['advertising']

5. pre-publication ~

6. in ~ (she is in ~)

prompt

I adj. 1. ~ at, in (~ in fulfilling one's obligations)

2. ~ to + inf. (~ to respond)

II v. (H) what ~ed you to say that?

promptness

n. ~ at, in

prone

adj. ['likely'] (cannot stand alone) 1. ~ to (~ to

exaggeration)

2. ~ to + inf. (he is ~ to exaggerate)

pronoun

n. a demonstrative; indefinite; interrogative; personal;

possessive; reflexive; relative ~

pronounce

v. 1. (D; intr., tr.) to ~ after (~ after me)

2. (formal) (M) the physician ~d him to be healthy

3. (N; used with an adjective, noun) she was officially ~d dead;

they were ~d husband and wife

pronouncement

n. 1. to issue, make a ~

2. a ~ that + clause (the government issued a ~ that taxes would

be lowered)

pronunciamento

n. (derog.) 1. to issue, make a ~

2. a ~ that + clause (they issued a ~ that only their theories

would be acceptable)

pronunciation

n. 1. to acquire a (good) ~

2. a native ~ (of a language)

3. (a) spelling ~

4. BBC, Received ~

proof

n. ['conclusive evidence'] 1. to furnish, give, offer, present,

produce, provide ~

2. ample, clear, conclusive, convincing, definite,

incontestable, indisputable, irrefutable, positive, undeniable,

unquestionable ~

3. documentary; mathematical ~

4. ~ that + clause (the prosecutor furnished convincing ~ that

the accused could have been at the scene of the crime)

5. (misc.) the burden of ~ ['composed type']

6. to correct, read ~

7. galley; page; reproduction ~s

prop

v. 1. (d; tr.) to ~ against (~ a chair against the door)

2. (N; used with an adjective) ~ the window open

propaganda

n. 1. to engage in, spread ~

2. to counteract, neutralize ~

3. enemy; ideological; vicious ~

4. ~ against

propensity

n. (formal) 1. a ~ for (a ~ for exaggerating)

2. a ~ to + inf. (he has a ~ to exaggerate)

proper

adj. 1. ~ to + inf. (it is not ~ to enter that restaurant without

a jacket)

2. ~ that + clause; subj. (it is ~ that she state/should state

her own opinion)

property

n. 1. to confiscate, seize ~

2. to buy; inherit; lease; rent; sell; transfer ~

3. to reclaim; recover (stolen) ~

4. (an) abandoned; commercial ~

5. common; communal; government; individual; joint; movable;

personal; private; public; real ~

6. community ~ ('property held jointly by two spouses')

7. a piece of ~

prophecy

n. 1. to make a ~

2. a gloomy; self-ful-filling ~

3. a ~ comes true; turns out to be true

prophesy

v 1. (K) no one could ~ your becoming governor

2. (L) I ~sied that she would succeed

prophet

n. 1. a false ~

2. (rel.) a major; minor ~

propinquity

n. (formal) ~ to

propitious

adj. ~ for, to

proportion

n. 1. (a) direct; in verse ~

2. in ~ to

3. out of ~ to (the punishment was out of ~ to the crime)

proportional

adj. ~ to

proportionate

adj. ~ to

proportions

n. ['extent'] 1. to assume, take on ~

2. epic; epidemic; menacing ~ (the outbreak assumed epidemic ~)

proposal

n 1. to make, present, put forth, put tor-ward a ~

2. to accept, adopt a ~

3. to consider, entertain; receive a ~

4. to kill (colloq ), reject turn down a ~

5. a concrete ~

6. a ~ falls through 7 a ~ for 8 a ~ to + int. (the committee

rejected the ~ to reduce taxes)

9. a ~ that + clause; subj. (they presented a ~ that all

workers be/should be given free dental care)

propose

v. 1. (B) she ~d a new plan to us

2. (D; intr ) to ~ to ('to offer marriage to )

3. (E) 1 ~ to leave very early

4. (G) she ~d leaving very early 5 (K) she ~d his going in my

place

6. (L; subj.; to; we ~d (to them) that she be/should be

appointed

proposition

n. ['unethical, immoral proposal] (colloq.) 1. to make (smb.)

a ~ ['subject, question to be discussed']

2. the ~ that + clause (we debated the ~ that war should be

outlawed)

proprieties

n. ['accepted behavior'] to observe the

propriety

n. ['conformity with accepted standards of behavior'] to doubt

the ~ of smt.

