at

We use at with times:

- at 5 o'clock

- at 11.45

- at midnight

- at lunch time

- at the week-end/at week-ends

- at Christmas/at Easter

- at the moment/at present

- at the same time

- at the age of


We use [b] at [/b] in the following situations: [b]at the

back/at the top (of the page)/at the bus-stop/at the

door/at the window/at the bottom (of the page)/at the end

of the street/at the front[/b]:

[i] -Who is that man standing at the bus-stop/at the

door/at the window? Turn left at the traffic lights.

- If you leave the hotel, please leave your key at

reception.

- I couldn't see very well because I was standing at the

back.

[/i]

We say [b] at/on the corner of a street' [/b] ([u]but[/u]

[b]'in the corner of a room'[/b]):

[i] -There is a telephone box at/on the corner of the

street. [/i]

We say '[b] at the front/ at the back of a

building/hall/cinema/group of people'[/b] etc.:

[i] - The garden is at the back of the house.

- Let's sit at the front (of the cinema), ([u]but[/u]

[b]'in the front row'[/b]) [/i]

We say that someone is [b] 'at an event'. [/b] For

example: '[b] at a party/at a concert/at a conference/at a

football match'[/b]:

[i] - Were there many people at die party/at the meeting?

[/i]

We say '[b] at home/ at university/ at the seaside/ at a

station/ at sea (on a voyage)/ at school/ at an airport/

at work'[/b].

[i] - I'll be at work until 5.30 ([u]but:[/u] I'll be at

home all evening.)

- We'll be arriving at 9.30. Can you meet us at the

station. [/i]

We usually say [b] 'at' [/b] when we say where an

[b]event[/b] takes place (for example: a concert, a film,

a meeting, a sports event etc.):

[i] - We went to a concert at the Royal Festival Hall.

- The meeting took place at the company's headquarters.

- 'Where were you last night?' 'At the cinema.'/'At die

theatre.' [/i]

We say '[b] at someone's house'[/b]:

[i] - I was at Tom's house last night (or I was at Tom's

last night.) [/i]

You can often use [b] 'at' [/b] or [b] 'in' [/b] with

buildings. You can stay [b] 'at a hotel' [/b] or [b] 'in a

hotel'[/b]; you can eat [b] 'at a restaurant'[/b] or [b]

'in a restaurant'[/b].

We can use [b] 'at' [/b] when the town or village is a

point on a journey:

[i] - Do you know if this train stops at Nottingham?

- We stopped at a pretty village on the way to London.

[/i]

We say [b] 'arrive at' [/b] with some places (except for

countries and towns) or events:

[i] -What time did he arrive at school/at work/at the

hotel/at the party? [/i]

We say [b] 'at the end (of something)'[/b] = at the time

when something ends (we use [b] 'in the end'[/b] when we

say what the final result of a situation was).

For example: [i] at the end of the month/at the end of

January/at the end of the film/at the end of the course/at

the end of the match/at the end of the concert [/i]

You [u]cannot[/u] say [b] 'in the end of something'[/b].

The opposite of [b] at the end [/b] is [b] at the

beginning[/b]: at the beginning of the concert/at the

beginning of January

We say [b] 'to be surprised/shocked/amazed/astonished

at/by something'[/b]:

[i] - Everybody was surprised/shocked at/by the news. [/i]

We say [b] 'to be good/bad/excellent/brilliant/hopeless at

(doing) something'[/b]:

[i] - I'm not very good at repairing things. [/i]

We say [b] 'to laugh/smile at someone/something'[/b]:

[i] - I look stupid with this haircut. Everyone will laugh

at me. [/i]

We say [b] 'to look at someone/something [/b] (= took in

the direction of):

[i] - Why are you looking at Sue like that? [/i]

We say [b] 'to have a look/stare/glance at smb./smth.'[/b]

We say [b] 'to shout at someone [/b] (when you are

angry)':

[i] - He was very angry and started shouting at me. [/i]

[u]But[/u]: [b] shout to someone [/b] (so that they can

bear you):

[i] - He shouted to me from the other side of the street.

[/i]

We say [b] 'to point/aim something at

someone/something'[/b]:

[i] - Don't point that knife at me! It's dangerous. [/i]

We say [b] 'to point/aim something at someone/something

[/b]:

[i] - Don't point that knife at me! It's dangerous. [/i]

We say [b] 'to throw something at someone/something (in

order to hit them) [/b]:

[i] - Someone threw an egg at the minister while he was

speaking. [/i]

[u]But[/u]: [b] throw something to someone [/b] (for

someone to catch):

[i] - Ann shouted 'Catch!' and threw the keys to me from

the window. [/i]



as

We say [b]'to regard someone/something as something'[/b]:

[i]- I've always regarded you as one of my best

friends.[/i]





after

We say [b]'to look AFTER someone/something (= take care

of)'[/b]:

[i]- She's very old: She needs someone to look after

her.[/i]



on

prep. 1. to have smt. * smb. ('to have evidence against

smb.')

2. the fire went out * me ('the fire went out through no

fault of mine')

3. we were * to what was happening ('we were aware of what

was happening')

4. well * in years ('rather old')

We use [b]'on'[/b] with dates and days:

[i]- on 12 March

- on Friday(s)

- on Christmas Day (but 'at Christmas')

- on Friday morning(s)

- on Sunday afternoons

- on Monday evening(s)

- on Saturday night(s) etc.[/i]

We use [b]'on'[/b] in the following situations: [b]on the

ceiling/on the wall/on the floor/on smb. nose/on a

page[/b]

[i]- Don't sit on the floor/on the ground/on the grass!

- Have you seen the notice on the notice-board?

- There's a report of the football match on page 7 of the

newspaper.

- Don't sit on that chair. It's broken, (but [b]'sit in an

armchair'[/b])[/i]

Note that we say: [b] on the left/on the right (or on the

left-/right-hand side)/ on the ground floor/on the first

floor/on the second floor[/b] etc.

[i]- In Britain we drive on the left. (or... on the left-

hand side)[/i]

We use [b]'on'[/b] with small islands:

[i]- Tom spent his holidays on a small island off the

coast of Scotland. [/i]

We also say that a place is [b]'on the coast/on a river/on

a road'[/b]:

[i]- London is on the river Thames. [/i]

We say that a place is [b]'on the way to another

place'[/b]:

[i]- We stopped at a pretty village on the way to

London.[/i]

We say [b]'on/at the corner) of a street'[/b] ([u]but[/u]

[b]'in the corner of a room'[/b]):

[i]-There is a telephone box on/at the corner of the

street.[/i]

We say [b]'on the front/on the back of a letter/piece of

paper'[/b] etc.:

[i]- Write your name on the back of this piece of

paper.[/i]

We say [b]'on a farm'[/b]:

[i]- Have you ever worked on a farm?[/i]

We say [b]'to travel on foot'[/b]:

[i]- Did you come here by car or on foot?[/i]

We use [b]'on'[/b] for bicycles and public transport

(buses, trains etc.): [b]on my bicycle/on the bus/on the

train/on a big ship.[/b]

We say [b]'get on/get off a bicycle, bus or train'[/b]:

[i]- Quick! Get on the train. It's ready to leave.[/i]

We say [b]'on time'[/b] = punctual, not late.

If something happens [b]on time[/b], it happens at the

time which was planned:

[i]- The 11.45 train left on time. (= it left at 11.45)

-The conference was very well organised. Everything began

and finished on time.[/i]

We say [b]'to be/to go on holiday/ on business/ on a trip/

on a tour/ on an excursion/ on a cruise/ on an

expedition'[/b].

We say [b]'to be keen on something'[/b]:

[i]- We stayed at home because Ann wasn't very keen on

going out in the rain.[/i]

We say [b]'to concentrate on something'[/b]:

[i]- Don't look out of the window. Concentrate on your

work![/i]

We say [b]'to depend on someone/something'[/b]:

[i]- What time will you arrive? I don't know. It depends

on the traffic. [/i]

You can leave out [b]'on'[/b] before question words

([b]when/where/how[/b] etc.):

[i]- 'Are you going to buy it?' 'It depends (on) how much

it is.'[/i]

We say [b]'to live on money/food'[/b]:

[i]- George's salary is very low. It isn't enough to live

on.[/i]

We say [b]'to rely on someone/something'[/b]:

[i]- You can rely on Jack. He always keeps his

promises.[/i]

We say [b]'to blame something on someone/something'[/b]:

[i]- Everybody blamed the accident on me.[/i]

We say [b]'to congratulate someone on (doing)

something'[/b]:

[i]- When I heard that he had passed his examination, I

phoned him to congratulate him on his success.[/i]

We say [b]'to spend (money) on something'[/b]:

[i]- How much money do you spend on food each week? [/i]

Note that we usually say [b]'spend (time) doing

something'[/b]:

[i]- I spend a lot of time reading.[/i]



in

I adv. (colloq.) 1. * for ('facing') (they are * for

trouble)

2. * with ('on intimate terms with') (they are * with

highly influential people)

II n. (colloq.) [['influence']] to have an * with smb.

III prep. * smb. to + inf. (it's not * me to lie; she

doesn't have it * her to break her word)

We use [b]'in'[/b] for longer periods of time (for

example: [b]months/years/seasons[/b]):

[i]- in April

- in 1968

- in (the) winter in the 18th century

- in the 1970s

- in the Middle Ages[/i]

We also say:

[b]- in the morning(s)/in the afternoon(s)/in the

evening(s)[/b] ([u]but[/u][b] on Friday morning[/b])

[b]'In'[/b] + a period of time = a time in the future:

[i]- The train will be leaving in a few minutes. (= a few

minutes from now)

- Jack's gone away. He'll be back in a week. (= a week

from now)

- They are getting married in six months. (= six months

from now) [/i]

You can also say [b]'in six months' time', 'in a week's

time'[/b] etc.:

[i]- They are getting married in six months' time. [/i]

We also use [b]'in'[/b] to say how long it takes to do

something:

[i]- I learnt to drive in four weeks. (= it took-me four

weeks to learn)[/i]

We use [b]'in'[/b] in the following situations:

[b]in a room/in a building/in the water/in a row/in a

line/in a garden/in a park/in the sea/in a queue/in a

town/in a country/in a river[/b]:

[i]-There's no-one in the room/in the budding/in the shop.

- When we were in Italy, we spent a few days in Venice,

([u]not[/u] 'at Venice')

- 'Robert lives in a small village in the mountains.

- She keeps her money in her bag/in her purse.

- When I go to the cinema, I prefer to sit in die from

row.

- Have you read this article in the newspaper? [/i]

Note that we say: [b](sit) in an armchair ([u]but[/u] 'on

a chair')/in the street/in a photograph/in a picture/in a

mirror/in the sky[/b]

[i]- 'Where did you meet Tom?' 'In the street.'

([u]not[/u] 'on the street')

- Who is the woman in that photograph? ([u]not[/u] 'on

that photograph')[/i]

We say [b]'in the corner of a room', [u]but [/u]'at the

corner (or on the corner) of a street'[/b]:

[i]-The television is in the corner of the room.[/i]

We say [b]'in the front/in the back of a car'[/b]:

[i]- I was sitting in the back (of the car) when we

crashed. [/i]

We say [b]'in bed/in hospital/in prison[/b]:

[i]- Tom's father is in hospital.[/i]

You can often use [b]'in'[/b] or [b]'at'[/b] with

buildings. You can stay [b]'in a hotel'[/b] or [b]'at a

hotel'[/b]; you can eat [b]'in a restaurant'[/b] or [b]'at

a restaurant'[/b].

We use [b]'in'[/b] when we are thinking about the building

itself:

[i]- The rooms in Tom's house are very small.

- I enjoyed the film but it was very cold in the

cinema.[/i]

We usually say [b]'in'[/b] with towns and villages:

[i]- Tom's, parents live in Nottingham, ([u]not [/u]'at

Nottingham') [/i]

We say [b]'arrive in a country/ town'[/b]:

[i]-When did he arrive in Britain/in London?[/i]

We use [b]'in' [/b]for cars and taxis:[b] 'in my car/in a

taxi'[/b].

We say [b]'get in(to)/get out of a car or taxi'[/b]:

[i]- He got into the car and drove off. (or He got in the

car ...)[/i]

We say [b]'in time' (for something/to do something) soon

enough for something/soon enough to do something[/b]:

[i]- Will you be home in time for dinner? (= soon enough

for dinner)

- I've sent Jill her birthday present. I hope it arrives

in time (for her birthday). (= soon enough for her

birthday).