propulsion

n jet; nuclear; rocket ~

prop up

v. (D; tr.) to-against (she ~ped up the chair against the door)

pros and cons

n. to weigh the ~

prose

n. to write (in) ~

prosecute

v. 1. to ~ vigorously

2. (D;tr.) to ~ for (to ~ smb. for murder)

prosecution

n. 1. to conduct a ~

2. to face ~

3. a vigorous ~

4. criminal ~

5. ~ for

6. (misc.) subject to (criminal) ~

prosecutor

n. a public ~ (esp. BE; AE has district attorney)

proseminar

n. 1. to give, hold a ~

2. a ~ on

prospect

I n. ['anticipated outcome ] a bleak, grim; inviting; rosy ~

II v. (D; intr.) to ~ for (to ~ for gold)

prospects

n. ['chances'] 1. to have ~ for (to have ~ for the future)

2. ~ that + clause (~ are that the situation will improve)

['financial expectations ]

3. with; without ~

prosperity

n. 1. to create ~

2. to enjoy ~

prostitution

n. 1. to engage in ~

2. to decriminalize, legalize ~

3. to ban, outlaw ~

prostrate

v. (D; refl.) to ~ oneself before

prostration

n. heat; nervous ~

protect

v. (D; tr.) to ~ against, from

protection

n. 1. to afford, give, provide ~

2. government; police ~

3. ~ against, from

4. under smb.'s ~ (she was placed under our ~)

protective

adj. ~ of, towards

protector

n. a chest; surge ~

protein

n. 1. to furnish, provide ~ (of food)

2. (a) complete; incomplete; simple; total ~

protest

I n. ['complaint'] ['dissent'] 1. to enter, file, lodge,

register a ~

2. to express voice a ~

3. to cause, draw, spark (AE), spark off (BE), trigger a ~

4. to dismiss, reject a ~

5. a strong, vigorous; weak ~ (we lodged a strong ~ with their

government)

6. a ~ against

7. a ~ that + clause (the court rejected their ~ that due

process had not been observed)

8. in ~ (to resign in ~)

9.under ~ (they complied with the order under ~) ['public

demonstration of disapproval']

10. to organize, stage a ~

11. to put down, quell a ~

12. a noisy; public ~

13. a ~ against

II v. 1. to ~ strongly, vigorously

2. (D, intr.) to ~ about, against (to ~ against a war; AE also

has: to ~ a war)

3. (K) we ~ed his being released

4. (L; to) we ~ed (to the mayor) that taxes were too high

protocol

n. ['minutes'] ['statement'] 1. to draw up a ~ ['official

code of conduct']

2. diplomatic; military ~

protrude

v. (D; intr.) to ~ from

proud

adj. 1. justly ~

2. ~ of (~ of one s children)

3. ~ to + int. (she will be ~ to serve)

4. ~ that + clause (he is ~ that he served in the army)

prove

v 1. to ~ conclusively

2. (B) she was able to ~ her innocence to us

3. (E) she ~d to be a good worker 4 (L; to) he ~d (to everyone)

that he could cope with the job

5. (M) history ~d her to be right

6. (N; used with an adjective, past participle) the evidence ~d

him guilty

proverb

n. a ~ goes, runs

provide

v 1. (d; intr.) to ~ for (to ~ for one's family; to ~ for every

contingency)

2. (D; tr.) to ~ for (to ~ blankets for the refugees)

3. (d; tr.) to ~ with (they were ~d with the proper equipment,

we ~d the refugees with blankets)

4. (L; subj.) this bill ~s that money be/should be allocated

for flood control

providence

n. divine ~.

province

n. (esp. in Canada) 1. an inland; maritime ~

2. the Province of Alberta, Quebec,

provision

n. ['preparations'] 1. to make ~ for ['clause in a legal

document']

2. to violate a ~ (of a contract)

proviso

n. 1. to add a ~

2. with a ~ that + clause; subj. (we will agree to the proposal

with the ~ that overtime be/should be paid)

provocation

n. 1. extreme, gross ~

2. ~ for (there was no ~ for such behavior)

3. at a ~ (he loses his temper at the slightest ~)

4. under ~ (he did use strong language, but only under extreme

~)

provocative

adj. highly ~.

provoke

v 1. (D; tr.) to ~ into (to ~ smb. into doing smt.)