- I must hurry. I want to get home in time to see the

football match on television. (= soon enough to see the

football match). [/i]

The opposite of [b]'in time'[/b] is [b]'too late'[/b]:

[i]- I got home too late to see the football match. [/i]

Note the expression [b]'just in time'[/b]:

[i]- We got to the station just in time to catch the

train.

- A dog ran across the road in front of the car, but I

managed to stop just in time (to avoid hitting the

dog).[/i]

We say [b]'in the end' [/b] = finally. We use [b]'in the

end'[/b] when we say what the final result of a situation

was:

[i]- We had a lot of problems with our car. In the end we

sold it and bought another one.

- He got more and more angry. In the end he just walked

out of the room.

- Tom couldn't decide where to go for his holidays. He

decided to .go to Italy in the end.[/i]

We say [b]'a rise/an increase/a fall/a decrease in

something[/b]:

[i]- There has been an increase in road accidents

recently.[/i]

But we say [b]'there is an advantage in doing

something'[/b]:

[i]- There are many advantages in living alone.[/i]

We say [b]'to be interested in something'[/b]:

[i]- Are you interested in art and architecture?[/i]

We say [b]'to believe in something'[/b]:

[i]- Do you believe in God? (= Do you believe that God

exists?)

- I believe in saying what I think. (== I believe that it

is a good thing to say what I think.)[/i]



no prepositions

We do not use [b]'at'/'on'/'in'[/b] before [b]'last'[/b]

and [b]'next'[/b]:

[i]- I'll see you next Friday.

- They got married last March.[/i]

We say [b]arrive home/go home/come home/get home[/b] etc.

(with no preposition):

[i]- When did he arrive home?

- I'm tired. Let's go home. [/i]

We do not use a preposition with these verbs: [b]phone

someone/discuss something/enter somewhere [/b] (= go into

a place):

[i]- Did you phone your father yesterday?

- We discussed many things at the meeting. [/i]

We say [b]'ask (someone) a question'[/b] (no preposition)



for

We use [b]for + a period of time [/b] to say how long

something goes on:

[i]- for six years (I've lived in this house for six

years.)

- for two hours (We watched television for two hours last

night.)

- for a week (Ann is going away for a week in September.)

- Are you going away for the week-end? (You [u]cannot[/u]

use 'during' in this way).[/i]

We say [b]'to go/to come for a walk/ for a swim/ for a

drink etc.'[/b]:

[i]- She always goes for a walk with her dog in the

morning.

- After work we went to a cafe for a drink.[/i]

We say [b]'to have something for breakfast/for lunch/for

dinner'[/b]:

[i]- What did you have for lunch?[/i]

We say [b]'to feel/to be sorry for someone'[/b]:

[i]- I feel sorry for George.[/i]

We say [b]'to be famous/responsible for something'[/b]:

[i]- The Italian city of Florence is famous for its art

treasures.

- Who was responsible for all that noise last night?[/i]

We say [b]'a cheque for (a sum of money)'[/b]:

[i]- They sent me a cheque for 50 USD.[/i]

We say [b]'a demand/a need for something[/b]:

[i]- My firm closed down because there wasn't enough

demand for its product.[/i]

We say [b]'a reason for something'[/b]:

[i]- The train was late but no-one knew the reason for the

delay.[/i]

We say [b]'to be sorry for doing something'[/b]:

[i]- I'm sorry for shouting at you yesterday. ([u]but

[/u]it is more usual to say: I'm sorry I shouted at you

yesterday.)[/i]

We say [b]'to apologize to someone for something'[/b]:

[i]- When I realized I was wrong, I apologized to him for

my mistake.[/i]

We say [b]'to apply for a job/a place at university

etc.'[/b]:

[i]- I think this job would suit you. Why don't you apply

for it?[/i]

We say [b]'to care for someone/something'[/b]:

i) = like something (usually in questions and negative

sentences):

[i]- Would you care for a cup of coffee? (= Would you like

...?)

- I don't care for hot weather. (= I don't like ...) [/i]

ii) = look after someone:

[i]- She is very old. She needs someone to care for

her.[/i]

We say [b]'to look for someone/something (= try to

find)'[/b]:

[i]- I've lost my keys. Can you help me look for them?

[/i]

We say [b]'to pay (someone) for something'[/b]:

[i]- I didn't have enough money to pay for the meal.[/i]

[u]But[/u]:[b] pay a bill/a fine/50/a fare/taxes etc. (no

preposition)[/b].

We say [b]'to search a person/a place/a bag etc. for

someone/something'[/b]:

[i]- I've searched the whole house for my keys but I still

can't find them.[/i]

We say [b]'to wait for someone/something'[/b]:

[i]- I'm not going out yet. I'm waiting for the rain to

stop.[/i]

We say [b]'to ask (someone) for something'[/b]:

[i]- I wrote to the company asking them for more

information about the job. [/i]

[u]But[/u]: [b]'ask (someone) a question' (no

preposition).[/b]

We say [b]'to blame someone/something for something[/b]:

[i]- Everybody blamed me for the accident.[/i]

We also say: [b]'someone is to blame for something'[/b]:

[i]- Everybody said that I was is blame for the

accident.[/i]

We say [b]'to leave (a place) for (another place)'[/b]:

[i]- I haven't seen her since she left home for work this

morning.[/i]



during

We use [b]'during' + noun[/b] to say when something

happens (not how long):

[i]- during the film (I fell asleep during the film.)

- during our holiday (We met a lot of interesting people

during our holiday.)

- during the night (The ground is wet. It must have rained

during the night.)[/i]

We [u]can not[/u] use [b]'during' + subject + verb.[/b]

For example, we [u]can not[/u] say: [i]I fell asleep

during I was watching television.[/i]



while

We use [b]while + subject + verb.[/b]

[i]- I fell asleep while I was watching television.

- We met a lot of interesting people while we were on

holiday.[/i]

When you are talking about the future, use the [i]present

tense ([u]not 'will'[/u])[/i] after [b]'while'[/b]:

[i]- I'm going to London next week. I hope to see Tom

while I'm there.

- What are you going to do while you are waiting?[/i]



by

[b]'By' (+ a time)[/b] not later than:

[i]- I posted the letter today, so they should receive it

[b]by Monday[/b]. (=on or before Monday on Monday at the

latest) (not 'until Monday')

- Where's Ann? She should be here [b]by now[/b]. (= now or

before now; so she should have already arrived) (not

'until now').

- I'll have finished my work [b]by 11 o'clock[/b]. (= I'II

finish my work at or before 11 o'clock, at 11 o'clock at

the latest) (not 'until 11 o'clock').

- Tell me [b]by Friday[/b] whether or not you can come to

the party, (not 'Tell me until Friday'). [/i]

You can also say [b]'by the time' (something happens)[/b]:

[i]- It's not worth going shopping now. [b]By the time we

get to the shops[/b], they will be shut. (= they will shut

between now and the time we get there)[/i]

We use [b]'by'[/b] to say how we travel: [b]by car/by

train/by plane/by boat/by ship/by bus/by bicycle[/b].

Also: [b]by road/by rail/by air/by sea/by Underground[/b]

[i]- 'How did you go to Paris?' 'By plane.'

-Tom usually goes to work by bicycle/by car/by bus/by

train. [/i]

We say [b]'to pay by cheque'[/b] (but [b]'to pay in

cash'[/b] or [b]'to pay cash'[/b]):

[i]- Did you pay by cheque or in cash?[/i]

We say [b]'to do something by accident/by mistake/by

chance'[/b]:

[i]- We hadn't arranged to meet. We met by chance.[/i]

We say [b]'a play by Shakespeare/a painting by Rembrandt/a

novel by Tolstoy'[/b] etc.:

[i]- Have you read any books by Agatha Christie? (= any

books written by Agatha Christie?)[/i]

We say [b]'to be surprised/shocked/amazed/astonished by/at

something'[/b]:

[i]- Everybody was surprised/shocked by/at the news.[/i]

We say [b]'to be impressed by/with someone/something'[/b]:

[i]- I wasn't very impressed by/with the film.[/i]



till, until

n. [['money drawer']] to have one's finger(s) in the *

('to steal from a money drawer')

We use [b]'until'[/b] (or [b]'till'[/b]) to say how long a

situation continues:

[i]- Shall we go now? No, let's wait [b]until[/b] (or

[b]till) it stops raining[/b].

- I was tired this morning, so I stayed in bed [b]until

half past ten[/b].