2. (rare) (H) to ~ smb. to do smt.

prowess

n. 1. to demonstrate, display ~

2. athletic; military ~

3. ~ in

prowl

n. on the ~

proximate

adj. (cannot stand alone) ~ to

proximity

n. 1. close ~

2. ~ to

3. in ~ to (in close ~ to the scene of the crime)

proxy

n. 1. to hold smb.'s ~

2. a ~ to + inf. (he had a ~ to vote for me)

3. by ~ (to vote by ~)

prudent

adj. ~ fo + inf. (it was ~ of you to sell that property)

prudish

adj. ~ about

pry

v. 1. (D; intr.) to ~ into (to ~ into smb.'s affairs)

2. (D; tr.) to ~ out of (to ~ information out of smb.)

3. (N; used with an adjective) they pried the door open USAGE

NOTE: For senses two and three, BE uses prise or prize.

p's and q's

n. ['manners'] to mind one's ~

pseudonym

n. 1. to adopt; use a ~

2. under a ~ (to write under a ~)

psychology

n. ['science of the mind'] 1. abnormal; applied; behavioral;

child; clinical; developmental; educational; experimental;

general; Gestalt; social ~ ['attitudes']

2. group; mob ~ ['knowledge of a person's habits, reactions']

(colloq.)

3. to use

psychosis

n. a manic-depressive ~

puberty

n. 1. to reach (the state of) ~

2. at ~

public

n. 1. to educate, enlighten the ~

2. to fool, mislead the ~

3. the general; great British (BE; humorous); reading;

theatergoing; traveling ~

4. in ~

publication

n. ['act of publishing'] 1. to begin, start ~

2. to suspend ~ ['printed work']

3. a government; official ~

publicity

n. 1. to give, provide ~

2. to gain, receive; seek ~

3. to avoid, shun ~

4. extensive, wide ~

5. ~ for

6. (misc.) a blaze of ~ (they left for Europe in a blaze of ~)

public opinion

n. 1. to arouse, stir up ~

2. to form, mold ~

3. to affect, influence; manipulate ~

4. to express ~

5. to canvass, poll, probe, sound out ~

public welfare

see welfare

puff

I n. a powder ~

II v. (d; intr.) to ~ on (to ~ on a pipe)

pull

I n. ['force'] 1. gravitational ~ ['influence'] (colloq.)

2. to use one's ~

3. the ~ to + inf. (she had enough ~ to avoid paying the fine)

II v. 1. to ~ hard

2. (AE; colloq.)(d; intr.) to ~ for ('to support') (we were

~ing for the home team; they were ~ing for our team to win)

3. (d; intr.) ('to move') to ~ into (the train ~ed into the

station)

4. (d; intr.) to ~ off ('to turn off) (to ~ off the road)

5. (D; intr.) ('to tug') to ~ on (to ~ on a rope)

6. (d; intr.) ('to move') to ~ out of (the train ~ed out of the

station; to ~ out of a dive)

7. (d; tr.) ('to lift') to ~ out of (they ~ed her out of the

water)

8. (misc.) to ~ a gun on smb.

pull ahead

v. (D; intr.) to ~ of (to ~ of the other runners)

pull alongside

v. (AE)(D;intr.)to~of(to~of the other car)

pull away

v. (D; intr., tr.) to ~ from (to ~ from the curb; she ~ed the

child away from the fire)

pull back

v. (D; intr.) to ~ from (to ~ from the others)

pull down

v. (D; tr.) to ~ over (she ~ed her hat down over her eyes)

pulley

n. a fixed; movable ~

pull over

v. (D; intr.) to ~ to (to ~ to the curb)

pull up

v. (D; intr.) to ~ to (to ~ to the curb)

pulp

n. to beat smb. to a ~

pulpit

n. 1. to ascend, mount the ~

2. from; on the ~ (to denounce wrongdoing from the ~)

pulse

n. 1. to take ('measure') smb. 's ~

2. to quicken smb.'s ~ (the excitement quickened his ~)

3. an erratic, irregular, unsteady; normal; rapid; regular,

steady; strong; weak ~

pump

I n. 1. to prime; work a ~

2. a gasoline (AE), petrol (BE) ~

3. a centrifugal; heat; stomach; suction; sump ~

II v. 1. (d; tr.) to ~ into (to ~ investments into a company; to

~ water into a tank)

2. (D; tr.) to ~ out of (to ~ water out of a flooded basement)

3. (N; used with an adjective) we ~ed the basement dry

punch

I n. ['blow'] 1. to deliver, give, land, throw a ~

2. to pull ('soften') one's ~es (also fig.)