- Tom will be away [b]until Monday[/b], (so he'll come

back on Monday)

- I'll be working [b]until 11 o'clock[/b], (so I'll stop

working at 11 o'clock) (not 'by 11 o'clock')[/i]



to

We say [b]'go/come/travel[/b] (etc.) [b]to[/b] a place or

event'.

For example: [b]go to[/b] America/[b]come to[/b]

England/[b]return to[/b] Italy/[b]fly to[/b]

Moscow/[b]walk to[/b] work/[b]drive to[/b] the

airport/[b]go to[/b] the bank/[b]go to[/b] a party/[b]go

to[/b] a concert/[b]be sent to[/b] prison/[b]be taken

to[/b] hospital/[b]go to[/b] bed

We say [b]get to[/b] (but [b]arrive in/at[/b]):

- What time did you [b]get to[/b] London/work /the party.

We say [b]'been to[/b] a place' = I have visited a place;

I went there but now I have come back:

[i]- Have you ever [b]been to Japan[/b]?

- I've [b]been to Rome[/b] four times.

- Ann has never [b]been to a football match[/b] in her

life.

- Jack has got plenty of money. He has just been to the

bank.[/i]

[b]Damage 'to'[/b] something:

[i]- The accident was my fault, so I paid for the damage

to the other car.[/i]

An [b]invitation 'to'[/b] a party/a wedding etc.:

[i]- Did you get an invitation to the party?[/i]

[b]A reaction 'to'[/b] something:

[i]- I was surprised at his reaction to what I said.[/i]

[b]A solution 'to'[/b] a problem/an [b]answer 'to'[/b] a

question/a [b]reply 'to'[/b] a letter/a [b]key 'to'[/b] a

door:

[i]- Do you think we'll find a solution to this problem?

- The answer to your question is 'No'![/i]

An [b]attitude 'to'/'towards'[/b] someone/something:

[i]- His attitude to/towards his job is very negative.[/i]

We say 'to be [b]nice /

kind/good/generous/mean/(im)polite/rude/

(un)pleasant/(un)friendly/cruel to[/b] someone':

[i]- She has always been very nice/kind to me. ([u]not[/u]

'with me')[/i]

We say [b]'to be married/engaged to[/b] someone':

[i]- Linda is married to an American, ([u]not[/u] 'with an

American').[/i]

We say [b]'to be different to (or from)[/b]

someone/something':

[i]- The film was quite different to (or from) what I

expected.[/i]

We say [b]'to be similar to something'[/b]:

[i]- Your writing is similar to mine.[/i]

We say [b]'apologize to[/b] someone [b]for[/b] something':

[i]- When I realized I was wrong, I apologized to him for

my mistake.[/i]

We say [b]'to belong to[/b] someone':

[i]- Who does this coat belong to?[/i]

We say [b]'to complain to[/b] someone [b]about[/b]

someone/something:

[i]- We complained to the manager of the restaurant about

the food.[/i]

We say [b]'to happen to someone/something'[/b]:

[i]- A strange thing happened to me the other day.

- What happened-to that gold watch you used to have?[/i]

We say [b]'to listen to [/b]someone/something':

[i]- We spent the evening listening to records.[/i]

We say [b]'to shout to[/b] someone (so that they can hear

you)':

[i]- He shouted to me from the other side of the

street.[/i]

But [b]'to shout at[/b] someone (when you are angry)':

[i]- He was very angry and started shouting at me. [/i]

We say [b]'to speak/talk to[/b] someone ('with' is also

possible but less usual)':

[i]- (on the telephone) Hello, can I speak to Jane,

please?

- Who was that man I saw you talking to in the pub?[/i]

We say [b]'to write to[/b] someone:

[i]- Sorry. I haven't written to you for such a long

time.[/i]

We say [b]'to explain[/b] (a problem/a situation/a word

etc.) [b]to[/b] someone':

[i]- Can you explain this word to me? ([u]not[/u] 'explain

me this word')

- Let me explain to you what I mean.[/i]

We say [b]'to invite[/b] someone [b]to[/b] (a party/a

wedding etc.)':

[i]- Have you been invited to any parties recently?[/i]

We say [b]'to prefer[/b] someone/something [b]to[/b]

someone/something':

[i]- I prefer tea to coffee.[/i]

We say [b]'to sentence[/b] someone [b]to[/b] (a period of

imprisonment)'

[i]- He was found guilty and sentenced to six months'

imprisonment.[/i]

We say [b]'to throw[/b] something [b]to[/b] someone (for

someone to catch):

[i]- Ann shouted 'Catch!' and threw the keys to me from

the window.[/i]

[u]But[/u]: [b]'to throw[/b] something [b]at[/b]

someone/something (in order to hit them):

- Someone threw an egg at the minister while he was

speaking.



with

We say [b]'a relationship/a connection/contact with[/b]

someone/something:

[i]- Do you have a good relationship with your parents?

- Police want to question a man in connection with the

robbery. [/i]

[u]But[/u]: [b]a relationship/a connection/contact/a

'between' two things[/b].

[i]- Police have said that there is no connection between

the two murders.[/i]

We say [b]'to be angry/annoyed/furious with someone for

doing something'[/b]:

[i]- They were furious with me for not inviting them to

the party.[/i]

We say [b]'to be delighted/pleased/satisfied/disappointed

with something'[/b]:

[i]- I was delighted/pleased with the present you gave

me.[/i]

We say [b]'to get bored/fed up with something'[/b]:

[i]- You get bored/fed up with doing the same thing every

day.[/i]

We say [b]'to be impressed with/by someone/something'[/b]:

[i]- I wasn't very impressed with/by the film.[/i]

We say [b]'to crowded with [/b] (people etc.)':

[i]-The city center was crowded with tourists.[/i]

We say [b]'to collide with someone/something'[/b]:

[i]- There was an accident this morning. A bus collided

with a car.[/i]

We say [b]'to charge someone with (an offence/a

crime)'[/b]:

[i]- Three men have been arrested and charged with

robbery.[/i]

We say [b]'to provide someone with something'[/b]:

[i]- The school provides all its students with books.[/i]



between

We say [b]'a relationship/a connection/contact/a

between[/b] two things':

[i]- Police have said that there is no connection between

the two murders.

-There are some differences between British English and

American English.[/i]



into

We say [b]'to go into/come into'[/b] etc. = enter (a

room/building etc.):

[i]- I opened the door and went into the room.

- Don't wait outside! Come into the house.

- The man the police were chasing ran into a shop.

- A bird flew into the room through the window.[/i]

We say [b]'to crash/drive/bump/run into

someone/something'[/b]:

[i]- He lost control of the car and crashed into a

wall.[/i]

We say [b]'to divide/cut/split something into [/b] (two or

more parts)':

[i]- The book is divided into three parts.

- Cut the meat into small pieces before frying it.[/i]

We say [b]'to translate (a book etc.) from one language

into a other language'[/b]:

[i]- George Orwell's books have been translated into many

languages.[/i]



of

We say [b]'an advantage/a disadvantage of[/b] something:

[i]- The advantage of living alone is that you can do what

you like.[/i]

[u]But[/u] we say 'there is an advantage [b]in[/b] doing

something':

We say a cause 'of' something:

- Nobody knows what the cause of the explosion was.

We say [b]'a photograph/a picture of'[/b]

someone/something:

[i]- He always keeps a photograph of his wife in his

wallet.[/i]

We say [b]'nice/ kind/ good / generous / mean / stupid /

silly / intelligent / clever / sensible / (im)polite/

rude/unreasonable of[/b] someone (to do something)':

[i]- Thank you. It was very nice/kind of you to help

me.[/i]

We say [b]'to be

afraid/frightened/terrified/scared/proud/ashamed/jealous/e

nvious/suspicious/ aware/conscious of [/b] someone /

something:

[i]- 'Are you afraid of dogs?' 'Yes, I'm terrified of

them.'

- He didn't trust me. He was suspicious of my

intentions.[/i]

We say [b]'to be capable/incapable/fond/full/short/tired

of something/someone'[/b]:

[i]- I'm sure you are capable of passing the examination.

- Mary is very fond of animals.

- The letter I wrote was full of mistakes.