3. to roll with a ~

4. a one-two; rabbit; solid; Sunday ~

5. a ~ in, on, to (a ~ in the face; a ~ on the nose)

['misc.']

6. to pack a ~ ('to be powerful'); to beat smb. to the ~

II v. (D; tr.) to ~ in, on (I ~ed him in/on the jaw)

III n. ['mixed drink usu. consisting of fruit juice, liquor,

etc.'] 1. to make ~

2. to spike ('add alcohol to') the ~

3. to water down the ~

Punch

n. as pleased as ~ ('very pleased')

punctilious

adj. ~ about

punctual

adj. ~ in (~ in paying one's rent)

punctuality

n. ~ in

punctuation mark

n. to place, put a ~ somewhere

puncture

n. to patch, repair a ~

pundit

n. a political ~

punish

v. 1. to ~ cruelly; harshly, severely; lightly, mildly;

summarily

2. (D; tr.) to ~ for (they were ~ed harshly for their crime)

punishable

adj. ~ by ( ~ by death)

punishment

n. 1. to administer, mete out ~ to

2. to impose, inflict ~ on

3. to escape; suffer, take ~

4. cruel, cruel and unusual; harsh, severe; just; light, mild ~

5. capital; corporal; summary ~

6. (mil.) company ~

7. ~ for

8. as, in ~ for

pupil

I n. ['opening in the iris of the eye'] constricted; dilated

~s

II see the Usage Note for student

puppet

n. 1. to manipulate, move a ~

2. a hand ~

purchase

I n. ['act of buying'] to make a ~

II v. 1. (D; tr.) to ~ for

2. (D; tr.) to ~ from

purge

I n. 1. to carry out, conduct a ~

2. a radical, sweeping ~

II v. 1. (D;tr.) ('to remove') to ~ from (all dissidents were ~d

from the party)

2. (D; tr.) ('to cleanse') to ~ of (the party was ~d of all

disloyal elements)

purify

v. (D; tr.) to ~ of

purity

n. moral ~

purple

I adj. ['livid'] ~ with (~ with rage)

II n. dark; light ~

purport

v. (formal) (E) ('to claim') they ~ to be our friends

purported

adj. (cannot stand alone) ~ to + inf. (they are ~ to be wealthy)

purpose

n. 1. to accomplish, achieve, fulfill a ~

2. to serve a ~

3. to put smt. to a good ~

4. for a ~ (it was done for a good ~; we arranged the meet-ing

for the ~ of preventing a strike)

5. (misc.) for all practical ~s ('in reality'); on ~

('purposely')

purse strings

n. ['finances'] to control, hold the ~

pursuance

n. (formal) in ~ of (in ~ of one's duties)

pursuant

adj. (formal) (cannot stand alone) ~ to

pursuit

n. ['chase'] 1. dogged, relentless; hot ~

2. in ~ of (in hot ~ of the terrorists) ['hobby']

3. one's favorite ~

pus

n. 1. to discharge ~

2. ~ forms

push

I n. ['act of pushing'] 1. to give smb. a ~ (our car was stuck

and they gave us a ~) ['attack']

2. a big ~

3. a ~ to (a ~ to the sea)

II v. 1. (d; intr.) ('to shove') to ~ against (to ~ against the

door)

2. (d; intr.) to ~ for ('to urge') (to ~ for reform)

3. (d; intr.) to ~ into ('to force one's way') (to ~ into a

crowded bus)

4. (D; tr.) ('to force to move') to ~ into (we ~ed the stalled

car into the garage)

5. (d; intr.) ('to press') to ~ on (to ~ on a handle)

6. (d; intr., tr.) to ~ through ('to force one's way through')

(to ~ through a crowd; to ~ one's way through a crowd)

7. (d; intr.) ('to move') to ~ to, towards (our troops ~ed

towards the next village)

8. (H) ('to urge') to ~ smb. to do smt.

9. (N; used with an adjective) ~ the chair closer

10. (misc.) the army was ~ed to the breaking point

pushdown

v. (D; intr.) to ~ on (to ~ on a lid)

push on

v. (D; intr.) ('to continue') to ~ to (we ~ed on to the next

town)

pushover

n. ['easy target'] a ~ for

push-up

n. (esp. AE) to do a ~ (see also press-up)

push up

v. (D; intr.) to ~ on (to ~ on a handle)

put

I adv. (colloq.) ['remaining in one place'] to stay ~

II v. 1. (B) ('to pose') to ~ a question to smb.