- Come on, let's go! I'm tired of waiting.[/i]

We say [b]'to take care of [/b]someone/something (= look

after)':

[i]- Have a nice holiday. Take care of yourself![/i]

We say [b]'to consist of [/b]something':

[i]-.We had an enormous meal. It consisted of seven

courses.[/i]

We say [b]'to die of [/b]an illness':

[i]- What did he die of? A heart attack.[/i]

We say [b]'to dream of [/b]being something/doing something

(= imagine)':

[i]- I often dream of being rich. [/i]

We say [b]'to hear of [/b]someone/something' = know that

someone/something exists:

[i]- Have you heard of a company called 'Smith Electrics'?

[/i]

We say [b]'to think of [/b]someone/something' (= remember,

bring to mind, have an idea):

[i]- He told me his name but I can't think of it now.

([u]not[/u] 'think about it')[/i]

The difference between [b]'think of '[/b]and [b]'think

about'[/b] is sometimes very small. Often you I can use

[b]'of'[/b] or [b]'about'[/b]:

[i]- My sister is thinking of (or about) going to

Canada.[/i]

We say [b]'to accuse someone of (doing) something'[/b]:

[i]- Tom accused Ann, of being selfish.[/i]

We say [b]'to remind[/b] someone [b]of [/b]

someone/something (= cause someone to remember)':

[i]- This house reminds me of the one I lived in when I

was a child.

- Look at this photograph of Tom. Who does he remind you

of? [/i]

[u]But[/u]: remind someone [b]about [/b]something (= tell

someone not to forget).



about

I adj. (cannot stand alone) [['ready']] 1. * to + inf.

(the performance is * to begin) [['willing']] (colloq.)

(AE)

2. not * to + inf. (we are not * to stop now; we are not *

to be taken in by their campaign promises) [['misc.']]

3. to set * doing smt.

II prep. 1. be quick * it ('do it quickly')

2. how/what * us?

We say [b]'to be

angry/annoyed/furious/excited/worried/upset/sorry about

[/b]something':

[i]- What are you so angry/annoyed about?

- Are you excited about going on holiday next week?

- I'm sorry about the noise last night. We were having a

party. ([u]but[/u]: sorry for doing something)[/i]

We say [b]'to care about [/b]someone/something (= think

someone/something is important)':

[i]- He is very selfish. He doesn't care about other

people.[/i]

We say [b]'to complain to[/b] someone about

someone/something:

[i]- We complained to the manager of the restaurant about

the food.[/i]

We say [b]'to dream/hear about [/b]someone/something':

[i]- I dreamt about you last night.

- Did you hear about the fight in the club on Saturday

night?[/i]

We say [b]'to think about [/b] someone/something (=

consider, concentrate the mind on)':

[i]- You're quiet this morning. What are you thinking

about?[/i]

The difference between [b]'think of '[/b] and [b]'think

about'[/b] is sometimes very small. Often you I can use

'of' or 'about':

- My sister is thinking of (or about) going to Canada.

We say [b]'to do[/b] something [b]about[/b] something (=

do something to improve a bad situation)':

[i]- The economic situation is getting worse and worse.

The government ought to do something about it.[/i]

We say [b]'to remind[/b] someone [b]about[/b] something (=

tell someone not to forget)':

[i]- I'm glad you reminded me about the party. I had

completely forgotten it.[/i]

We say [b]'to warn[/b] someone [b]about[/b]

someone/something ([b]of[/b] is also possible sometimes):

- I knew she was a bit strange before I met her. Tom had

[b]warned[/b] me [b]about[/b] her.



from

We say [b]'to be different from[/b] (or to)

someone/something':

[i]- The film was quite different from (or to) what I

expected.[/i]

We say [b]'to hear from[/b] someone' = receive a

letter/telephone call from someone:

[i]- 'Have you heard from Ann recently?' 'Yes, she wrote

to me last week.[/i]

We say [b]'to suffer from[/b] an illness':

[i]- The number of people suffering from heart disease has

increased.[/i]

We say [b]'to borrow something from[/b] someone':

[i]- I didn't have any money. I had to borrow some from a

friend of mine.[/i]

We say [b]'to protect[/b] someone/something [b]from[/b]

(or [b]against[/b]) someone/something':

[i]- He put sun-tan oil on his body to protect his skin

from the sun. (or ... against the sun.)[/i]

We say [b]'to translate[/b] (a book etc.) [b]from[/b] one

language [b]into[/b] a other language':

[i]- George Orwell's books have been translated into many

languages.[/i]