2. (d; tr.) ('to place') to ~ before (to ~ a proposal before a

committee)

3. (d; tr.) ('to place') to ~ in; into (to ~ milk in/into the

refrigerator; to ~ new equipment into service; to ~ a criminal

in prison; to ~ money in/into circulation; to ~ a plan into

operation; to ~ one's affairs in order; to ~ a theory into

practice; to ~ wood into a stove; to ~ sugar in/into tea; to ~ a

car into a garage; to ~ words into smb.'s mouth; to ~ one's

faith in smb.; ~ yourself in my place)

4. (d; intr.) ('to move') to ~ into (the ship put into port)

5. (d; tr.) ('to express') to ~ into (to ~ one's feelings into

words)

6. (d; tr.) ('to place') to ~ on (to ~ books on a table; to ~ a

stamp on a letter; to ~ smb.'s name on a list; the doctor put

the patient on a diet)

7. (d; tr.) ('to bet') to ~ on (to ~ money on a horse)

8. (d; tr.) ('to place') to ~ out of (to ~ an enemy tank out of

action)

9. (d; tr.) ('to assign') to ~ to (we put them all to work)

10. (d; tr.) ('to place') to ~ to (she put her fingers to her

lips)

11. (d; tr.) ('to set') to ~ to (to ~ words to music)

12. (L; to) ('to suggest') I put it to them that the plan

should be revised

13. (P; tr.) ('to place') ~ your shoes near the door; ~ the

skis next to the fire; ~ the children to bed; ~ your things

under the bed

14. (misc.) to ~ a question to a vote; to ~ smb. to shame; to ~

smb. under arrest; to ~ smb. to great expense; to ~ smb. through

one's paces ('to subject smb. to a test of skill'); to ~ oneself

in smb.'s place; the ship put out to sea

put down

v. 1. (d; tr.) ('to consider') to ~ as (we can ~ this trip down

as a business expense)

2. (d; tr.) to ~ for ('to enter a pledge for') (I'll ~ you down

for five tickets)

3. (BE) (d; tr.) ('to enter') to ~ for (to ~ one's son for

Eton)

4.(d; tr.) ('to attribute') to ~ to (to ~ a blunder down to

inexperience)

put in

v. (D; tr.) to ~ for ('to submit') (to ~ a claim for damages)

put off

v. ('to postpone') 1. (D; tr.) to ~ until (she put the trip off

until next week)

2. (G) we put off leaving because of the snow

put out

v. 1. (D; refl.) ('to disturb') to ~ oneself out for (don't ~

yourself out for us)

2. (misc.) to ~ to sea

put over

v. (D; tr.) ('to fob off) to put smt. over on (he put his scheme

over on the unsuspecting investors)

putter

v. (AE) (d; intr.) to ~ around (to ~ around the house) (BE has

potter)

put through

v. (D; tr.) ('to connect') to ~ to (she was finally put through

to her number)

put up

v. 1. (B) ('to propose') I'll put the idea up to the whole

committee

2. (old-fashioned) (BE) (d; intr.) ('to stay') to ~ at; with

(to ~ at a hotel; to ~ with friends in Exeter)

3. (d; tr.) ('to offer') to ~ for (to ~ smt. up for sale)

4. (d; tr.) ('to provide') to ~ for (she put up the money for

the flowers)

5. (D; tr.) ('to give shelter to') to ~ for (to ~ smb. up for a

night)

6. (d; intr.) to ~ with ('to tolerate') (we will not ~ with

such behavior)

7. (H) ('to place') to ~ water up to boil; he put the meal up

to cook

puzzle

I n. 1. to solve a ~

2. a crossword ~; jigsaw ~ (AE; BE has jigsaw)

3. a ~ to (the whole matter was a ~ to the police)

II v. 1. (d; intr.) to ~ over (to ~ over a problem)

2. (R) it ~d me that they never answered the telephone

puzzled

adj. ~ to + inf. (we were ~ to learn of her decision)

puzzling

adj. 1. ~ to (her behavior was ~ to everybody)

2. ~ that + inf. (it was ~ that he went straight home)

pyjamas

(BE) see pajamas

pyre

n. a funeral ~